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Science and technology introduction essay

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business plan hlf Veronica Simpson looks at projects backed by the HLF and the criteria that led to them being selected to receive funding. The Heritage Lottery Fund was established in 1994 as part of the greater UK Lottery initiative to improve sports and heritage. Science And Technology Essay! It’s remit was to invest in heritage-rich projects that could have a lasting impact on the economy, facilities and identities of communities and the areas they live in, whether major cities or rural towns. Since then, it has allocated well over £6bn to some 40,000 projects. The HLF’s contribution to weapons training language the UK’s architecture and design communities cannot be underestimated, especially through the introduction, years of recession after 2008, when HLF-funded public projects were the only thing keeping many creative businesses and public-sector cultural initiatives afloat. They bumped up its contribution to funding way above the a well organized, former 50 per introduction essay cent benchmark to help cash-strapped local authorities transform museums, galleries, parks, libraries and theatres. Just as importantly, the rigorous process of applying for HLF funding has ensured that clients, architects, content developers and normalisation designers work hard to develop a convincing vision for each project so that what results is a scheme with integrity, impact and hopefully longevity. DERBY ROUNDHOUSE - Once a roundhouse for turning trains around, the building was derelict and at risk before being taken on by Derby University.

It is now the student hub. And Technology Introduction! Sara Crofts is head of chapter historic environment in HLF’s strategy and business development team. Trained as an and technology essay, architect, Crofts was previously an HLF committee member for six years in normalisation thesis the East Midlands, so she has had close contact with a wide assortment of local projects from essay first pitch to completion even before moving to the HLF head office, just round the corner from Sloane Square. Crofts agrees that the funding application process has done much to encourage architects and their clients to think more strategically about techniques each others’ points of view and unite them around the difficult issues of how the proposed building and its programming will achieve its objectives. Says Crofts: ‘A lot of the science and technology introduction essay, time, where clients think they want to go and where they need to write a well organized be are not quite the same. Architects need to science introduction be good at helping to get that conversation to happen.’ DERBY ROUNDHOUSE - Once a roundhouse for thesis outline, turning trains around, the building was derelict and at risk before being taken on by Derby University. It is now the student hub.

But after 21 years much has changed, culturally and creatively, in terms of what customers want or expect. Science Introduction Essay! Says Crofts: ‘It’s strange to think we’ve been here for 21 years. We do look back and think: what are we funding and how do we need to change? We try and respond to the current needs of museum curators and building owners. However, looking back on all the things we’ve done, there are a huge amount of really good, sound projects that are still delivering what they intended to between thesis deliver, 10, 15 or 20 years later.’ Her view of her favourite projects from the past 20 years, she admits, is skewed towards those she knows well, especially those that she helped to deliver as a committee member. ‘Derby Roundhouse is science, interesting because it’s a repurposing. It was a roundhouse, where the trains were turned around. It was derelict for a long time, a building at training essay techniques risk a lot of our projects do address these and eventually it was taken on science and technology introduction by the university, which was looking to expand its campus.

It is now as the student hub. It has a cafe, meeting spaces, and is used for functions and entertainments too. It is a grand space. It has that rugged, industrial aesthetic.’ Holburne Museum - This building in weapons essay language Bath was the centre for years of essay argument about what a proposed extension (finally by weapons essay language Eric Parry Architects, 2011) should look like. The city’s first public art gallery, it is home to fine and decorative arts. Other train buildings have been repurposed on the site, such as former maintenance depots for teaching and seminar spaces, interspersed with ‘little bits of modern architecture to make the whole complex work.

And because it’s right next to the railway it’s very visible as well. So there’s a beacon for introduction essay, Derby University as you enter the city. Training Essay Language! It’s just a nice project. It’s not grand.’ Interestingly, it’s not the grand projects that Crofts initially picks out which chimes with some research the and technology introduction, HLF did to mark its 20th year. That found that often the smaller, community buildings have far greater impact in transforming local culture and sample opportunities. ‘We’re always very conscious that the smaller, local projects, although they don’t have the headline figures, achieve much better outcomes for people in the local community because they often meet a need,’ says Croft. ‘There’s a really nice one I was involved in while on the committee: Cotesbach, in and technology essay Northamptonshire. It has a fantastic archive dating back some 400 years of the Cotesbach Estate, and there’s a real interest from master dissertation sample local people about their history and their place. They got into a conversation with the landowner, who was enthused as well. National Theatre - Haworth Tomkins’ elegant refurbishment of the national Theatre is noteworthy for the Hl as while the practice is cutting-edge and contemporary at the NT it’s done ‘the most sensitive, philosophically perfect conservation work’.

Photo Credit: Greenleaf. Science Essay! And that became a project where they took some derelict stables that were part of the Estate tiny, 19th-century, brick buildings and turned them into an archiveand it now has a ight, bright, modern cafe that’s doing really well. Write! The whole place is really well used. And you would never stumble across that unless you happened to be local. Essay! But it’s brought a community together and they can do something with the resources; the archive that was previously tucked away and hardly ever used. It’s that kind of broader outcome we tend to thesis drugs be interested in.’ Archives have become a major strand within the HLF’s activities. Crofts relishes that the HLF’s involvement can start at the point where, ‘it’s just a group of people who know they have some interesting material, boxes of stuff, in science introduction essay the attic’, to the point where an entire building has been funded, commissioned and constructed to house the material. The Black Cultural Archives in Brixton is thesis, one such project.

But nothing gets HLF funding without a solid business case. And it’s in its writing that the really gritty issues get ironed out or not. Says Crofts: ‘The better applications are the ones that anticipate what the tricky questions are and answer them in the application. They might say, we know this is and technology essay, difficult, but this is how we’re going to do it. It’s all focused on outcomes: heritage, people and communities. And so we ask people to difference between and thesis tell us how they’re going to science meet the outcomes. Spring Essay! And we assess on that basis.

National Theatre - Haworth Tomkins’ elegant refurbishment of the national Theatre is noteworthy for science and technology, the Hl as while the practice is spring season, cutting-edge and contemporary at the NT it’s done ‘the most sensitive, philosophically perfect conservation work’. Photo Credit: Greenleaf. ‘I think people are surprised sometimes that the outcomes are very broad, and they’re not about things like design or what it looks like; it’s about what difference it is going to make for people, communities, heritage. For us heritage is a huge range of things, including natural environments. People tend to forget that we look after natural environments and parks.’ But what role does innovation in design or presentation, or programming of space play? Crofts says: ‘Basically, people can do whatever it is that’s going to meet their outcomes and innovation has to and technology be part of that.

Technology being what it is, digital resources being what they are, there are much better ways of a well organized problem solving than there were.’ Astley castle - Here the ruin has been reivented, turning part of it into a unique, rentable holiday home. She cites the kind of refurbishments where ‘most people will have no idea that the building’s even changed Wilton’s Music Hall is a good example. We gave a substantial grant and science and technology introduction essay some people might look and dissertation ask, where did it go? But the skill is in introduction essay the that they upgraded the facility, got a whole chunk of spring essay extra usable space, and yet retained that wonderful patina and feel. That’s skill.’ The National Theatre, too, comes in for science introduction, praise, after Haworth Tomkins elegant refurbishment. Says Crofts: ‘I find that quite interesting because Haworth Tomkins is a cutting-edge, contemporary practice, but at the NT it’s done the most sensitive, philosophically perfect conservation work and you think: that goes to show that architecture these days isn’t about the conservation people over here and the new design people over there. It’s much more fluid now.’ We agree that the whole profession has benefited from being given these opportunities to bring modern sensibilities and season essay materials and forms to ancient spaces, to introduction essay bring them back to life.

Norwich Cathedral is one that springs to Crofts’ mind here, for which Hopkins Architects added a refectory (2004) and then a hostry (2009). Crofts adds: ‘And you wouldn’t say Hopkins Architects are conservation architects, they’re just very, very good architects, and actually that scheme is remarkably sensitive.’ All Souls - In Bolton the surrounding Anglican community of between thesis and thesis this huge Victorian chruch has largely changed into a largely Muslim one. Now the church is being repurposed as a multifaith community space with facilities housed in pods on three floors. Norwich Cathedral must have been one of the first of these sensitive modern/ancient interventions the HLF supported. Around the turn of the millennium, she notes: ‘There were quite a lot of high-profile projects. They have always been quite bold ideas. If you’re talking major projects, between £10m and and technology introduction £20m, I think you’ve almost more licence to be bold more of an expectation that you’re going to do something substantive. People do want to see where the money goes. Although there’s controversy too. Holburne Museum in Bath (Eric Parry Architects, 2011), ran for years as an argument locally about what the essay, extension should look like. The Bath worthies were determined that you couldn’t possibly do something that wasn’t Bath stone.

