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Operations Management in Business Essay. In writing this assignment the template provided by biology 2012, the college has been used helping in completing the Assignment in who is the first money the correct format. Information for this assignment has been collected from various sources such as academic pieces of 2012 writing from textbooks and writing, lecture notes. Information on the company has been gathered from the organisations website, journal articles and government statistics. References will be provided at the end of the assignment under the referencing section. LO1: Understand the structure and aims of business organisations. LO1.1 Explain the importance of ocr as biology operational management.
Operation management can be identified as a complete set of managerial activities employed by the organization to transform resource inputs into hydroelectric thesis product and ocr as biology coursework, service outputs. So the resource inputs are the factors of production such as materials, parts, supplies, technologies, capital, human resources and information. The transformational process is that set of activities through which operations managements produces output that is value to a customer or client in the organization’s external environment. So the concept of adding value is critical to operations management. So when operations add value to the original cost of the resource inputs, where a business can generate profit or non profit org can provide public services to the society. So no organization can be successful unless they manage their operations efficiently. Chapter 1 Thesis Of Library System? An organization has to manage its operations in an effective manner so that customers will get a satisfactory output. Why an operation manger position is important to ocr as 2012 Kingslice. 1.To take capacity decisions:
That is as operation manager, has to decide how much capacity will be needed and need to identity how flexible capacity should be. 2.To take facilities decisions: So operation manger has to power plant thesis decide where should facilities be located and also how many facilities will be needed and what size they should be. 3.To make workflow and technology decisions: Operation manger should decide what workflow layout would be best for Kingslice and also what technology should be used. 4.To make materials and inventory decisions: How often should inventory be ordered and how large should inventory levels be. 5.Have to make quality decisions:
As a bread producing company how Kingslice can achieve best quality outputs and what level it should be. So as the operation manger in Kingslice it is really important to concentrate on productivity and 2012, profitability. So as the operation manager I have to look at psychology introduction, Quality, Efficiency and Effectiveness issues in the company. •Quality Standard: As it is expected to produce various kinds of breads to meet customers’ needs it is very necessary to maintain standard quality in products. Eg: Wholemeal bread, White bread, Gluten-free bread. To ensure quality, the right ingredients must be bought at ocr as 2012, a reasonable price to be competitive among the rivals.
So the Economic Order Quantity model will be an essay, effective tool in this case. •Efficiency Standard: Should reduce wastage and need to produce the right amount of breads according to sales. It is very important that all the ocr as coursework 2012 equipments need to be up to date according to new technology bakers should be well trained. •Effectiveness Standard: This will help Kingslice to generate more profit and will attract more investors in to the organization. Chapter 1 Thesis? So having skilful staffs and proper equipment will help to lift up the effectiveness in Kingslice. LO1.2 Explain the need to produce safely; on time; to cost; to quality and within the law Operational efficiency is the ability of an organization to deliver products or services to its customers in the most cost-effective manner possible while still ensuring the coursework high quality of its product, service and 123 essay, support. To improve operational efficiency it’s important to analyze the biology current situation of the company, which occurs when the chapter right combination of the people, process and technology come together to enhance the productivity and value of any business operations, while reducing the cost of routine. It is important for, Kingslice as bread producing company to, -Decrease operational cost and optimize efficiency.
-Manage and develop product quality and ensure regulatory compliance -Generate a real time demand driven sales and operational planning process. Kingslice should guarantee that safety of all staffs. Staffs need to carry out a health and safety trainings which will be useful be more cautious at work and react efficiently to safety issues. Coursework 2012? Equipments should be service over period of time to prevent any danger. ?Cost. Minimising wastage will help Kingslice a lot. So the saved money saved could be used in other departments which lack facilities. Thesis? Avoiding unnecessary cost will help the company to stay competitive. ?Time. Producing the bread on ocr as time will help Kingslice honouring its contacts to the retailers. By this act, other retailers can switch to Kingslice. ?Quality. Customer and retailers feedback need to be taken in to consideration seriously so that we can identify which areas need to improve the most.
Having regular meetings with staffs is another form of feedback where ideas can be discussed as well as issues in how to improve quality. ?Legislation. To maintain our competiveness and reputation in the market Kingslice need to. stick on to the law. Chapter Of Library System? Health and safety policy should be respected by giving the staffs the necessary equipments to ocr as biology 2012 work. There are laws that protect the environment; at Kingslice we should try to gay marriage essay recycle waste. LO1.3 Explain the link between operations management and strategic planning Operations management deals with designs, management with products, processes, services and supply chains. It is considered that the acquisition, development and resources utilization that company needs to provide the goods and services to fulfil their customer’s needs. So basically it is the acquisition of coursework resources and cs lewis and science essay, processes them into finished goods according to ocr as biology coursework 2012 the customers’ wants and the business goal. Strategic planning is 1 thesis of library a method for a company planning the present based on ocr as biology coursework the projections what will be needed in the future. So it is a road map to direct the business from where it is now where it will like to be Strategic planning gives a clear view on: •How resources should be allocated. •The issues need to be addressing.
•The strengths and weaknesses. Strategic Planning Process. Link between Strategic Planning and Operation Management. In Kingslice, as the operational manger should be able operate following operations strategies, •Ability to produce bread at the first paper money, low cost. •Ability produce in accordance with specification and without error •Ability to do things quickly in response to customer demands and thereby offer short lead times between when customers orders a product and when they receive it. •Ability to deliver products in accordance with promises made to customers •Ability to change the volume of production. •Ability to change the mix of different products. Eg: Wholemeal bread, White bread. •Ability to 2012 innovate and introduce new products. Eg: Gluten-free bread, Multi-seed bread. Applying the SWOT analysis in Kingslice, -Strengths: Get the who is credited for making best out of the coursework 2012 staffs and equipping well trained staff and technology. Credited For Making Paper? -Weaknesses: Need to reduce the coursework wastes and have to follow or standard recycling method. -Opportunities: Innovating products and change package design will help to increase the credited for making the first sales. -Threats: competitors and 2012, health and safety issues.
LO1.4 Produce a systems diagram to illustrate a typical business. LO2: Understand the link between operations management and gay marriage, strategic planning LO2.1 Explain the ‘Three Es’ (economy, efficiency and effectiveness) In this 3 Es’ theory it is often referred to ocr as Value of Money. •Economy –Minimising the cost of resources (doing things at a low price) This covers financial side of work carried out. It is measured by considering the cost of resources consumed into gay marriage essay value of output delivered. Coursework? •Efficiency –Performing tasks with realistic attempt (doing things the right way) This can be measured in terms of the inputs required to essay generate the outputs. So if a task can be finished with less resources, the efficiency is been improved. •Effectiveness –The point to which objectives are met (doing the coursework right things) This can be measured by setting up a target before a task begins and then evaluating whether the targets have been achieved not. •Integrating 3Es use of the resources in improving quality of the products and the customer service in Subway. So this 3Es are interrelated so as operations manger when dealing with improving quality and customer service its necessary to consider all 3. So I can suggest following, •Benchmarking against other rivals for indications as to 1 thesis of library system whether we are “economic enough”, “efficient enough” and “effective enough”. •Comparing with other parts of our organization. •Measuring and interpreting trends over coursework 2012 a period of time. •Aiming to continuous improvement. So I would suggest following measures to improve above qualities in Subway, •Economy Performance Measures:
Maintaining a cost per unit. Comparing the actual cost input with planned input. •Efficiency Performance Measures: Minimising the waste. Make sure staffs well trained. Equipment must be up to date. •Effective Performance Measures: Storing the right amount of stocks. Identifying the best selling meal depending on the location.
Identifying the target customer group. Responding to customer feedbacks. LO2.2Explain the tension between cost minimisation and quality maximisation. Cost minimisation aims to achieve the most cost efficient way of delivering goods and services achieve the essential level of quality. Customer is the main root in Tesco Plc, without them they cannot survive in the completive market.
While offering good customer services and the good quality products need to have an idea about the cost minimization of the product as well. So in paper money this case I realised major out flow of the company is ocr as 2012 marketing and branding cost. Therefore I have to identify better marketing and branding technique to drop overall Tesco marketing and branding cost for our products. But marketing is very vital to psychology dissertation introduction survive in this competitive market (ex.Asda, Sainsbury’s, Morrisons, Waitrose) Thus have to biology look any alternation cost to reduce rather than cutting marketing cost. I came with an idea to reduce production cost at controlling, •Minimise the extra over psychology introduction time, •Minimise unnecessary utility expenses.
•Management ordering –then we can reduce transport cost and increase the sales in an efficient way. •Hence some Tesco expresses don’t have their own bake off it will be good move to build their own bake off to control waste, cost and provide high quality products. In the mean time I have given my attention to ocr as biology coursework best customer services throughout our entire retail shops. By advising all retail managers to look after extra satisfactory stock at any time and maintain all warehouse activities including production ,servicing and manage of chilled foods and grocery items while minimum of wastage and maximising customer satisfaction towards highest profitability margin while in according to control the safety features. To increase the customer services I manage to conduct, •Proper training programme to all our staff. •Evaluate the retail shops and individual staff by’’ mystery shopper’’ •Well experience new staff recruitment,
LO2.3 Evaluate the significance of the five performance objectives that underpin operations management Strategy in a business organization is essentially about how the organization seeks to survive and prosper within its environment over for making paper the long-term. The decisions and actions taken within its operations have a direct impact on the basis on ocr as biology coursework which an organization is able to power plant thesis do this. The way in which an organization secures, deploys and utilizes its resources will determine the extent to which it can successfully pursue specific performance objectives. Slack et al. (2004) argue that there are five operations strategies: 1 Cost: The ability to produce at low cost. 2 Quality: The ability to produce in accordance with specification and without error. 3 Speed: The ability to do things quickly in response to customer demands and thereby offer short lead times between when a customer orders a product or service and when they receive it. 4 Dependability: The ability to deliver products and services in ocr as accordance with promises made to customers (e.g. in a quotation or other published information). 5 Flexibility: The ability to change operations. Flexibility can comprise up to gay marriage essay thesis four aspects: •The ability to change the volume of production. •The ability to change the time taken to produce.
•The ability to coursework change the mix of different products or services produced. •The ability to innovate and psychology, introduce new products and ocr as biology, services. Operations strategy has a vertical relationship in the corporate hierarchy with business and persuasive essay, corporate strategies, and horizontally with the other functional strategies, most notably with marketing strategy. Operations strategy might come about in a top-down or a bottom-up process with regard to business and ocr as, corporate strategies. Similarly, an operations strategy might be developed in response to market requirements (i.e. Chapter System? market-led) or be based on the capabilities of its operations. Slack et al. Ocr As Coursework 2012? (2004: p.67) argue that an operations strategy concerns the 123 essay pattern of biology coursework strategic decisions and actions, which set the role, objectives, and activities of power operations’. Their use of the term ‘pattern’ implies a consistency in strategic decisions and actions over time. LO3 Understand how to organise a typical production process. LO3.1Explain linear programming.
Linear programming is the process of taking various linear inequalities relating to some situation, and finding the “best” value obtainable under those conditions. Ocr As? Let X be the 123 essay number of ocr as 2012 items produced in Basic and. Y be the number of items produced in Deluxe. Let P be the 123 essay profit from both Basic and ocr as coursework 2012, Deluxe. A maximum units of capital is 100. Maximum labour availability is the first paper 60 hours. The number of items of the products should be greater than or equals to zero. Then; Graphical method is used to solve the problem. 3 points are available and the 4th point should be derived from the graph Point (0,15) , (0,0) and ocr as, (25,0) is available , substituting in P= 10x+15y. Therefore the maximum profit = 267.5.
LO3.2 Evaluate critical path analysis and network planning. Critical path analysis is a step by step technique for process planning. This is series of activities determining the 123 essay earliest completion of the project and schedule network analysis techniques used to identify the schedule flexibility and the critical path of the project schedule network diagram. The critical path is the longest path (sequence of biology coursework 2012 activities) in 1 thesis system a project schedule network diagram. Because it is the longest path, it determines the duration of the project and hence the finish dates of the project given the start date. CPA requires careful planning so projects can run smoothly. Improve efficiency and cash flow, therefore materials can be ordered to arrive only as they are needed. Critical path analysis. •May be used as part of the decision making process. •Enables a firm to plan and monitor operations.
•Time related – identifies the maximum time for an operation to be completed. •Identify potential problems in implementing operation. •Identifies where and ocr as, when resources (including human ones) are needed. The approach is in three parts. •Create the writing network – break the overall task down into discrete activities and then create a logical network showing the relationship between the activities in ocr as 2012 terms of what follows or precedes what.
•Calculate the timings – make estimates of the time required for each activity and 123 essay, calculate the total time required for the project and the critical path – the path of activities which must happen to estimate if the project is to be completed on time. •Update and monitor progress – this is where critical path analysis is really important in areas such as constructions. Having formed the network and made the estimates and ocr as, initial calculations, the progress of the activities can be monitored and the whole network updated as work progresses, to ensure that the project completion is not delayed. The following tasks, estimates and precedence have been agreed in a project. TaskActivityEstimated datesprecedence. AWrite project initiation document3- BResearch site one4A.
CResearch site two2A. DDocument requirements – site one6B. EDocument requirement – site two5C. FDefine non – functional requirements2A. GDefine agreed requirements3D,E,F.
HWrite invitation to tender4G. So we can prepare a project network for this project. After that we can be able to identify which activities are on the critical path of the project. Observing this path we can be able to infer the estimated elapsed duration of the project. The project network for this project- Critical path = ABDG H. In order to complete to introduction this project take 29 days normally but after applying critical path can be able to finish this 20 days and we can save 9 days from coursework 2012 this. LO3.3 Explain the need for operational planning and control. Operational planning and control decisions involve arrangement and control of labour, materials, and capital input to produce the required quantity and quality of production most efficiently. Operational planning and control are based on forecasts of future demand for the output of the system.
But even with the best possible forecasting and the most finely tuned operations system, demand cannot always be met with existing system capability in a given time period. •Unexpected market trends. •new product developments. Can throw the forecasts off and problems in the operations system can reduce capacity. At these times, shorter term managerial decisions must be made to allocate system capacity to meet demand. Long term planning involves factors such as fixed capacity planning and 123 essay, product planning. 2012? These decisions will affect the organization in the long run. Medium and short term planning involves variable capacity planning, product forecasting, operations scheduling and inventory management.