And quite a lot of other people thought, actually, you could. We funded it. And it’s fantastic; a gorgeous building. There’s something particularly nice about the craft element, the and technology essay, ceramic fins. Organized! I do remember reading technical journals at the time about the amount of effort that went into the manufacturing, getting the science and technology introduction, glaze just right.’ I propose that it has become a key part of the HLF’s role to support the most refined expressions of craft and thesis design because if it doesn’t, in the current climate, who will? Crofts says: ‘It’s true. I think we always feel that we have a duty to encourage people to go for quality and do things as best they can. It’s not about being profligate, but actually it’s about introduction essay long-term interventions. A Well Organized! So if we’re funding an extension or conversion it’s got to be robust and. last for years to come. And often that’s about that quality and science craftsmanship.

But it’s an interesting challenge because the skills to do that kind of work are in short supply. All Souls - In Bolton the surrounding Anglican community of this huge Victorian chruch has largely changed into a largely Muslim one. Now the church is essay, being repurposed as a multifaith community space with facilities housed in pods on science three floors. So, at the same time, we do parallel programmes for people to take up those skills. We’re doing the third round of bursaries for Skills for the Future. People come to us with a proposal to set up a training programme that will require x number of bursaries over a number of years, because it’s something that’s always needed. Chapter! A lot of these things are relatively niche, not offered in FE colleges. Stonemasonry is probably one of the easier skills to learn, but the likes of millwrighting and science introduction essay boilersmithing are disappearing; we funded some boilersmiths in thesis and thesis the last round of Skills for essay, the Future.’

I suggest that this scheme, as with so much of the HLF’s valuable work, goes completely under most people’s radar. Crofts calmly deflects that idea: ‘If you look at the research, you see that people tend to be appreciative of the work that has been funded, partly because they know that funding is coming back to their community. So the income that’s generated through Lottery tickets comes right back and supports their local community, their park. It’s quite tangible, I think. ‘We’re very proud that a lot of normalisation our funding decisions are made locally. For a scheme of anything up to and technology introduction £2m, the decision is made regionally; only training language those projects asking more than £2m go to the board. The bulk of projects are decided by those in the local area, which is, I think, to our credit. Middleport pottery The pottery built in Stoke-on-Trent in science introduction essay 1888 was given listed building status in the Seventies.

By then six of the seven bottle ovens had been demolished and the surviving one was given its own listing. ‘We’re also proud that we manage to spend a great deal of money outside of London. We see other funders being criticised for essay techniques, being Londoncentric. But we look at our capital spend and try to make sure that every area gets a reasonable share. So where is the focus going in the next decade? Have we reached a point where all the ancient churches and theatres and libraries in need of essay refurbishing are taken care of? No, she laughs. ‘The need is so huge in terms of building stock and the potentialwe are never going to get to training language techniques the point where we’ve done everything,’ she says. ‘I think we can say there’s nothing we don’t fund so long as it meets the and technology, outcomes.

From time to time are targeted programmes or campaigns where we say: there’s a real need to thesis do something about x. And Technology! For example, we did that with parks.’ In 1996 the HLF teamed up with the essay, Big Lottery to launch Parks for People. Having transformed thousands of civic green spaces, the current targeted campaigns include First World War: Then And Now, and Great Place, which is, she says, ‘part of the science, Cultural White Paper. That’s about strategic planning for season essay, heritage and science culture, working at local-authority level. Training Essay Techniques! We’ll see how that goes. We’ll see what other ideas it generates. We try to be quite responsive.

A lot of the work of the department I’m in is about science and technology trying to understand what the sector is spring season essay, doing, where it’s struggling. And Technology Essay! ‘During this current strategic framework, from the difference thesis, past three or four years, we’ve realised that capacity is a really big issue in the sustainability of science and technology introduction essay large organisations that run a lot of heritage projects most of the HLF’s funding goes to normalisation thesis voluntary bodies of some description. It’s essentially a way of helping organisations to sort themselves out, so they can manage their bit of heritage better. We’re talking about companies that have been around for a few decades whose governance isn’t quite what it could be, and they need to think about financial planningthey can potentially apply for science and technology introduction essay, some money to look at themselves as an organisation, to say “we need to do this, we need to season essay look at mentoring”.’ Astley castle - Here the ruin has been reivented, turning part of it into a unique, rentable holiday home. This initiative ‘came about because when austerity kicked in, organisations thathad been more or less OK because their visitor numbers had been reasonable, and maybe had support from science and technology introduction local authorities to keep them ticking over, sudden found that local authority money had disappeared. Season Essay! Then visitor numbers dropped and the business plan looked shaky. Science Introduction Essay! So we’re saying: “If you need to reinvent your business plan, we’ll help you to difference between and thesis do that”.

And part of that was about protecting our investment, because having got a museum or a site up to and technology a good standard, it would be crazy then to let it deteriorate. So it was a dual thing to make sure the good projects carry on and are. sensibly organised for chapter outline, the 21st century.’ Supporting cultural infrastructure, for the HLF, is clearly every bit as important as the design and architecture if not more so. And Technology Introduction Essay! Says Crofts: ‘If you look at how we phrase our strategic framework, it’s embedded in all our thinking: this idea that we are investing in making a lasting difference for heritage and difference thesis and thesis people. I guess it’s quite easy for people to think we are just talking about heritage, but actually we’re talking about science introduction essay people. It’s about spring essay making communities better, about giving people opportunities. Heritage is a vehicle, it’s a mechanism, by introduction which you achieve that. Normalisation Drugs! It’s very good that we fix buildings or put the roof back on or whatever it may be, as part of introduction essay a project, but it’s the difference that makes to a community that’s much more valuable. It’s one of the challenges that heritage as a concept faces. Normalisation Drugs! Many people, when they think of and technology essay heritage, they think of stuff.

Often we are quite challenged to make people realise that what we’re looking at is cultural heritage.’ Given all these other, less tangible but vital elements, how can architects and designers best serve the aims of Crofts and season her team? ‘It’s actually the ability for architects to science and technology essay do the problem solving, to work out how to training essay language techniques turn a problem into an opportunity, that is a key thing; being able to see past the piles of pigeon poo and the rotten floorboards and be able to share that vision with others.’ Immediately she thinks of examples Bolton All Souls, a ‘stupidly big’ Victorian church, managed by the Churches Conservation Trust (CCT), whose surrounding Anglican community has now transformed into a largely Muslim one. The CCT joined forces with the Muslim Community Centre next door to repurpose the church as a central, multifaith community space, with facilities housed inside a series of pods, on three floors and keeping the chancel intact so it still looks Anglican. ‘It’s quite a good example of a project that, if you talk to non-architects, they are going to find it quite difficult to essay imagine the interior of a church containing these,’ she says. Organized! ‘The skill of the architect is the introduction, sketch, the explanation, the sharing of that vision, so you can convince people not only that it’s doable but also that it’s a good idea. It’s won several awards. It’s a bit unusual and was good fun as a project. Chapter Outline! ‘Astley Castle, too, is an science and technology introduction essay, exciting reinvention of a ruin turning part of it into a tasteful, unique, rentable holiday home. There’s also storytelling; architects are good at storytelling, and that adds to difference between thesis the whole presentation of the site, such as Middleport Pottery, by FCB studios. The way the architects now talk about and technology introduction what they did there is almost as poetic as the history of the building itself. As part of getting the contractors to understand what they were trying to do, they gave them a story book. That was a really nice idea: to try and share the season essay, sympathy and sensitivity that the science introduction essay, architects felt about the place with the people who would be there, bashing it about, and training language trying to get over that idea that the introduction essay, patina and the ceramic dust and these things should stay, and shouldn’t be neatened up.’ Inclusivity and widening access are major areas the heritage sector is not so good at, according to the 20th anniversary report. Crofts admits this, but says: ‘We spend quite a lot of time and effort gently encouraging the between and thesis, sector to tackle these issues.

With Skills For The Future, we said this year we are particularly looking for science and technology introduction, how to diversify the workforce, how to organized get young people interested in and technology introduction essay this opportunity? And parts of the master, sector really responded.’ So there’s the HLF again, quietly looking after bits of our cultural heritage that need attention. Low profile, yes, but as we now know, the long-term consequences of this behind-the-scenes HLF work can be very powerful. Brand on a mission: IKEA team up with NASA to introduction essay imagine homes on Mars. MAP and Brizi launch product to protect babies from pollution. Discover content from our architecture and design magazines. Subscribe to our free weekly email newsletter. Working on something exciting?

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resume rejection cia W henever The CIA makes embarrassing headlines, revealing bumbling spies or globe-spanning ineptitude, people speculate that it's staffed with idiots. Whenever I hear this, I nod my head in vague agreement, the way you would when someone points out the essay, futility of the sneeze guard over a salad bar. But I secretly think, Well, they did one thing right. They didn't hire me. This wasn't a decision America's All-Powerful Spy Agency arrived at easily. The truth is, I had some initial success becoming a CIA operative in the Clandestine Service.#9; A few years ago, I was working in the satellites department at CNN. This was a tedious job that mostly involved talking to satellite truck operators and telling them to rotate your pole. In all the time I worked in that department, I never ceased to find this funny. Of course, I also never got a promotion.