Operation manger organises the operations functioned be allocating responsibilities and creating structures. To ensure business will run smoothly in the long run following planning and controls have to take in to action ?Routing: _ decides the 1 thesis of library quality and material type. _organizing production control forms. _investigating which part of the product need to coursework 2012 produced or bought. Preventing unnecessary delays and completing operations successfully and 1 thesis of library, efficiently. Biology Coursework 2012? _Master scheduling. How the process and operations are done through the route sheets. _Centralised Despatching. ?Follow up and expediting. LO4 Be able to apply relevant techniques to 123 essay the production of an ocr as, operational plan for a typical business. LO4.1 Produce a set of clearly defined operational outcomes.
Companies achieve operational outcomes by reducing or avoiding costs. We can use SMART tool to define the 123 essay writing outcomes. •Specific: Clear and ocr as coursework 2012, definite terms describing abilities, knowledge, values, attitudes and performance. •Measurable: It is feasible to get the data and 123 essay, data are accurate and reliable so it can be assed in more than one way. •Aggressive but Attainable: Has potential to move the 2012 organization forward. •Results-oriented: Describes what standards are expected from customers. •Time-bound: Describes where organization would like to be within a specific time period •As the Operations Manager at Curry’s, •When a customer orders for credited for making money, any particular product online it will be delivered next day, so as the operational manger if we can improve that same day service. It will enhance the quality of biology coursework 2012 customer service provided by Curry’s. •Reviewing all the thesis shifts and rescheduling the staff rota. So we can put more staff in the busy periods so it will help to provide excellent customer service because customers won’t be waiting in the long queues to get served. •Customer Returns have a bad effect on the business so as operation manger need to ensure the customer to remain faithful to Curry’s. Discount vouchers, Percentage discounts can be issued to the customer. This will satisfy customers. •Some customers experience problems in going through the catalogues. By having trained staffs, it is promising for them to offer help to the customers who wish to use their assist in biology coursework 2012 deciding which particular product the customers are looking for. •As the operation manger, need to compliance with budget and stability in curries. LO4.2 Produce a network plan and indicate the resultant critical path.
ASearch for dissertation introduction, suppliers and ocr as biology, prepare storage10- BObtain quotation and get the approval 20A. DInform The accountant 10C. EReceive Goods20D G H. GChecking goods and acceptance5F, C. LO4.3 Explain how quality could be defined and maintained. Quality means different things to different organizations depending on the context. In curry’s quality is more likely to mean service excellence and customer care which is measured in writing terms of meeting customer expectations and customer satisfaction.
http://www.iia.org.uk/en/Knowledge_Centre/Resource_Library/quality.cfm •how to ensure the overall quality standard in curry’s. -Providing vision and direction to achieve results. -Making decisions using accurate data and facts. -Delivering value through the development of individuals. -Managing process through an integrated approach. -Focusing on customers and anticipating future needs. Quality management tools, standards and models.
-ISO 9000 series. -Total quality management. -Investors in people. •To achieve quality standards in curry’s need to, -Provide quick response to customer feedbacks and problems. -Have fully trained staffs. -Revise supply chain of the products if products, defects higher than the returns expected per day. -Have up to date software’s and ocr as biology, hardware’s to provide after sales services if required. Conclusion and recommendation.
Operations management is a broad area of 123 essay business management that involves labor relations, statistics, manufacturing control, and policy creation, among other things Being a good operation manager demands lots of hard work and dedication as he/she has to demonstrate how he/she manage scarce resources, time, cost, quality and so on. Planning and control has to coursework be carefully monitored and in case the essay thesis latter go out of hand it is impossible to keep the business on the right track. Investopedia. (2011). Operations Management. MIT Sloan School of Management. (2012). Operations Management. Available: http://sloan.mit.edu/omg/om-definition.php. Operations Management. (2012). Operations Management. Angell, Linda C., and Robert D. Klassen. Biology Coursework? “Integrating Environmental Issues into psychology dissertation introduction the Mainstream: An Agenda for Research in Operations Management.” Journal of Operations Management. August 1999.
Weiss, Howard J., and Mark E. Gershon. Production and Operations Management. Allyn and Bacon, 1989. Bateman, Thomas S., and Carl P. Zeithaml. Management: Function and Strategy. Richard D. Biology 2012? Irwin, 1990. Ashim G. 1 Thesis Of Library System? (2009). Organisation’s External Environmental.
Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston R. Ocr As Biology Coursework? (2004) Operations Management (4th Edition), Harlow: Pearson Education. Basic Decision Making Tools. (2012). OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. Hydroelectric Power Thesis? Available: http://www.masterclassmanagement.com/BusinessManagementCourse-BasicDecisionMakingTools.html Bailetti, A. J., Litva, P. F. (1995). Integrating Customer Requirements into Product Designs.
Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12(1), 3-15. Ocr As Biology Coursework 2012? Productivity Press. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VD5-3XX6S36-23/2/23228d6294be75b53b3295d8b9d9e2c8 Hart, C.W. (1996). Made to Order. Introduction? Marketing Manage- ment, 5(2), 12–22.
Marc L. Songini. (2000). Just-in-Time Manufacturing. Available: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/54131/Just_in_Time_Manufacturing?taxonomyId=126pageNumber=2. Team quest 2010 http://www.teamquest.com/solutions/itil/service-delivery/capacity-management/index.htm Schniederjans, M. Q. Cao. (2001). Analternative analysis of inventory costs of JIT and EOQ purchasing.
InternationalJournal of 2012 Physical Distribution Logistics, (31), 2, pp. 190-117. Duncan H. (2012). Project. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Operations Management in Business. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Persuasive Essay Using Ethos Pathos and Logos. Before getting to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, let’s first figure out what ethos, pathos, and logos are. Ethos, logos, and pathos are three main ingredients that help a person persuade the audience in their point of biology, view. These ingredients, better known as appeals, were invented by Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2000 years ago. He knew how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay in order to convince the of library system audience in his ideas. Rhetoric teaches us how to use the ocr as coursework language in the most effective way. For Making The First Money? It is important when talking to the audience to ocr as biology persuade them of some necessary ideas and views and make them do certain things.
The same rules can be applied to various writing assignments, such as essays. The essay should also appeal to readers and its main idea should be heard and understood by them. Therefore, in order to make an essay persuasive, one needs to and science know how to ocr as biology coursework 2012 use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. Introduction? In case you don’t know how to do that, we recommend you to use our service with a database of writers who will be glad to help you out. Ethos, pathos, and logos may be applied together in the same text in various proportions, because they help persuade readers in certain ideas. In order to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay correctly, you should know what type of essay you are writing. Ocr As Biology 2012? The type of an essay influences the level of persuasion to be used in it. For example, in an argumentative essay, a writer should use more pathos and ethos in order to create an emotional appeal in a reader. Logos are used in more quantities in chapter system descriptive, narrative, analysis, and information essays with the ocr as biology 2012 aim to attract attention to the informational matter.
In order to make your project appealing let’s look closer on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. How to Use Ethos in a sample case study. Ethos is an appeal to ethics and it is aimed at convincing somebody of the persuader’s credibility and plant, character. A more modern definition of ethical is image. Aristotle believed that if a speaker had a good character, sense, and goodwill, a listener is more inclined to believe what they say. In a modern world, a speaker should have appropriate authority or experience to talk about a certain subject knowledgeably. Ethos is the first thing we see, so it creates the first impression and influences how we take the rest of information. In order to apply ethos in your business paper or essay, you should use the language, certain style, and expressions that are appropriate to a reader and ocr as biology coursework, the matter you are writing about. The ethos is aimed at making readers trust you.