My job in satellites provided some downtime, most of it spent on the Internet. In between Googling high school classmates and reading abysmal forwarded emails I stumbled across the CIA website. What a goldmine. Weapons Training? They have changed it since then, but at the time it offered up a rotating eye and menacing, siren-like sound effects that honked out: WAAAAHNK! WAAAAHNK! WAAAAHNK! Now, I had been hatching an introduction, escape from weapons training techniques, CNN for science and technology introduction essay, some time. I disliked being there so much that I spent much of my free time concocting health-related ruses. Once, I called in sick for a week with pneumonia and flew to the Bahamas. When I returned I didn't know if the joke was on me or my co-workers, who kept wiping the a well essay, phones down with anti-bacterial spray. Another time I pretended to sprain my ankle to get out of work.

My return to science and technology the workplace after this particular ploy should have cured me of my scheming. Taking pity on me since I don't drive, my boss kindly scheduled a car service to outline pick me up. If I were a better person, the guilt would have overwhelmed me. But instead I just sat back in the luxurious black leather seat, haphazardly wrapped my ankle in the ACE bandage I had just purchased and savored the sweet, sweet respite from Atlanta's MARTA subway system. So, as I perused the CIA website, it occurred to science and technology introduction essay me that becoming a CIA operative offered a one way ticket out of a life of thesis drugs, counterfeit illnesses. Instead of science and technology introduction essay, my dull work-a-day existence, I could be sitting in training language, a dark café in science introduction essay, Bogotá, setting up a sting to catch Marxist-rebel-narco-terrorists. I could be in Red Square, wearing a fur hat, speaking perfect Russian and normalisation thesis, negotiating oil pipelines. I could be in Kazakhstan, fighting off insurgent caviar bandits. When caught in science and technology introduction essay, a bind, I'd kick 'em in thesis chapter outline, the nuts, disarm 'em of their machetes and sneer one-liners like, How do you like me now, jackass?

And then, before jumping over the wall into the Caspian Sea, I'd lecture them on and technology introduction essay, Walt Whitman, Johnny Cash and Western-style big sky freedom. I sent a resume off to Clandestine Services Training and was a little surprised to receive a response five months later, by which time I'd moved across the between and thesis, country to San Diego for an opportunity at a Mexican run TV station. I didn't actually talk to a CIA recruiter at first. In what would become a running theme, I was in the bathroom and science, missed the call. It was a peculiar brand of weapons training essay language techniques, synchronicity, and it happened at science and technology essay, least four times. Difference And Thesis? I'd be on the toilet and then return to the living room to find a message from the CIA.

It was creepy, and prompted a moratorium on my Starbucks intake. When we finally do make contact, the recruiter and I have a standard phone interview, similar to any phone interview (why does this job appeal to you, what wonderful weather you have in science and technology, San Diego) except for write, the quizzing on foreign despots and nuclear capabilities of various Asian nations. A few days later I receive a packet of information and forms in the mail. And Technology Essay? I am onto the next stage: preparing for between, the Clandestine Services Training information session and science and technology, one on weapons, one interview. This is great, I think. It's as though I'd thrown a dart at a list of introduction, careers and it landed on this one. Two weeks later, I find myself in Santa Ana, at the Embassy Suite's lush, Southern-California style atrium, surrounded by healthy looking people milling about in light cotton clothing. Well, all except the fifteen or so serious looking people wearing dark suits. Consequently there is between thesis and thesis, little need for a sign to science and technology direct me to weapons language the correct conference room. Science And Technology Introduction? I simply follow the people in normalisation drugs, dark suits with Foreign Affairs Magazine under their arms instead of US WEEKLY.

Still, not wanting to appear over-anxious by being the first one to take my seat, I wait around until I see enough of them enter the room with a sign marked CST in small letters. Science And Technology Introduction Essay? When I finally make my entrance, I find that I am the only woman in the room. This doesn't bother me, even when a Hobbit-like man leans in with Frito- perfumed breath and whispers, You know, being a woman really improves your odds of being selected. While I'm touched by his observation, I don't have to respond because just then the two CIA recruiters walk in. My status as the only woman in the room is normalisation drugs, revoked. I size them up and figure the female recruiter seems cool. Science And Technology Essay? But the male recruiter looks like he should be selling novelty license plates at a mall kiosk. He's sporting a local weatherman mustache, huge eyeglasses and a dumb grin. Weapons Techniques? Where did they find this guy? Is this his cover?

Good-natured dork? Harrison Ford never played it this way. We are all instructed to write just our first names on the desk cards. Although I am reminded of Mrs. Erickson's third grade class and science introduction, the heated fights over the Garfield stickers, people take this very seriously. Master? One guy writes his last name by mistake and spends the next five minutes furtively blacking it out. He wipes his brow afterwards.

Apparently, he is already feeling the pressure of living under an assumed name. After we all place our desk cards in plain view, the male recruiter lives up to his mustache and starts yammering on about the excitement of CIA coed volleyball, and science and technology essay, how you can meet some really neat guys and gals. Furthermore, he informs us that all the wives shop at the commissary for beef to make burgers at the CIA barbeque. Thesis Drugs? I shift in my seat. Who IS this asshole? Nobody applies to the CIA so they can gobble down Rice Krispy treats and drink Miller Highlife in Belarus. Just then the female recruiter decides to hone in on me, and explain how wherever we are stationed, the CIA will helicopter us to medical facilities for any female troubles we may have. Science And Technology Introduction? Now, although I'm the only other person in thesis chapter outline, the room with the equipment that might cause female troubles I think we are all a little queasy at the prospect of a CIA sanctioned gynecologist.

When a collective silence ensues, the male recruiter switches gears to discuss more adrenaline pumping pursuits, like parachuting and target practice: I tell ya, we have a lot of fun out there. Takes some guts to jump outta that plane, though. And you know, shootin' on that range, it's just a real neat experience. An' of course, we also teach you special driving techniques for hazardous conditions. That's real fun too. I am suddenly alarmed. Amazingly, I had never considered driving a car during espionage missions in and technology introduction, foreign lands. I had considered wearing a fat suit as a disguise, hiding in Eucalyptus trees, and dead dropping classified documents, but driving did not cross my mind. This is master sample, incredibly stupid, I know. And as I previously mentioned, I cannot drive.

I cannot drive to the post office up the street. I cannot drive to work. Science And Technology Essay? I cannot drive to between the 7/11 to get a bag of beef jerky. I cannot drive, period. So as he rambles on about neat CIA driving techniques, I'm thinking: How could I overlook this? There was never a James Bond movie entitled. On Her Majesties Secret Unicycle or Rickshaws are Forever or You Only Hitchhike Twice. Was it even possible to chase international criminals while taking public transportation?

What if I don't have exact change? What if I do? I'd be hanging off the side of a double decker bus in introduction, London, brandishing my AK-47 and master sample, bellowing, Eat shit motherfucker! These thoughts have all but rendered me deaf to the recruiter's lame discourse, and I don't care. I wonder if I should even stay for my one on one interview scheduled for two hours from and technology essay, now. Is there any point?

What am I doing here anyway? The session wraps up, and we all stream out. Directly outside there is some moron who starts screaming at the CIA recruiters because the sign marking the room for the information session wasn't marked clearly enough. Perhaps he wanted something in neon. They are willing to give him a second chance, but I would have given him the boot. The man couldn't find a sign#150;how could he find mad bombers in weapons essay language, the bushes of Beirut?

Strangely enough, this incident gives me renewed hope. If this moron thinks he could be a spy, then I could too. Millions of people learn to introduction essay drive every year. Dissertation Sample? I could too. My logic is good, but I still need more confidence than that. Waiting until the science and technology introduction essay, recruiters head into the elevators to begin interviews, I high tail it to the hotel bar and order a Chivas Regal on the rocks. I peek around, worrying that someone will report me to the CIA. Not since my 17-year-old beer bonging days on the beaches of Whidbey Island has the consumption of alcohol inspired such fear of government authorities. I tip the thesis, bartender exceedingly well in case he is cahoots with the CIA. I'm still nervous, but by the fourth gulp the scotch just tastes so smooth and and technology, good that I don't care anymore. I order another one, again tipping so exceedingly well that when I've finished it, the bartender gives me a third on the house.

Out of obligation, I down this too. Write? I am now ready for science, my interview to become a spy in sample, the Clandestine Service. I pop about 12 breath mints and go up to the female recruiter's hotel room. She is science essay, seated at a table, reviewing my resume. It is normalisation, a meager resume that was only recently pruned of a part time position at The Reject Shop, where I worked while I was attending Richmond College in London. Considering that The Reject Shop sold everything from wooden spoons to introduction essay penis-shaped soap to plastic flowers to boob-shaped chocolates, and weapons essay language, I was forced to and technology introduction wear a hat that read One of Life's Rejects and a matching shirt that read Born to be a Reject I felt it prudent.

I take a seat, and am glad I got the female recruiter instead of Barbeque Bob. Unlike him, she is really personable and write, interesting. Science And Technology Essay? We talk about current events, she compliments my suit, and quizzes me on master sample, CIA policy information that we were supposed to memorize. Even though I doubt much of the information is introduction essay, that sensitive, I have been instructed not to reveal its contents to anyone outside of The Agency. Difference Between And Thesis? This feels vaguely thrilling. We get along really well, and I feel I've nailed the science essay, interview. Difference? Of course I could also be drunk. Turns out and technology introduction essay, she did like me, because a few days later, as I'm on the toilet, the CIA calls and says I will be sent tickets to fly out to DC for a three day interview process. A thick envelope soon arrives, with maps marking the locations of various CIA buildings, hotel recommendations and a selection of books to read about The Agency. They have managed to spell my name wrong on write organized, the airline tickets and all the and technology essay, paperwork. I scan the organized essay, book selection and choose to science and technology essay purchase Inside the difference between thesis and thesis, CIA by Ronald Kessler.

It's a surprisingly lively read. Science Introduction Essay? My favorite bit is the training essay language, discussion of a CIA plan to make Castro's beard fall out by pouring thallium salts into his shoes. They assumed that if his beard fell out, he'd lose public confidence. It sounds ludicrous, but then, the man has kept his beard all these years and managed to outlast nine U.S. presidents. Maybe Fidel is onto something. I fly out to DC a couple months later and science and technology essay, wind up staying at a cheap hotel quite far away from any of the CIA buildings. I choose this particular low-grade jewel in the Inns of Virginia crown because it is in Falls Church. I like the sample, sound of Falls Church.

It's evocative of a Merchant Ivory locale. I picture a stunning manor house inhabited by beautiful aristocrats dressed in science and technology introduction essay, white linen sipping champagne and making cruelly witty remarks. Instead I get close proximity to the Sizzler Steak house and a lumpy bed. My disappointment could have been avoided if I had simply read the difference between and thesis, hotel description, in science introduction essay, which the author could come up with nothing better than touting its convenience to essay Route 7 (Leesburg Pike.) The night before my first day's interview session, I attempt to and technology essay get a good night's sleep. Write Essay? It doesn't occur to me to schedule a taxi the introduction essay, night before. This is a huge mistake. The next morning I wind up calling the cab company three times and waiting over an hour. When the season, dirty, dilapidated cab finally arrives, looking as though it came to and technology essay my hotel by write a well organized way of Calcutta, we are severely crunched for time, but the cabbie insists we can still make it. This may very well have been true, except he can't find the building. He can't even find the general vicinity.

I suppose this is good news for the CIA, but not so much for the cab company. We wind up dead ending in a field somewhere. Admittedly, it is very attractive countryside, and a nice change of pace from my shitty hotel environs. Now, it's bad enough pulling into science and technology essay the CIA parking lot in a beaten up cab. Spring Season Essay? It is worse being 45 minutes late, red faced from calling your cabbie a fucking useless bastard after he'd called me a fucking cheap bitch for refusing to tip him. I run into the building. Science And Technology Introduction Essay? As I rush up to the reception desk, breathless and irritated at outline, my predicament, I'm told I'm too late. You'll have to reschedule. My face, still red, now drops.

I consider my options. I could just nod and accept my fate gracefully, or I could do what I ultimately did. Cause a scene, make my case and indict my cabbie. This is a good decision, since he makes a phone call to see if I can make up what I missed. Science And Technology? Turns out I can. I scramble over into the human resources offices, where the other candidates are all sitting around.

Before I can pull myself together, a woman smelling faintly of stale Juicy Fruit gum walks over, calls my name and difference thesis, we head into her office. Introduction Essay? Just like the woman from my first interview, she compliments my suit. As the suit I am wearing is two sizes too big, scrounged from the sales rack at between thesis and thesis, Macy's, and recently spit cleaned of an old mustard stain, I suspect this is just something they're instructed to tell candidates to put them at ease. The interview consists of a few standard questions, and then some role playing. I am pleased that my childhood drama skills are coming in handy.

Who knew my gender bending performance as Abraham Lincoln in science introduction essay, the 5 th grade school play would prove so useful in essay, international espionage? We get along well and science introduction essay, she asks if I'd like to go to lunch with her. I am immediately riveted by weapons training essay language techniques the idea. This must be how CIA operatives are selected. It is the and technology introduction essay, equivalent to the midnight tap on the dorm room door in the Skull and Bones fraternity. She's going to take me to spring season a red velvet lined room patrolled by science radioactive sharks. We will discuss volcanic boots, holographic gloves and telekinetic underpants. She then tells me to wait in the green room until she checks on something. What could she be checking on? The status of my ticket on The Orient Express?

My newly minted twelve passports with twelve different names and thesis, nationalities? A special collection of wigs for me, made from the silken hair of Eastern Block prostitutes? I go out to the green room and stand around. Something is glinting under a chair and I bend down to pick it up. It is a large green ring, like a class ring. Science And Technology Essay? It seems is far too large not to be planted there. A person would notice if a ring of this size had slipped off their finger. Weapons Language Techniques? This is clearly a test of my observational skills. I proudly bring it up to introduction the guy in the reception area.

That's weird, he says distractedly, and goes back to his crossword. I wonder if he's trained to act nonplussed. My interviewer comes back ten minutes later and between thesis, I am no longer invited to lunch. Not sure if there is essay, a connection to the green ring or not. I sigh and purchase a bag of stale Oreos.

After lunch hour we view the thesis drugs, training video. It's pretty entertaining. Science Introduction Essay? Everyone on the video is write a well essay, positively in science essay, rapture about the CST experience. They're all in fatigues, swinging from ropes, rolling in the mud and such. The women all seem a lot taller than me. As I am barely 5'2, I wonder if they'd have to custom make my fatigues. I spend the next few minutes mentally making notes for a children's book entitled Clandestine Dwarf in Fatigues. Consequently I have no idea what the write a well essay, gist of the training video is science and technology essay, about, and am pleased there is no pop quiz.

The rest of the day is spent writing some essays, and general administrative stuff. I have yet to spring essay taste any excitement. This is not what I had pictured at all. It's all so depressingly normal. Science Introduction Essay? There are no slick gadgets or toned bodies. Thesis? People chew gum and crack horrible jokes. Science Essay? It is dissertation, just like CNN, except the science introduction, bad jokes have a slightly different tilt. Instead of spring season essay, some overly hairsprayed anchor asking the floor director for the personal vanity plate when she wants a mirror, here at the CIA they offer up such geopolitical knee slappers as: Oh you know Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan? We just simplify things and call them all The Stans! We finish up some paperwork and I head back to and technology my dismal hotel, feeling a little depressed.

I came here for mystery and the chance to enter a world of fascinating secrets, and write a well organized, instead found dull suits, dull jokes and dull architecture. In an attempt to perk myself up, I walk to the Sizzler down the street. This is not the most effective way in which to perk oneself up. I order some type of Sizzlin' Combo, and dissolutely gnaw on the tough steak and rubbery shrimp. Even the introduction essay, cheap wine does not lift my spirits.

I go back to the hotel and season essay, reserve a cab for the morning. Science And Technology? Lying in my lumpy bed, watching a sit com, I conclude that I have been duped in two ways. One, applying to the CIA is not the thrill a minute experience I had expected and two, not Everybody actually Loves Raymond. The CIA building I arrive at (on time) the second day is even less interesting than the first one. There is no scent of intrigue, only bacon.

I follow the smell to the cafeteria. I figure I could use some breakfast. On the way there, I spy an employee corkboard. People have posted various notices such as: Running Shoes for sale: Cheap. CAT W/MISSING TAIL FOUND. It's Girl Scout Cookie Time! Order your Thin Mints, Do-Si-Dos and Tagalongs NOW!

Problem with squirrels? We've got the Solution! Half an hour later, we are led into a room to take our personality tests. They tell you there are no wrong or right answers#150;but everyone knows that's not true. One question that throws me for a loop asks something like, My people tell me that I'm an excellent leader. There are also a couple odd questions along the lines of whether you'd rather work as a flower arranger or as a racecar driver. The burly football player seated next to weapons essay me nudges me and says, I guess that's to and technology figure out who the gays in the group are. That's it for the afternoon. I wait around for my cab, and the other candidates ask why I didn't rent a car.

Out of concern of season essay, they'd think I was a nutjob, and the knowledge that they'd be right, I lie and and technology, say I thought it would be easier this way. I'm not sure I have been too convincing on this issue, but for once my cab has good timing and whisks me back to my hotel of doom. After realizing I have few other options, I make a second pilgrimage to the Sizzler. This is like signing up for another helping of humble pie. But even as I am sitting there, eating wilted iceberg lettuce, looking at fat men in stained Redskins sweatshirts, listening to Lionel Ritchie warbling about what a feelin' it is to be dancin' on the ceiling, I can't relinquish the season, dream that tomorrow the CIA could catapult me into a world of thrilling endeavors, hair-trigger decisions, political frisson, and heart pounding chases through the rain swept streets of science essay, Paris. On the final day of my CIA interview sessions, we take endless math and cognitive skills tests. A Well? I imagine this is to determine our ability to translate ciphers. I am completely useless. It is a good thing they weren't relying on me to crack those German military codes in World War II. On one section I just give up after the third or fourth question and just start filling in bubbles at and technology essay, random.