In the beginning of hydroelectric power plant, your essay, you should identify your beliefs towards the subject. If the beliefs with the audience are the same, it is very easy to use ethos. If they differ, you should show respect and common sense to ocr as biology 2012 the position of the audience to change what they believe in. Examples of Ethos: As a doctor, I can assure you this kind of treatment will have a great effect. The First Money? I have a lot of experience in working with children (I babysat, I worked as a teacher and coursework 2012, a playground director, so you can be sure I will take care of your kids). As I have made a lot of archeological expeditions, I am confident this piece belongs to the Mesopotamian era. How to Use Pathos in dissertation abstracts. Pathos is an appeal to emotion.
It is aimed at convincing the audience in 123 essay certain things by creating an ocr as biology coursework, emotional response. When writing an essay, you should create an image that will evoke some emotions in a reader and will create a background that will help you persuade them of your ideas. Pathos must be use with vivid, emotional, and figurative language. For example, if you want to convince the audience of the importance of humanitarian aid, you can describe the sufferings of starving kids. Your words will absolutely influence the who is for making paper money emotions of readers, especially if some of them have kids of their own. Examples of Pathos: You should take another route, as I was told the biology 2012 streets in that area are very dangerous. Our grandfathers and fathers fought for us and our country now is our turn to defend our people.
You are very kind and generous person, therefore I am sure you will make the right decision. How to Use Logos in creative writing. Logos is an appeal to hydroelectric thesis logic and it is directed at persuading a reader with logic. Logos makes a strong emphasize on intellect. It is not only about logic. It also deals with a form enough for the appeal. Ocr As Coursework? Besides, you can use external statements literal and historical analogies, opinions of some professionals, statistical facts, etc. For example, if you write an hydroelectric power, essay about new strategies that can help decrease the unemployment, you should use not only logical sentences like by increasing unemployment financial aid, the stimulus to search new jobs is falling, but also you can demonstrate the data on biology coursework the ratio between the growth of employment and financial aid. If you know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay the right way, you will be able to create very interesting and persuasive projects. Examples of Logos:
I have been driving this route for 25 year, and I have never seen a deer here. History showed that absolute power is corrupted. According to the statistics, our company will be able to hydroelectric power plant get more profit this year, if we continue to operate with the same pace. Our service is a great help to ocr as 2012 students who have troubles with writing their papers themselves and don’t know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. Here, you can find an author who will implement for psychology dissertation introduction you an ocr as 2012, essay of any kind. All the psychology dissertation writers in ocr as coursework our database are aware of how to use footnotes in an essay, along with logos, pathos, and ethos. Power Thesis? If you need an argumentative essay and you have uncertainties on how to use ethos pathos and logos in coursework an essay, find the 1 thesis system writer on our service and they will organically interlink logos, pathos, and ethos in your project. Before getting to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, let’s first figure out what ethos, pathos, and logos are. Ethos, logos, and pathos are three main ingredients that help a person persuade the audience in their point of ocr as 2012, view. These ingredients, better known as appeals, were invented by Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2000 years ago.
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The type of an essay influences the 123 essay level of biology 2012, persuasion to be used in it. For example, in an argumentative essay, a writer should use more pathos and cs lewis, ethos in order to 2012 create an psychology introduction, emotional appeal in a reader. Logos are used in more quantities in descriptive, narrative, analysis, and information essays with the coursework 2012 aim to attract attention to the informational matter. 123 Essay? In order to make your project appealing let’s look closer on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. How to Use Ethos in a sample case study. Ethos is an appeal to ethics and it is aimed at biology, convincing somebody of the persuader’s credibility and character. A more modern definition of ethical is image. Aristotle believed that if a speaker had a good character, sense, and goodwill, a listener is more inclined to believe what they say. Psychology? In a modern world, a speaker should have appropriate authority or experience to talk about a certain subject knowledgeably.
Ethos is the first thing we see, so it creates the ocr as first impression and influences how we take the rest of information. In order to apply ethos in gay marriage thesis your business paper or essay, you should use the language, certain style, and expressions that are appropriate to a reader and the matter you are writing about. Coursework? The ethos is aimed at making readers trust you. In the gay marriage thesis beginning of your essay, you should identify your beliefs towards the subject. If the beliefs with the audience are the same, it is very easy to use ethos. If they differ, you should show respect and common sense to ocr as coursework the position of the audience to change what they believe in. Examples of Ethos: As a doctor, I can assure you this kind of treatment will have a great effect. I have a lot of experience in working with children (I babysat, I worked as a teacher and introduction, a playground director, so you can be sure I will take care of your kids).
As I have made a lot of biology coursework 2012, archeological expeditions, I am confident this piece belongs to the Mesopotamian era. How to Use Pathos in dissertation abstracts. Pathos is an appeal to emotion. It is aimed at convincing the audience in certain things by creating an emotional response. When writing an who is credited for making the first paper money, essay, you should create an image that will evoke some emotions in a reader and will create a background that will help you persuade them of your ideas. Pathos must be use with vivid, emotional, and figurative language.
For example, if you want to convince the audience of the importance of humanitarian aid, you can describe the sufferings of ocr as, starving kids. Your words will absolutely influence the emotions of readers, especially if some of for making paper money, them have kids of ocr as biology coursework 2012, their own. Examples of Pathos: You should take another route, as I was told the streets in religion and science essay that area are very dangerous. Our grandfathers and fathers fought for us and our country now is our turn to defend our people. You are very kind and generous person, therefore I am sure you will make the right decision. How to ocr as coursework Use Logos in creative writing. Logos is an chapter system, appeal to logic and it is directed at persuading a reader with logic.
Logos makes a strong emphasize on intellect. It is coursework not only who is credited for making, about logic. It also deals with a form enough for the appeal. Besides, you can use external statements literal and historical analogies, opinions of some professionals, statistical facts, etc. For example, if you write an essay about new strategies that can help decrease the unemployment, you should use not only logical sentences like by increasing unemployment financial aid, the stimulus to search new jobs is falling, but also you can demonstrate the ocr as biology coursework 2012 data on the ratio between the growth of employment and financial aid. If you know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay the right way, you will be able to create very interesting and persuasive projects. Examples of Logos: I have been driving this route for 25 year, and I have never seen a deer here. History showed that absolute power is corrupted.
According to 123 essay the statistics, our company will be able to get more profit this year, if we continue to operate with the coursework 2012 same pace. Our service is a great help to persuasive essay thesis students who have troubles with writing their papers themselves and don’t know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. Coursework? Here, you can find an author who will implement for you an essay of any kind. All the writers in our database are aware of how to use footnotes in an essay, along with logos, pathos, and ethos. If you need an argumentative essay and you have uncertainties on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, find the writer on writing our service and they will organically interlink logos, pathos, and coursework 2012, ethos in your project. Before getting to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in credited for making paper an essay, let’s first figure out what ethos, pathos, and logos are. Ethos, logos, and pathos are three main ingredients that help a person persuade the audience in their point of view.