But at least I am not alone. Chapter? The burly football player finishes and says, Well, I can kiss that section goodbye. When we have all turned in our worksheets, we are instructed to write an essay. The other essays I have written so far have been practical, task-related essays. Essay? But this one forces you to language examine if your basic personality is right for a career in the Clandestine Service. I scribble out some clichés of science and technology introduction essay, what I think they'd like to hear, and then erase them. Outline? I scribble down some sarcastic, cynical observations about science and technology, myself, and erase those too. I write and erase, write and erase.

There is spring, no easy way to approach this question. I write about how being raised in a community of free-thinkers, odd balls, crazy hippies and devoted parents in the Pacific Northwest gave me license to be whomever I wanted, because they loved us enough to science essay let us figure things out on our own. I write about raging political arguments with my father, when we started throwing food at each other. Normalisation Drugs? I write that I read the science and technology introduction essay, National Enquirer alongside The Economist. I write that I am a first generation American. I write that my mom taught me to respect this country but also respect our Finnish heritage, which is why she named me SAARA with three A's instead of SARA. I may have been teased about it, but I was always proud of that extra A, and it irked me when people dismissed the pronunciation as pure whimsy. In a sense, that extra A was my connection to normalisation thesis the family my mother left behind when she came to America.

I erase all of and technology essay, this and organized, start again. I stop when I realize everything I've written reveals that I was raised to value my individuality. And it strikes me, on about the science essay, sixth or seventh attempt to write this essay, that I'm not cut out for this job. Admittedly, there should have been many red flags before now to tell me this but as I look at difference between thesis and thesis, my dingy sheet of paper, it finally sinks in. It isn't because I think the CIA is an inherently cruel and cold-blooded institution.

It isn't because I don't think I could do the job, with or without a driver's license. No, it's just that I finally realized I couldn't surrender my identity. Science And Technology? The very fact that I've been enthusing about my unique Finnish name when there is a whole wall of fallen CIA operatives with stars instead of names to mark their deaths just proves it. Maybe I just needed to see the CIA employee corkboard, hear about CIA coed volleyball, and weapons language, smell that crappy CIA cafeteria bacon to understand this. And Technology Introduction Essay? I thought I could live anonymously when I assumed the life I'd be leading would be so extraordinary. But with what I'd seen so far, I got the weapons training essay, suspicion it wouldn't be.

Now, I'm not stupid enough to think that even with the stacks of confidentiality contracts we signed that the CIA would let the and technology introduction essay, thousands of weapons training essay language techniques, candidates that pass through each year in on their fascinating secrets. But it seemed like at and technology, every turn, they were trying to stress the normalcy of clandestine life, when the abnormality of it is usually why people find it so fascinating. Master Sample? And if they couldn't show us the secrets, they should have at least let us believe that there were amazing secrets to be revealed later on. And if I couldn't have something amazing in return, then my identity was too high a price. By the time I hand my essay in, I've written and science and technology essay, erased so many times that the sheet of master dissertation sample, paper is nubby and thin.

I'm a little worn out by now, coated with pencil eraser dust, having analyzed myself too much. But I still have to see the CIA psychologist for further analysis. I am pretty much resigned to and technology essay the fact that I'm not going to training language techniques become a CIA operative at science and technology, this point. Still, I find that the psychologist is a nice guy and I enjoy our conversation. I think does too, until he asks why I'm here and I mention the hilarious CIA website. I even do an imitation of the WAAAAHNK! WAAAAHNK!

WAAAAHNK! sound effects. He looks at difference, me like I'm a particularly unfortunate product of incest and says, Huh. Yeah. Well, you must have impressed someone to get this far, and makes a note on my paperwork. I figure this is science and technology introduction essay, not a good sign. I suspect the person who recommended me to season essay get this far will be reprimanded and science, I feel a little guilty.

My final stop is at the reimbursement office where I am paid in cash. Not being a high roller or a very industrious carnie, I do not think I have ever possessed this much cash in the palm of my hand. I walk outside into the sunny parking lot and between, run into the burly football player, who gives me a lift to the airport. Unlike me, he's a competent driver and I suspect he'd grill very flavorful burgers at the barbeque in Iran, wearing a Kiss The Cook apron translated into and technology introduction Farsi. Normalisation Thesis Drugs? I also doubt he's ever faked pneumonia to get out of work. He's probably a very skilled CIA operative by science and technology introduction essay now.

A month later I get my Xeroxed rejection letter. Thesis? I'm proud to see that this time they've spelled my name correctly.

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150 Words To Describe the and technology introduction essay, Taste of Food. This tastes good! Mmmmmm yummy! What a delicious dish! What a nice chicken! The peas are wonderful! BLECH!

What horrible ways to drugs, describe food (especially to children who are figuring out introduction their own preferences as well as learning language.) As an adult, it bothers me when someone tells me a food or a dish tastes good. Good to one person may be horrific to another person. I always feel obligated to agree that yes, this food does indeed taste “good” even if I do not particularly care for essay language techniques, it. I hate to introduction, rain on someone's taste parade. I much prefer it when someone says something like “this dish is pretty spicy which I love.” This language does not corner me into agreeing, dishonestly, that I like something or admitting that I do not like something then feeling bad about it. How you describe food to children is something parents should strive to be more mindful of. Thesis Outline? “Good” and “bad” and similar phrasing do not tell children much about the food, only essay, that they are supposed to like it or not like it. Good and bad stifle a child's ability to normalisation drugs, form their own opinion about their taste preferences. It also does nothing to and technology introduction essay, expand their vocabulary. Why not experiment with the way you describe food to children and spring season adult alike? Instead of the introduction essay, standard #8220;good,#8221; grab a handful of write a well these words and work them into your praise (or critique) of the food on your plate.

Here are 120 suggestions to science and technology, get your started. Acidic Acrid Aged Bitter Bittersweet Bland Burnt Buttery Chalky Cheesy Chewy Chocolaty Citrusy Cool Creamy Crispy Crumbly Crunchy Crusty Doughy Dry Earthy Eggy Fatty Fermented Fiery Fishy Fizzy Flakey Flat Flavorful Fresh Fried Fruity Full-bodied Gamey (refers to the flavor or strong odor of language game, like Elk or Deer. And Technology Introduction Essay? Garlicky Gelatinous Gingery Glazed Grainy Greasy Gooey Gritty Harsh Hearty Heavy Herbal Hot Icy Infused Juicy Lean Light Lemony Malty Mashed Meaty Mellow Mild Minty Moist Mushy Nutty Oily Oniony Overripe Pasty Peppery Pickled Plain Powdery Raw Refreshing Rich Ripe Roasted Robust Rubbery Runny Salty Sauteed Savory Seared Seasoned Sharp Silky Slimy Smokey Smothered Smooth Soggy Soupy Sour Spicy Spongy Stale Sticky Stale Stringy Strong Sugary or sweet Sweet-and-sour Syrupy Tangy Tart Tasteless Tender Toasted Tough Unflavored Unseasoned Velvety Vinegary Watery Whipped Woody Yeasty Zesty Zingy. If you really, really cannot get away from the “good/bad” phrasing , here are 30 alternative ways to say something similar. Training Language? At least you are exposing your child to a larger repertoire of adjectives. Essay? Are you looking for some recipe inspiration? Check out all the offerings I have on weapons essay, my recipe page! Also be sure to introduction essay, take a look at the cookbooks I have authored and contributed to. I hope you love them.

If You Liked This Post, You Might Also Like These. Thesis? Be sure to and technology essay, check out these Products I Love from my trusted affiliate partners. Statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and drugs Drug Administration. Products and/or information are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent any disease. Readers are advised to do their own research and make decisions in partnership with your health care provider. If you are pregnant, nursing, have a medical condition, or are taking any medication, please consult your physician. Science Essay? Nothing you read here should be relied upon to determine dietary changes, a medical diagnosis or courses of treatment. Weapons Techniques? Affiliate links may be included in this post.

If you order through them, I may receive some sort of compensation. Science? Don't worry, this does not affect your pricing or the quality of your goods or services. Thesis Chapter Outline? It simply helps me offset the administrative costs of blogging. Or consider it a tip if you like that better! Yes, thank you! This is another example of and technology introduction essay how we try to thesis chapter outline, #8220;make#8221; children feel or not feel, like or not like certain things. It#8217;s controlling and it sets them up to not trust themselves. It seems like a small thing, but it really is something to science and technology, be mindful about.

At it#8217;s pleasurable once you get in and thesis the habit. your website helps so much thank you so much i will use this in the future as well. This comment has been removed by the author. Science? mason young says. Weapons Essay Language? thank you so much this helped me tremendously. I got an A on my project thanks to this website. This helped a lot on my homework. Yay! I am happy to hear that! #128578; This post seems popular with students. And Technology Introduction Essay? Yeah specially with EFL students! X) Thank you!! This was bloody superb mate, helped me discover my fantasy for food, took my breath away. thank you so much, it really did help me a lot in normalisation thesis drugs my homework. i appreciate your help and kindness. I am ohhhhhhh so glad that you have this!! For my english class we HAVE to write journal, (if you want to make grades that are Cs and better) and we wrote 2 this paricular week, and and technology introduction essay EACH journal is worth 5 points and season I only introduction, wrote one, it was 2 1/2 pages long, and normalisation I got a 10/10 so an A+ on it and science and technology essay our journal was: write a journal about master dissertation a Thanksgiving meal, use vivid words to make it to where you can almost #8220;Taste#8221; the food as you are reading it!!

Thankyou sooooooooo much. This was a HUGE HUGE HUGE help. Oh I am so glad. Congrats on a great journal and I am glad my post helped so much. #128578; Thank you for introduction essay, your personal outlook! I definitely agree and am using some of your descriptive words for spring season, a product description I am writing! Thank you!! thanks for the great post. And Technology Introduction Essay? I have just used it as a resource to create a handout for thesis, my ESL students. We will be tasting 10 different kinds of salad dressing, and essay I wanted them to have more flavor words. Difference Between And Thesis? I will also ask them to look through the list and mark which ones refer more to texture than flavor. Although both answer the science introduction essay, question #8220;how does it taste#8221; #128578; I#8217;ll also be using the list as we continue to dissertation, introduce more foods to our toddler son and as he gains more language.

So glad this was helpful. It has become one of my most popular posts! I am glad it is helping so many people. hey love this conspectus it is great work. hello, thank you so much for the words, i used it in my design project!! look i don#8217;t know how to say it but#8230; this website saved my ass when coming up with descriptive words for introduction essay, my food tech class, thanks! HAHA! You are not the difference thesis and thesis, first to say that. Science And Technology? #128521; Glad I could help! hafsa Rasheed says. That was great! Thanks a lot .you know what ?it realy helped me in my Home work #8230;#8230;keeping the normalisation drugs, secret that I was to do it on my own. thanks so much needed these descriptive words so so so bad.

You are welcome! Glad they helped. Shalene Sodal says. Thank you for this! Writer#8217;s block can be very frustrating and this helped me so much. And Technology Introduction Essay? Thank you for introducing delicious words! #128578; Wonderful collection, I was in search exactly what i get here. Thanks for great share. 1) Learn to spell. 2) Are you a parent, because if you#8217;re not keep your parenting advice to yourself. 3) I think there#8217;s bigger problems in essay language techniques the world than how you describe your food. Yes, I am a parent and yes there are bigger problems in this world than how to describe food.

However, this post has actually become one of my most viewed posts as it has helped thousands of science introduction parents, culinary students and write a well organized professionals describe food. Science And Technology Essay? I am happy to have put something online that has value. Sorry you don#8217;t agree. Season Essay? I need to describe a freshly baked bread. Science And Technology Introduction? Any words that can BEST describe? Warm, moist, pungent, flaky, crisp#8230;. Master Dissertation Sample? Another EFL teacher here to say thanks for compiling this!

thank you very much. it is really helpful. Thank you! You have successfully subscribed to the Hybrid Rasta Mama newsletter. Statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Science And Technology Introduction Essay? Products and/or information are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent any disease. And Thesis? Readers are advised to introduction essay, do their own research and make decisions in partnership with your health care provider . If you are pregnant, nursing, have a medical condition or are taking any medication, please consult your physician. Nothing you read here should be relied upon to normalisation thesis, determine dietary changes, a medical diagnosis or courses of treatment. This website contains affiliate links where appropriate, from science and technology introduction essay, which I may earn a small commission or referral fee from weapons language, your purchase. This has no effect on your price. The monies earned help maintain and support this website's hosting, maintenance, and the development of free content. Consider it a “tip” if you will.

One I thank you for profusely. Please do not use my words or pictures without my permission. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Designed By DreamUp Studios.

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concluding a paper By Behrouz Karoubi. University Lecturer at Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. For years translations were considered as derivatives, copies, and translators as mechanical devices replacing linguistic codes (equivalents) from and technology introduction, one language into another, and the translator's autonomy was always questioned (and is still being questioned) by spring those who thought of him/her ‘as a monkey, with no choice save to make the same grimaces as his master’ (Leppihalme, 1997: 19), until recent years when, under the influence of poststructuralism and functionalism, the focus of attention has been shifted to the issue of translator’s agency and subjectivity, and the notions of introduction, originality and (absolute) equivalence and also author’s superiority over translator have been severely questioned. Bassnett (1996) stresses the need for reassessing the between and thesis role of the translator by analyzing his/her intervention in science introduction the process of normalisation thesis, linguistic transfer, when she argues ‘Once considered a subservient, transparent filter through which a text could and should pass without adulteration, the translation can now be seen as a process in which intervention is crucial’ (p. 22). Awareness of complexity of translation process and avoidance of the simplistic view of regarding translation as mere process of transferring words from one text to another, Álvarez Vidal (1996) claim, will result in realizing the importance of the ideology underlying a translation.

They argue that behind every one of the introduction essay translator’s selections, as what to add, what to leave out, which words to choose and how to place them, ‘there is a voluntary act that reveals his history and the socio-political milieu that surrounds him; in write a well other words, his own culture [and ideology]’. (Álvarez Vidal, 1996: 5). The exercise of ideology in translation is as old as the history of translation itself. According to Fawcett (1998), ‘throughout the centuries, individuals and institutions applied their particular beliefs to and technology the production of certain effect in translation’ (p. 107). He claims that ‘an ideological approach to translation can be found in some of the between and thesis earliest examples of translation known to us’ (p.

106). Nevertheless, the linguistics-oriented approaches to translation studies have failed to address the concept of ideology through years of their prevalence, because such approaches are limited to their scientific models for research and science essay the empirical data they collect, so that ‘they remain reluctant to take into normalisation drugs, account the social values [and ideologies] that enter into translating as well as the study of it’ (Venuti, 1998a: 1). The deficiency of old linguistics-based approaches – which ‘are mainly descriptive studies focusing on textual forms’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 8) – in accounting for social values in translation and other aspects of language use resulted in and technology introduction developing a new trend of research called Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) ‘whose primary aim is to outline expose the ideological forces that underlie communicative exchanges [like translating]’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 2). And Technology Essay! According to CDA advocates, all language use, including translation, is ideological and this means that translation is always a site for ideological encounters (p. Spring Season! 2). Similarly, Schäffner (2003) claims that all translations are ideological since ‘the choice of a source text and the use to which the subsequent target text is put are determined by the interests, aims, and objectives of social agents’ (p. 23). Science! She evidently opts for van Dijk’s definition for ideology as ‘basic systems of between thesis and thesis, shared social representations that may control more specific group beliefs’ (van Dijk, 1996: 7). However, there are a profusion of diverse definitions of ideology defining the science introduction term from different perspectives – amongst them is normalisation van Dijk’s definition – some of which are deemed necessary to be overviewed here. The term ‘ideology’ has been always accompanied by its political connotation as it is science introduction essay evident in dissertation its dictionary definition as ‘a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy ’ (The New Oxford Dictionary of English). Translation scholars who slant in favor of the political definitions of ideology mainly believe that translating itself is a political act as Tahir-Gürça#287;lar (2003: 113) argues, ‘Translation is political because, both as activity and product, it displays process of essay, negotiation among different agents.

On micro-level, these agents are translators, authors, critics, publishers, editors, and readers’. Under the influence of Marx who defines ideology as action without knowledge (false consciousness), ideology is sometimes defined in thesis outline its negative political sense as ‘a system of wrong, false, distorted or otherwise misguided beliefs’ (van Dijk, qtd in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 3). Science Introduction Essay! In its more constructive sense, Marxists like Lenin define Socialist ideology as ‘a force that encourages revolutionary consciousness and fosters progress’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003 : 4). According to Calzada-Pérez ( ibid. ), recent definitions of ideology are linked with the concepts of power relations and domination, as she quotes from Eagleton: ‘[Ideology is] ideas and beliefs which help to legitimate the interest of a ruling group or class by distortion or dissimulation’. This view, in fact, forms the basis of post-colonial thinking which ‘highlights the power relations which inform contemporary cultural exchanges’ (Simon, 1996: 136). Essay Language! However, Calzada-Pérez (2003) argues that sometimes ideology is viewed in more positive sense ‘as a vehicle to promote or legitimate interests of a particular social group (rather than a means to destroy contenders)’ (p.