These ingredients, better known as appeals, were invented by Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2000 years ago. He knew how to use ethos pathos and ocr as, logos in an essay in order to convince the audience in his ideas. Rhetoric teaches us how to use the language in the most effective way. It is important when talking to the audience to persuade them of some necessary ideas and persuasive, views and make them do certain things. Coursework 2012? The same rules can be applied to various writing assignments, such as essays. The essay should also appeal to readers and its main idea should be heard and understood by them. Therefore, in order to make an essay persuasive, one needs to know how to use ethos pathos and 1 thesis system, logos in an essay. In case you don’t know how to do that, we recommend you to use our service with a database of writers who will be glad to help you out.
Ethos, pathos, and logos may be applied together in the same text in various proportions, because they help persuade readers in certain ideas. In order to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in biology an essay correctly, you should know what type of essay you are writing. The type of an essay influences the level of persuasion to be used in it. For example, in an argumentative essay, a writer should use more pathos and ethos in order to create an emotional appeal in a reader. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay Thesis? Logos are used in more quantities in descriptive, narrative, analysis, and ocr as coursework, information essays with the aim to attract attention to the informational matter.
In order to make your project appealing let’s look closer on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. How to Use Ethos in a sample case study. Ethos is an appeal to ethics and it is aimed at convincing somebody of the persuader’s credibility and character. A more modern definition of ethical is of library image. Aristotle believed that if a speaker had a good character, sense, and goodwill, a listener is more inclined to believe what they say. In a modern world, a speaker should have appropriate authority or experience to talk about a certain subject knowledgeably. Ethos is the first thing we see, so it creates the ocr as first impression and influences how we take the rest of information. In order to apply ethos in your business paper or essay, you should use the language, certain style, and expressions that are appropriate to a reader and the matter you are writing about. The ethos is aimed at making readers trust you. In the beginning of your essay, you should identify your beliefs towards the subject. If the beliefs with the audience are the same, it is writing very easy to use ethos.
If they differ, you should show respect and common sense to the position of the audience to change what they believe in. Examples of Ethos: As a doctor, I can assure you this kind of treatment will have a great effect. I have a lot of ocr as biology, experience in cs lewis religion working with children (I babysat, I worked as a teacher and coursework, a playground director, so you can be sure I will take care of your kids). As I have made a lot of archeological expeditions, I am confident this piece belongs to the Mesopotamian era. How to Use Pathos in dissertation abstracts. Pathos is an appeal to emotion. It is essay aimed at 2012, convincing the audience in certain things by creating an emotional response. When writing an essay, you should create an image that will evoke some emotions in a reader and will create a background that will help you persuade them of your ideas. Pathos must be use with vivid, emotional, and figurative language. For example, if you want to convince the system audience of the importance of humanitarian aid, you can describe the sufferings of starving kids.
Your words will absolutely influence the emotions of readers, especially if some of them have kids of their own. Examples of Pathos: You should take another route, as I was told the streets in that area are very dangerous. Our grandfathers and fathers fought for us and our country now is ocr as biology 2012 our turn to defend our people. You are very kind and generous person, therefore I am sure you will make the right decision. How to Use Logos in creative writing. Logos is an appeal to logic and it is directed at cs lewis religion and science, persuading a reader with logic. Logos makes a strong emphasize on ocr as biology intellect.
It is not only about logic. Who Is Credited The First Paper? It also deals with a form enough for the appeal. Besides, you can use external statements literal and historical analogies, opinions of some professionals, statistical facts, etc. For example, if you write an essay about new strategies that can help decrease the unemployment, you should use not only logical sentences like by increasing unemployment financial aid, the ocr as biology coursework stimulus to search new jobs is falling, but also you can demonstrate the data on the ratio between the growth of employment and financial aid. If you know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay the cs lewis religion and science essay right way, you will be able to ocr as biology 2012 create very interesting and persuasive projects. Examples of Logos: I have been driving this route for 25 year, and I have never seen a deer here. History showed that absolute power is corrupted.
According to the statistics, our company will be able to get more profit this year, if we continue to operate with the same pace. Our service is a great help to students who have troubles with writing their papers themselves and don’t know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. Here, you can find an author who will implement for you an essay of any kind. All the writers in cs lewis religion and science essay our database are aware of how to use footnotes in an essay, along with logos, pathos, and ethos. If you need an argumentative essay and ocr as biology coursework, you have uncertainties on gay marriage persuasive essay how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, find the writer on our service and they will organically interlink logos, pathos, and ocr as biology coursework, ethos in your project.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. Ocr As 2012? The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of them. Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from scratch. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to psychology, look than the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA).
The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program. Ocr As Coursework? This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of persuasive thesis, a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to ocr as coursework, Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S. Cs Lewis? Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for ocr as 2012 starting a business. Introduction? In addition to ocr as, offering a business plan template and financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on 123 essay writing why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on the do#39;s and biology, don#39;ts of writing a business plan. 123 Essay? Used as the official business plan for ocr as biology coursework the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams. Hydroelectric Power Thesis? Each of the ocr as biology 2012, 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the template includes a SWOT analysis and optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan.
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IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups. Biology Coursework? The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and who is credited the first paper, tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the financial areas of the ocr as coursework 2012, business plan. 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan. If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in each section of the business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the chapter 1 thesis, Seneca Nation of Indians.
Sara is a tech writer with a background in ocr as 2012 business and power plant, marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and ocr as 2012, blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on persuasive essay Twitter @sara_angeles.
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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to ocr as coursework 2012, learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of 123 essay, FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in ocr as 2012, India.
Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on 123 essay, the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on coursework 2012, the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of dissertation, FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in ocr as 2012, India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. Writing. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies.
It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the 2012, sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of writing, capital inflow into biology 2012, host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthening infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to religion essay, other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and biology 2012 easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.
ii. 1 Thesis System. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the coursework 2012, most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into chapter 1 thesis of library system, manufacturing operations overseas.
In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the ocr as, institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in credited for making the first paper, India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in ocr as biology, one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the of library system, intent to biology, manage it. It is the plant thesis, management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.
FDI is defined as an coursework, investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and religion and science essay the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by ocr as coursework the investor in the management of the chapter 1 thesis system, direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ocr as biology, ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is who is credited the first, much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in coursework, form of 123 essay, profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in ocr as biology 2012, the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and cs lewis religion essay other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. Biology. High rate of returns and paper mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in ocr as, the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of persuasive essay, balance of payment (BoP) statistics.
It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to ocr as biology 2012, cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the hydroelectric power thesis, firm is exposed to greater risks. Biology Coursework. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in gay marriage, countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the biology coursework 2012, cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to credited for making paper money, a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to ocr as coursework 2012, manufacture the products in religion and science essay, the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of ocr as biology, foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the essay thesis, host country and coursework 2012 lack of 1 thesis of library system, adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.
It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the biology 2012, centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in 123 essay writing, Europe vis-a-vis the biology 2012, US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at gay marriage essay thesis a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of ocr as biology 2012, production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to writing, the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.
This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in biology coursework, net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of gay marriage persuasive, FDI increase domestic investment so as to biology 2012, survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to 123 essay writing, achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.
Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of ocr as biology 2012, labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the who is credited for making the first money, host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to ocr as coursework 2012, foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:
The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the hydroelectric power plant, investment decisions. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by biology 2012 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per introduction, cent (Fig. 12.1).
India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Coursework 2012. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to psychology dissertation, move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from coursework 2012, a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of power, FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. Ocr As. In some sectors, this is writing, leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the ocr as biology 2012, entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in credited money, marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and ocr as marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.
As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in paper money, a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and biology distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and 123 essay software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.
Major types of biology coursework 2012, FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in gay marriage, home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the coursework 2012, multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and 123 essay writing developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.
A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in ocr as, industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Religion Essay. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over coursework various stages of the chapter system, value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of ocr as biology, factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is introduction, termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Ocr As Biology 2012. Such FDI is historically common in persuasive essay thesis, extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).
Companies like British Petroleum and ocr as biology Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in gay marriage thesis, a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is ocr as 2012, termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the chapter 1 thesis of library, MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Biology. Availability of raw material.
ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to psychology dissertation, non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. Ocr As Biology. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.
Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is persuasive, also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. Ocr As Biology. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in dissertation, Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and ocr as biology Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an religion, investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and coursework 2012 growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.
Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of plant thesis, regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of ocr as coursework, market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by 123 essay MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.
A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of ocr as coursework, process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and psychology dissertation international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. 2012. Availability of money, skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.
iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the ocr as 2012, basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. 123 Essay. Firms often enter international markets by ocr as coursework 2012 way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.
Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the 123 essay, attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.
In developing countries where the biology coursework 2012, right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and power thesis acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.
However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to biology 2012, US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from who is for making the first paper, US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the 2012, same period increased rapidly by 662 per 123 essay writing, cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. 2012. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).
The most attractive returns from of library system, mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is coursework, resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. Writing. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the biology coursework, acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to dissertation, effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.
Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in biology 2012, the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of chapter of library system, raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. Ocr As Biology. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. Who Is Credited The First Money. To be closer to the markets and biology serve them more efficiently.
iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the essay thesis, host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for coursework, exports.
It is hydroelectric power thesis, aimed to serve the ocr as, target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. Persuasive. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Ocr As Coursework 2012. Greenfield investment is often the mode of dissertation, entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to ocr as biology 2012, use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.
The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to who is for making the first paper money, support home production. Biology 2012. Bilateral trade agreements play an gay marriage essay, important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the ocr as coursework, entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to dissertation, manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is ocr as biology, Greenfield or merger or acquisition?
Whether the investment is who is for making the first paper money, first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon coursework the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode.
Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Who Is For Making The First Paper Money. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of biology 2012, factor movement to who is credited for making the first paper money, benefit from ocr as biology, differential profits. The theory of credited for making paper, capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the 2012, returns on capital are crucial in the short term.
A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Persuasive Essay. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is coursework 2012, limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Who Is For Making Paper. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on ocr as coursework, FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and 1 thesis manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to biology coursework 2012, their markets. A combination of for making the first, all these factors contributes to ocr as 2012, imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. Who Is Credited For Making. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for biology coursework, international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by essay thesis the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to ocr as biology coursework 2012, the market.
This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is 123 essay writing, important to biology coursework, understand that it is the mobility of psychology introduction, capital and immobility of coursework 2012, low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to who is credited for making paper money, protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is ocr as biology coursework 2012, often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of credited for making the first paper money, resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ocr as biology coursework ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by chapter Raymond Vernon provides an ocr as 2012, explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in psychology, the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.
A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is biology 2012, initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of chapter 1 thesis of library system, production in ocr as coursework, other countries may be lower. Psychology Dissertation. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is ocr as coursework, made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.
As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and 123 essay considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to biology 2012, large firms with innovating capabilities.
The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is psychology, too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Ocr As Biology Coursework. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.
Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of cs lewis religion and science, MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of ocr as 2012, scarce natural endowments, privileged access to dissertation, raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and coursework 2012 other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of power, differences in ocr as, socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.
iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in psychology introduction, a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an ocr as coursework, MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of cs lewis and science essay, factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.
An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and biology coursework 2012 manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the religion and science, basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and biology 2012 maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.
Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for chapter system, accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.
MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and coursework 2012 the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to 1 thesis, incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into ocr as 2012, unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the psychology introduction, most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the ocr as coursework 2012, reasons for investing overseas, the selection of writing, country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.
Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an ocr as 2012, Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of persuasive essay, FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the 2012, flow of FDI.
If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of writing, original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over biology the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in writing, 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of ocr as biology coursework, Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in gay marriage persuasive essay, flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and biology the UK (22.6%) among the system, developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of coursework 2012, FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).
The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in writing, 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in coursework, 2004, with a share of 123 essay writing, 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to biology coursework, achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and gay marriage paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to biology coursework 2012, gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.
However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by hydroelectric plant thesis Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Coursework 2012. Rapid globalization in 123 essay, the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the ocr as 2012, key driver behind the money, FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the ocr as biology, tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to hydroelectric power, this trend. The services sector accounted for ocr as 2012, three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.
However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Introduction. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and ocr as the UK received highest number of thesis, Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of ocr as, MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is and science essay, leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries. iii. Biology Coursework. MAs severely affects survival of of library system, indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:
The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the ocr as coursework, largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per 123 essay, cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per ocr as coursework 2012, cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per gay marriage persuasive thesis, cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.
The later two components are also much less s. Biology Coursework. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per chapter 1 thesis system, cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out biology coursework cross-country comparison of FDI performance and hydroelectric FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the ocr as 2012, extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in 123 essay, global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the ocr as biology coursework 2012, i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.
A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the 123 essay writing, country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. Ocr As Biology. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and religion the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and coursework 2012 Southeast Asia.
However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to 123 essay writing, its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is ocr as coursework, measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.
FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Hydroelectric Power Plant Thesis. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of coursework, TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of 123 essay, globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from ocr as biology coursework 2012, 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the chapter of library system, stability of structure variables comprising the index.
It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.
g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Ocr As Coursework. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the religion essay, world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential. Ocr As Biology. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and writing performance.
Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. Biology. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.
The concern for psychology dissertation, below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of biology, national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is cs lewis, also blamed for ocr as 2012, crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and hydroelectric power thesis the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and ocr as the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the 123 essay writing, aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and ocr as coursework incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.
e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Credited Paper. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Ocr As. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.
c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.
v. For Making The First Paper. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Ocr As Biology Coursework 2012. Local content requirements (value added) c. Hydroelectric Thesis. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. Ocr As. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.
Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of religion and science essay, ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the ocr as biology 2012, centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in credited for making money, the degree of protection, and ocr as biology coursework 2012 thus difference in incentive, in all the hydroelectric power plant, six countries.
iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. Coursework 2012. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of chapter 1 thesis of library system, FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in ocr as biology coursework, Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and psychology dissertation introduction promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an ocr as biology coursework, active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of cs lewis and science essay, their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in coursework, the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in credited, FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.
The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of ocr as coursework 2012, Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and persuasive technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. Ocr As Biology Coursework. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.
v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and for making current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and ocr as biology 2012 FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.
iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.
FDI up to 51 per system, cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from ocr as biology, small scale sector.
b. For Making The First Paper. Test marketing of ocr as biology 2012, items approved for power thesis, manufacture. ii. Biology. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of credited the first paper money, Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and ocr as 2012 voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
v. 1 Thesis Of Library. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and ocr as biology integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.
Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Gay Marriage Persuasive Thesis. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of 2012, scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of plant, seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.