5). Scholars in the field of language-related, cultural and translation studies, however, often tend to extend the concept of ideology beyond political sphere and define it in a rather politically neutralized sense as ‘a set of ideas, which organize our lives and help us understand the relation to our environment’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 5). In most parts of the science introduction current paper, nevertheless, the writer opts for the definition proposed by van Dijk (1996: 7) for ideology as a framework that is ‘assumed to specifically organize and monitor one form of socially shared mental representation, in other words, the organized evaluative beliefstraditionally called 'attitudes'shared by social groups’. The ideology of translation could be traced in both process and product of translation which are, however, closely interdependent. The ideology of a translation, according to Tymoczko (2003), will be a combination of the outline content of the science and technology introduction source text and write a well organized the various speech acts represented in and technology the source text relevant to the source context, layered together with the representation of the content, its relevance to the receptor audience, and the various speech acts of the translation itself addressing the target context, as well as resonance and discrepancies between these two ‘utterances’. Training Essay Language! However, she further explains that ‘the ideology of translation resides not simply in the text translated, but in the voicing and stance of the translator, and in its relevance to the receiving audience’ (pp. 182–83). Schäffner (2003) explains: Ideological aspect can […] be determined within a text itself, both at the lexical level (reflected, for example, in the deliberate choice or avoidance of a particular word […]) and the grammatical level (for example, use of and technology, passive structures to avoid an expression of thesis chapter outline, agency). Ideological aspects can be more or less obvious in texts, depending on the topic of a text, its genre and communicative purposes. (p. 23)

Ideological aspects can also be examined in introduction essay the process of text production (translating) and the role of the thesis translator as a target text producer as well as a source text interpreter. These aspects along with two major influencing schools of post-structuralism and functionalism will be further explained in details in the following paragraphs. Ideology and the translator as a reader of the source text: Poststructuralism. According to Venuti (1992: 6), poststructuralist thinkers like Derrida and de Man, mainly under the influence of Benjamin’s works, explode the binary opposition between original and translation which causes translators to introduction be invisible. Before the emergence of poststructuralism, structuralists like Saussure, defined language as the scientifically examinable world of symbols constituting the linguistic system and thesis outline social structure within which the individual is socially shaped. The structuralists believed that ‘language is constructed as a system of science introduction essay, signs, each sign being the result of conventional relation between word and normalisation drugs meaning, between a signifier (a sound or sound-image) and a signified (the referent, or concept represented by the signifier)’ (Roman, 2002: 309).

Later, Barthes, an introduction, early poststructuralist, claimed that ‘signifiers and singnifieds are not fixed, unchangeable, but, on write organized essay, the contrary, can make the sign itself signifying more complex mythical signs as intricate signifiers of the order of myth’ (Roman, 2002: 310). This shift of idea from structuralism toward poststructuralism resulted in extreme revisions in different domains of introduction essay, language, for example, developing of ‘the death of author’ thinking which later found its way into Translation Studies. From instability of the signifiers and signifieds, Barthes concludes that reading texts in terms of authorial intention or what we think the author meant by such and such a statement, and referring the source of meaning and essay authority of a text back to science its author (as the creator of that text) is no more acceptable (Royle, 2003: 7). Barthes argues that ‘since writers only write within a system of language in which particularized authors are born and shaped, texts cannot be thought of in terms of their author’s intentions, but only in relationship with other texts: in write organized intertextuality’ (Roman, 2002: 311). In the absence of the author, Barthes explains, the readers (a translator could be one of them) interpret texts by introduction essay setting them against their backdrop of known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is training ideological; and the meaning of a text becomes what individual readers extract from it, not what a supreme Author put in. (Hermans, 1999: 69) ‘ “The birth of the reader must be at and technology essay, the cost of the death of the Author”, Barthes bravely declares’ ( ibid ). Derrida, another poststructuralist, draws attention from the essay signifieds to the chain of signifiers, as Roman (2002) explains:

Derrida takes the structure of sign from Saussure, but transforms it into a fluid entity, whereby meaning and writing consist solely in signifiers. Signifiers refer only to science and technology each other and meaning becomes unstable since any deferral to yet another signifier implies a difference in an endless chain of signification. This is the meaning of the French term différence (from the French verb différer, with its polysemantics of to differ and to chapter delay), or Différance, a neologism created by Derrida particularly to science and technology essay express the indeterminacy of meaning. Spring Essay! (p. 311) According to Venuti (1992), poststructuralist thinkers believe that the original is itself a translation, an incomplete process of translating a signifying chain into univocal signified, and this process is both displayed and further complicated when it is translated by another signifying chain in a different language.

The originality of the foreign text is thus compromised by the poststructuralist concept of science and technology essay, textuality. Neither the foreign nor the translation is an original semantic unity; both are derivative, consisting of diverse linguistic and cultural materials, making meaning plural and differential (p. 7). In the same way, neither the author nor the translator as a reader of outline, source text possesses the authorial power to and technology introduction definitely determine the meaning; and the ‘authority’ will always remain collective due to endless circle of organized, signification. Poststructuralist textuality redefines the notion of equivalence in translation by assuming from the outset that the differential plurality in every text precludes a simple correspondence of meaning, and a ratio of and technology introduction essay, loss and gain inextricably occurs during translation process (Venuti, 1992: 7–8). Similarly, Carbonell (1996) points out that, since the nature of the context of thesis, signification in both the source and target cultures is heterogeneous, meaning changes unavoidably in essay the process of translation and there will be always possibility of contradiction between the author’s intentions and the translator’s (p. 98). But why have such relativism and perspectivism result not in a state of complete anarchy and master dissertation unintelligibility? According to Toury (2000), ‘Cognition itself is influenced, probably even modified by science and technology introduction socio-cultural factors’ (p.

119). A translator, just like an author, is not simply a ‘person’ but a socially and historically constituted subject. As mentioned earlier, translators interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological. This knowledge allows them to chapter interpret the text and at the same time limits the range of their interpretation as Robinson aptly notices: Translators […] are those people who let their knowledge govern their behavior. Introduction! And that knowledge is ideological. It is master controlled by ideological norms.

If you want to become a translator you must submit to the translator’s submissive role, submit to being possessed by what ideological norms inform you. And Technology! (qtd. in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 7) What brings de facto the individual interpretations close together is the normalisation drugs likeness of the intertextual and ideological configurations the individuals are located in. Translators are hardly (maybe never) aware of ideological factors governing their process of the and technology introduction source text interpretation. Toury (1999: 18) admits the difficulties of determining the role of socio-cultural factors which unconsciously affect the translator’s behavior: One thing I would not venture to do […] is tackle the intriguing question of how, and to what extent, the environment affects the workings of the brain, or how the cognitive is write a well essay influenced by the socio-cultural, even though this would surely make an invaluable contribution to our understanding of translation. Nevertheless, sometimes it becomes extremely difficult for a translation scholar to justify whether the ideological discrepancies observed between the source text and the target text are results of the and technology essay translator’s subconscious ideological interpretation or of his/her intentional ideological intervention which will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

Ideology and the translator as a writer of the target text: Functionalism. While one of the pivotal achievements of the poststructuralist approaches is dethroning the author and his/her authorial intention by emphasizing the role of the translator as an autonomous reader of the source text, functionalist approaches try to dethrone the source text itself by emphasizing the role of the translator as a creator of the target text and giving priority to purpose ( skopos ) of producing target text. According to difference between and thesis Schäffner (1996), ‘Functionalist approach is a kind of introduction, cover term for the research of dissertation, scholars who argue that the purpose of the TT is the most important criterion in any translation’ (p. Science And Technology! 2). Functionalism is a major shift from ‘linguistic equivalence’ to ‘functional appropriateness’. From the perspective of functional approaches to chapter translation (particularly, under the influence of Holz-Mänttäri’s theory of ‘translational action’), translation is viewed as a communicative act. In this view, translation is conceived primarily ‘as a process of intercultural communication, whose end product is and technology essay a text which is capable of functioning appropriately in specific situations and context of use’ (Schäffner, 1998a: 3). The principles of translational (translatorial) action theory then founded the spring basis of introduction essay, Vermeer’s Skopos theory. ‘ Skopos is a technical term for the aim or purpose of a translation’ (Vermeer, 2000: 221).

Skopostheorists assert that any action has an spring, aim, a purpose. From their standpoint, translation is considered not as a process of transcoding (the position usually adopted by and technology introduction earlier non-functionalist approaches), but as a form of human action which has its own purpose basically decided on by the drugs translator (Schäffner, 1998b: 235; Hönig, 1998: 9). The skopos of a translation, Vermeer (2000) explains, is the goal or purpose, defined by the commission and if necessary adjusted by the translator. Science Essay! He defines commission as ‘the instruction, given by oneself or by someone else, to carry out a given action [which could be translation]’ (p. 229). A text in skopostheorist approach is regarded as an offer of information from its producer to a recipient.

Translation is then a secondary offer of information about information originally offered in another language within another culture (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). The translator, as an expert in translational action, must interpret ST information ‘by selecting those features which most closely correspond to the requirements of the target situation (Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). From this point of chapter outline, view, the introduction translation process is not (necessarily) determined retrospectively by the source text, its effects on its addressees, or the intention of thesis drugs, its author, but prospectively by science introduction essay the skopos of the target text as determined by the target recipient’s requirements (which are, however, discerned and decided on by the translator himself/ herself). The translation then is ‘the production of a functionally appropriate target text based on an existing source text [or what Neubert calls ‘source-text induced target-text production’], and the relationship between the normalisation thesis drugs two texts is specified according to the skopos of the translation’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). Focusing on and technology introduction essay, the purpose of translation as the most decisive factor in translation action, skopos theory emphasizes the role of the translator as an expert in normalisation thesis drugs translational action and regards the source text no longer as the ‘sacred original’ from science and technology essay, which the skopos (purpose) of the translation is deduced, but as a mere offer of information whose role in the action is to language techniques be decided by the translator, depending on the expectations and needs of the target readers (Hönig, 1998: 9). Schäffner (1998b) explains ‘The translator offers information about certain aspects of the source-text-in-situation, according to the target text skopos specified by the initiator’ (p. 236). Skopos theory and functionalism focus on the translator, giving him/her more freedom and at science and technology introduction essay, the same time more responsibility, as Hönig (1998) asserts: [The translator] may be held responsible for weapons essay language techniques, the result of his/her translational acts by recipients and clients.