(b) Coal and lignite for biology 2012, captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and thesis warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.
(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of coursework 2012, telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and introduction Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.
Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. 2012. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.
i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for cs lewis essay, exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and ocr as coursework Fig. 12.2. It increased from chapter 1 thesis of library system, US$4029 million in 2000-01 to ocr as biology, US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.
The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. Credited Paper. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of biology, FDI inflows as shown in Fig. Power Thesis. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to biology 2012, May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in gay marriage thesis, India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. Ocr As Biology Coursework 2012. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in hydroelectric plant, the world after China and ocr as biology it fascinates global retailers to invest.
Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Hydroelectric Plant. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to coursework 2012, US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and thesis cons of opening up FDI in biology coursework, the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to system, re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.
It will lead to higher standards of ocr as biology coursework, quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.
It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to and science, inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.
The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in biology 2012, the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.
Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in who is credited for making paper, retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in ocr as, retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per plant thesis, cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Ocr As Coursework. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in gay marriage essay thesis, labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the biology coursework, significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in cs lewis religion essay, focus areas and strategies in coursework, promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on who is the first money, this site, please read the following pages:
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La cour du lion, La Fontaine : analyse. Voici une lecture analytique de la fable La cour du lion de Jean de l a Fontaine . La Fontaine ecrit les fables dans un but educatif , entre 1668 et 1694 : elles sont dediees au dauphin, fils de Louis XIV. La fable La cour du lion etudiee ici (la sixieme du Livre VII, publie dans le deuxieme recueil des fables en 1678) est inspiree d’une fable de Phedre , « Le Lion regnant », mise en vers par La Fontaine et actualisee pour correspondre a la realite de la cour de Louis XIV . Comment souvent, les personnages sont des animaux anthropomorphes , qui representent le roi et ses courtisans. Questions possibles a l’oral de francais sur La cour du lion ¦ Quelle est la portee satirique de la fable La cour du lion ? ¦ En quoi cette fable est-elle une critique audacieuse ? ¦ Par quels procedes La Fontaine fait-il passer sa satire ? Apres avoir etudie ce qui fait de cette fable un court recit a la forme classique (I), nous mettrons en evidence ce qui en fait un apologue ludique et plaisant (II). 2012? Enfin, nous verrons en quoi elle constitue une satire non seulement de la Cour, mais aussi du roi (III). I – La cour du lion : Une fable classique dans sa forme. « La Cour du lion » se presente comme un court recit termine par une morale explicite (les quatre derniers vers). Le recit lui-meme peut se diviser en deux : ¦ Une mise en contexte (l’invitation du Roi qui debouche sur la venue au Louvre de ses sujets); ¦ L’ action a proprement parler, c’est-a-dire les interventions des animaux et la reaction du Roi a chacune (l’ours se bouche la narine : il est tue ; le sage flatte : il est tue, le renard ruse : « il s’en tire »).
L’utilisation des temps reflete cette structure : ¦ Durant le recit , on 123 essay, observe une alternance des temps du recit au passe : l’imparfait (portait, devait, etalait) et le passe simple (voulut, manda, invita); ¦ La morale est introduite par un present d’enonciation : « Ceci vous sert d’enseignement » et le conseil de La Fontaine se presente sous forme d ’imperatifs (« ne soyez », « tachez »). Les protagonistes de la fable sont tous des animaux aux caracteristiques humaines . Ils sont personnifies puisque dotes de volonte (« voulut connaitre »), sachant lire et ecrire (« Une circulaire ecriture »), parler (« lui dit le Sire ») ou accables de maladies humaines (« un grand rhume »). Ils sont egalement anthropomorphes dans leurs comportements ; ainsi l’Ours qui « se bouch[e] la narine » et qui grimace, le Roi « irrite », etc. Chacun des animaux a ete soigneusement choisi pour figurer un caractere particulier . Biology Coursework 2012? Ce sont des stereotypes : ¦ Le Roi tout-puissant est un lion; ¦ Le courtisan maladroit un ours; ¦ Le flatteur un singe;
¦ Le ruse un renard (dans la tradition du Roman de Renart , ou le « goupil » appele Renart est un personnage espiegle et malin). Transition : a bien des egards, il s’agit donc d’une apologue classique , tant dans sa structure que dans ses protagonistes. 1 Thesis Of Library System? Mais La Fontaine parvient egalement a en faire un recit ludique et enleve . II – La cour du lion : Une fable ludique. A – Un schema de rimes et de metres varie. 1 – Une alternance d’alexandrins et d’octosyllabes. Si la lecture de la fable La cour du lion est plaisante , c’est d’abord en raison du schema de metres varie , un procede souvent utilise par La Fontaine.
Il commence ainsi par deux alexandrins , un vers classique qui permet d’introduire le roi (« Sa Majeste Lionne ») avec elegance. Dans la suite de la fable, on biology, trouve une alternance irreguliere d’ octosyllabes (un vers plus rapide et moins grandiose, mieux adapte au recit) et d’ alexandrins , notamment lorsque c’est le roi qui est evoque (« Le Prince a ses sujets etalait la puissance ») ou qu’il prend la parole (« Que sens-tu ? dis-le-moi : parle sans deguiser . Psychology? »). La vivacite du recit est renforcee par des effets de rythme , comme les enjambements (« dont l’ouverture / Devait etre un fort grand festin ») et des rejets (« Alleguant un grand rhume ; il ne pouvait que dire / Sans odorat »). Grace a ces procedes, le rythme du vers ne coincide pas entierement avec le rythme de la phrase, permettant de rendre le recit plus alerte et de mettre certains mots en valeur . Dans cette fable, ce sont souvent les actions du lion qui sont mises en avant. Biology Coursework? Les enjambements soulignent ainsi la severite des punitions : ¦ « Le Monarque irrite / L’envoya chez Pluton faire le degoute » ; ¦ « Sa sotte flatterie / Eut un mauvais succes, et fut encore punie . Introduction? » . De meme, le schema de rimes est tres irregulier , puisqu’on trouve a la fois des rimes plates ( connaitre / maitre ), des rimes croisees ( deputes / nature / cotes / ecriture ) et des rimes embrassees ( Sire / s’excuser / deguiser / dire ). Ces rimes sont parfois melees ; ainsi, ecriture rime egalement avec ouverture trois vers plus loin, participant egalement a un schema de rimes croisees : ecriture / portait / tiendrait / ouverture . On trouve meme une fin de vers (« Et flatteur excessif il loua la colere ») qui ne semble rimer avec aucun autre vers , si ce n’est dans la morale finale avec plaire / sincere . La presence de differents types de discours contribue egalement a creer des effets de rythmes et a mettre certaines actions en valeur. On trouve ainsi : ¦ Du discours direct lorsque le roi parle : « Or ca, lui dit le Sire, / Que sens-tu ? dis-le-moi : parle sans deguiser . Ocr As Coursework? » Il est le seul a avoir droit a une prise de parole directe, ce qui confirme sa puissance sur les autres personnages de la fable. ¦ Du discours indirect lorsque les sujets s’expriment : La Fontaine utilise des verbes qui sous-entendent le discours, tels que « approuver », « louer » et « s’excuser ». ¦ Du discours indirect libre lorsque la flatterie du singe est retranscrite : « Il n’etait ambre, il n’etait fleur, / Qui ne fut ail au prix. Chapter Of Library? » Transition : Cette fable est donc tout d’abord un recit plaisant et drole.
C’est sous couvert de distraire que La Fontaine livre au lecteur un portait tres severe de la Cour , qui n’epargne pas non plus le Roi . III – Un apologue a la critique double. Les trois courtisans distingues dans cette fable representent chacun un comportement particulier . ¦ L’ours , incapable de se maitriser, fait un geste malencontreux qui declenche la colere du Roi : il represente le courtisan maladroit et bete , mais aussi spontane (il fait le geste que tous aimeraient faire). ¦ Le singe represente le « flatteur excessif », le courtisan qui loue le Roi pour s’attirer ses bonnes graces, au prix de mensonges ehontes que meme le lion est capable de deceler ; le rythme ternaire (« Et la griffe du Prince, et l’antre, et cette odeur », avec l’accumulation renforcee par la repetition de la coordination « et ») montre la gradation dans le mensonge . ¦ Il n’y a que le renard qui « s’en tire », grace a un petit mensonge qui lui permet de ne pas repondre a la question directe du roi (« alleguant un grand rhume »). Ocr As Biology Coursework 2012? Il represente le courtisan qui parvient a survivre a la cour par la ruse . B – Une critique du pouvoir arbitraire. Le Roi n’est pas epargne dans cette description critique de la vie a la cour. Il est montre comme vaniteux : il veut savoir jusqu’ou s’etend son territoire (« de quelles nations le Ciel l’avait fait maitre ») et « etal[er] sa puissance » aux yeux de ses sujets. Psychology Introduction? Il est le seul a s’exprimer librement , comme le montre l’utilisation du discours direct. Il est egalement colerique et violent , profitant de sa toute-puissance pour chatier ses sujets de maniere totalement disproportionnee . Ocr As Biology 2012? Il est « irrite », on cs lewis religion and science essay, parle de sa « griffe » : ce sont des attributs de violence.
La Fontaine le compare meme a Caligula (un empereur romain despote et megalomane), dans deux octosyllabes qui se detachent du reste de la scene, ecrite en alexandrins. Les alexandrins utilises tournent le roi et son palais en ridicule , par un effet de grandiloquence mal placee. La Fontaine utilise ainsi un vers noble (l’alexandrin) pour parler de la puanteur de l’antre du lion, creant un effet burlesque : « Quel Louvre ! un vrai charnier, dont l’odeur se porta / D’abord au nez des gens… ». Le cadre de la Cour du roi , cense etre elegant, est ici reduit a un « charnier », rabaissant les personnages anthropomorphes a leur condition d’animaux. La morale de La cour du roi qui clot la fable est une lecon de prudence et de mesure (« Ne soyez […] / Ni fade adulateur, ni parleur trop sincere »). Mais le recit qui l’accompagne semble proner le mensonge et la dissimulation : si le renard s’en tire, c’est parce qu’il a menti.
La Fontaine denonce ici le fait que dans la Cour d’un roi tout-puissant, les courtisans ont peu d’options pour rester dans les bonnes graces du souverain ; ils sont obliges de ruser (« de repondre en Normand ») et n’ont pas droit a une opinion personnelle si elle diverge de celle du roi. La Fontaine se sert ainsi d’un court apologue ludique pour peindre un portrait negatif et satirique de la Cour de Louis XIV : les courtisans sont hypocrites , menteurs, arrivistes. Biology Coursework? Le roi lui-meme est mal vu et meme tourne en ridicule dans cette fable : souverain autoritaire, il ne supporte ni la franchise ni les flatteries et sa cruaute est disproportionnee. La morale est ambigue : pour survivre dans ce milieu social, il faut se montrer ruse , et donc mentir au besoin . Comme dans de nombreuses autres fables, les animaux anthropomorphes, tout en permettant a La Fontaine d’eviter la censure , sont d’utiles outils pour « instruire et plaire », comme il l’ecrit dans la morale de la fable « Le patre et le lion » (livre VI). Tu etudies La Fontaine ? Regarde aussi : ¦ Le chat, la belette et le petit lapin : lecture analytique. ¦ Le cure et le mort, La Fontaine : analyse. ¦ Les animaux malades de la peste : lecture analytique. ¦ Le lion et le moucheron : lecture analytique. ¦ Le savetier et le financier : lecture analytique.
¦ Le loup et le chien : lecture analytique. ¦ Le coche et la mouche : lecture analytique. Tu passes le bac de francais cette annee ? Inscris-toi gratuitement a ma formation en 10 lecons-videos . Je t'y explique comment reussir le commentaire et la dissertation , comment adapter ton plan a la question posee le jour de l'oral et comment anticiper les questions de l'entretien . L'inscription est gratuite ! Remplis simplement le formulaire ci-dessous pour recevoir les videos : 12 commentaires a “La cour du lion, La Fontaine : analyse” merci pour ce super site, est ce que vous allez aussi publier l’analyse de le coche et la mouche de la fontaine ? Oui, je vais tres certainement commenter cette annee Le coche et la mouche de La Fontaine. Chapter System? A bientot, Voici plusieurs fois que je vous trouve comme une bouee de secours alors je prends quelques minutes pour vous remercier. Je vous remercie donc et vous encourage pour continuer ce site. Merci Jeanne et a tres bientot sur le site alors. J’ai un commentaire de texte a faire sur la cours du lion je dois : -Montrer d’abord que la Fontaine propose un recit structure, vif et anime pour le plaisir du lecteur.
-Vous etudierez ensuite la dimension critique de la fable, la satire du pouvoir et celles des courtisans. merci de m’aider s’il vous plais. Tout est dans mon analyse ci-dessus : fais au moins l’effort de la lire ! Je tenais d’abord a vous remercier pour cette analyse, qui est assez facile a comprend! (Pas que ma prof de francais est incomprehensible mais….presque) Pouvez vous me dire qu’elle est l’ouverture de cette fable? Je pensais aux obseques de la lionne mais je n’en suis pas sure. Merci d’avance pour votre reponse, Merci de votre aide sans troll vraiment merci.
Bonjour, cette analyse repond a toute les questions possibles a l’oral du bac de francais ? Merci d’avance. Bonjour, tous d’abord merci beaucoup de nous mettre a disposition tant de choses ! je suis en train de faire mes fiches de bac pour l’oral de francais . Ocr As 2012? J’ai trouver sur ton site pour le texte les animaux malades de la peste des exemples de problematique avec des plans , et je ne trouve pas la meme chose pour ce texte .. Gay Marriage Persuasive Thesis? Pourrait tu m’indiquer ou le trouver ? J’ai montre comment adapter mon plan a differentes questions possibles sur quelques textes seulement. Ocr As Biology? Le but est de vous montrer comment faire : je n’ai pas fait ce travail pour chaque texte que je commente. Laisser un commentaire Annuler le commentaire. Amelie Vioux, professeur particulier de francais, je vous aide a booster vos notes au bac de francais. Pour en savoir plus, cliquez ici . La mort des amants, Baudelaire : commentaire.
Question de corpus : faites-vous cette erreur qui vous fait perdre des points? Colloque sentimental, Verlaine : commentaire. Commentaire compose 2017 - Amelie Vioux - Droits d'auteur reserves - Tous les articles sont deposes AVANT publication chez copyright France - Reproduction sur le WEB interdite -