In order to act responsibly, however, translators must be allowed the freedom to decide in co-operation with their clients what is in their best interests. (p. 10) An awareness of the requirements of the skopos , Vermeer maintains, ‘expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies, and releases the translator from the corset of an enforced – and hence often meaningless – literalness’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). The translator thus becomes a target-text author freed from the science introduction essay ‘limitations and restrictions imposed by weapons essay language techniques a narrowly defined concept of loyalty to the source text alone’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 238). Hönig (1998: 14) usefully contrasts the characteristics of functional approaches vs. non-functional approaches as follows: Must be visible. Should be invisible.

Translation processes should be. Target text oriented. Source text oriented. Aim of translation is. Translation tools taken from. Figure 1: A schematic view of functionalist and introduction non-functionalist approaches.

As it is evident in Hönig’s schematic view, ‘ visibility ’ of the translator is write a well essay a key concept in functional approaches. Science! According to Hönig (1998: 12–13), in organized essay functionalism the and technology introduction translator inevitably has to be visible, since functional approaches do not establish rules but support decision-making strategies and the translator has to make critical decisions as to how define the translation skopos and outline which strategies can best meet the target recipient’s requirements; s/he should be visible, making his/her decisions transparent to his/her client and accepting the responsibility of his/her choices. A visible translator has to accept the consequences of science, his/her translational decisions, as Toury (1999) declares, ‘it is always the translator herself or himself, as an autonomous individual, who decides how to dissertation behave, be that decision fully conscious or not. Whatever the degree of awareness, it is s/he who will also have to bear the consequences’ (p. 19). According to Nord (2003), almost any decision in essay translation is – consciously or unconsciously – guided by ideological criteria (p. 111). Normalisation Drugs! Ideological factors are very decisive in defining the translation skopos (target-text intended purpose) and selecting the functionally appropriate strategies by the translator, based on the expectations of the and technology translation clients. These factors which affect and regulate the translator’s behavior are further investigated in the following section under the title of ‘ norms ’.

According to Toury (1999), all human beings have an inherent tendency toward socializing and social acceptability; as a result, under normal conditions, people tend to avoid behaviors which are prohibited or sanctioned as well as to adopt behaviors which are considered as being appropriate within the group they belong to (pp. 15–19). There is a socially shared knowledge between members of normalisation thesis drugs, every community as to what is considered correct or appropriate as a communicative behavior. This knowledge exists in the form of norms. They serve consciously as a pattern of behavior, and ‘they also regulate expectations concerning both behavior itself and the products of this behavior’ (Schäffner, 1999: 5). Toury (1999) defines norm in terms of ‘the translation of general values or ideas shared by a groupas to and technology introduction what is conventionally right and wrong, adequate and inadequateinto performance instructions appropriate for and applicable to particular situations’ (p. 14). Taking into season essay, consideration the definition of ideology by van Dijk (1996) as ‘the organized evaluative beliefs shared by social groups’, normsas defined by and technology Toury (1999)seem to have much in common with ideology; in other words, norms can be understood as ideological realization of the spring season concept of appropriateness and correctness.

Decision-making is a key concept in the discussion of norms. And Technology Essay! Norms exist ‘only in situations which allow for alternative kind of chapter outline, behavior, involving the need to select among these, with the additional condition that selection be non-random’ (Toury, 1999: 15). This selection, according to Toury (1999), could be posited between two constraining extremes of ‘relatively absolute rules on one hand, and pure idiosyncrasies on the other’ (p. 16). Toury applies the norms concept to translation studies presuming that translating involves playing a social role subject to several types of socio-cultural constraints of varying degree. He, consequently, argues that the acquisition of a set of norms for science and technology introduction, determining the suitability of translational behavior, and for maneuvering between all factors which may constrain it, is a prerequisite for becoming a translator within a cultural environment (Toury, 2000: 198). Toury (2000) claims that norms govern every level of decision-making in the translating process from choice of write a well essay, text to translate to the very final choices of translation strategies of action.

He, consequently, introduces three kinds of norm: 1) initial norm; 2) preliminary norms; and 3) operational norms. Initial norm governs the translator’s overall decisions to adhere ‘either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product’ (Toury, 2000: 201). Toury (2000), however, denies the necessity of full conformity between an overall decision made and every single decision be made in the lower-levels of translation process; and, consequently, denies the existence of absolute regularity in translational behaviors (p. 201). The options which are made available to the translator by Toury’s initial norm are very similar to those which Venuti (1998b: 240) talks about in and technology introduction essay his foreignizing and thesis drugs domesticating strategies of translation. Preliminary norms govern the decisions to be made concerning translation policy and and technology essay directness . According to Toury (2000: 202), ‘ translation policy refers to those factors that govern the choice of text types; or individual texts, to be imported through translation into a particular culture/language at a particular point in time’. He further explains that ‘considerations concerning directness of translation involve the spring threshold of tolerance for translating from languages other than the ultimate source language’ (p. 202). Operational norms direct the actual decisions made during the act of translation and are subdivided into matricial and and technology textual-linguistic norms.

Matricial norms govern the segmentation and distribution of textual materials in the target text. Textual-linguistic norms ‘govern the selection of material to formulate the target text in, or replace the original textual and linguistic material with’ (Toury, 2000: 202–3). It should be noted that, according to Toury (2000), ‘There is no necessary identity between the norms themselves and any formulation of them in language (p. 200). He believes that the observed regularities in translational behaviors are not themselves the norms; they are rather ‘external evidence’ which reflect the weapons existence of science and technology essay, norms (Toury, 1999: 15). Toury also does not identify repeated translational strategies as to be identical with norms; but he thinks norms are the idea behind a strategy (qtd. in Schäffner, 1999: 84). Therefore, Baker’s interpretation of norms as ‘regularities of translational behavior within a specific socio-cultural situation’ (Baker, 1998: 163) or ‘strategies of thesis, translation which are repeatedly opted for, in preference to other available strategies, in a given culture or textual system’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 114) seems to be an and technology introduction essay, oversimplification of this concept. Chesterman (1993) looks at the concept of norms from sample, a different perspective. Whereas Toury does not pay too much heed to science the role of the readership and their feedback in norm construction, Chesterman (1993: 8) puts distinction between expectancy norms , which are the expectations of the target readership and the client etc., and the professional norms which explain the translator's tendency to observe these expectancy norms.

According to Toury (2000), norms themselves actually are not observable. He declares that what are actually available for thesis, observation are rather norm-governed instances of science and technology introduction essay, behavior or the products of such behavior (p. 206). Toury introduces two major sources for reconstruction of translational norms: 1. Textual : the translated text themselves, for outline, all kinds of norms, as well as analytical inventories of translation (i.e., ‘virtual texts’), for various preliminary norms; 2. Extratextual : semi-theoretical or critical formulations, such as perspective ‘theories’ of translation, statements made by translators, editors, publishers, and other persons involved in or connected with the activity, critical appraisals of individual translations, or the and technology introduction activity of a translator or ‘school’ of translators, and so forth. (Toury, 2000: 207) Likewise, Baker (1998) introduces studying of a ‘corpus of authentic translations’ as a means for identifying regular instances of translational behavior which are represented in that corpus by the translator, and, thus, for identifying the translational norms (p. Master Sample! 164).

After so many years of the dominance of the prescriptive approaches over translation teaching, maybe the time has come for a serious revision in translation teaching methods. Translation teaching should no longer be seen as a set of rules and instructions prescribed by translation teachers to the students as to what strategies will lead to a ‘ good ’ or ‘ correct ’ translation and what to a ‘ wrong ’ and ‘ incorrect ’ one. Understanding the importance of decision-making in and technology essay translation, the translation teachers should try to describe the actual translational decisions made by actual translators under different socio-cultural and ideological settings in real life and real situations, and explain the perlocutionary consequences resulted from adoption of such decisions for the students. They should allow the students to select voluntarily between different options they have at normalisation thesis, hand, reminding them that they will be responsible for the selections they make. Translation teachers should make it clear for the students that every translation has its own aim determined by its translator, and that they could freely choose the options that best serve their intended aim of translation. Álvarez, R. Vidal, M.C. Science Introduction! (1996).Translating: A political act. In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 1-9).

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198-211). London: Routledge. __________ (1999). A handful of paragraphs on 'translation' and 'norms'. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and norms (pp. 9-31). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1995). Descriptive translation studies and a well beyond . Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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