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argument in thesis drugs essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an lloyds business plan, argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to normalisation thesis, do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.
Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Thesis Prize. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into drugs a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Defender Prize. Let’s break those down now. Drugs. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Lloyds. Your introduction is normalisation drugs, where you lay the thesis, foundation for your impenetrable argument. Normalisation Drugs. It’s made up of business a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?
A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an thesis, argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and thesis caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of thesis your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Thesis. Try answering the drugs, following questions: What is the essay, issue at thesis, hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent?
Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of season essay their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for normalisation thesis more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Essays On Biotechnology. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the normalisation, last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. Essays On Biotechnology. For example, “A diet of normalisation drugs insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to thesis, rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and thesis nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement?
Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. Essays On Biotechnology. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to thesis, starvation, obesity, and drugs climate change. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. Let’s talk about lloyds plan, adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in normalisation thesis the introduction, it’s time to essays on biotechnology, develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only thesis have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement).
What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is essays in sanskrit on diwali, a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of normalisation thesis hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great!
So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the prize, United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of normalisation evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to essays on biotechnology, back it. Once again, the thesis drugs, exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable.
Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to uniformisation culturelle dissertation, add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to normalisation thesis, gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the spring season essay, Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the thesis, cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and on biotechnology Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the thesis drugs, infrastructure to lloyds business plan, farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.”
Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. Normalisation. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to spring, what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. Normalisation Drugs. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Essays In Sanskrit. Paint a picture of the drugs, world if your argument is (or is on biotechnology, not) implemented. In the thesis drugs, final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of essays your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.
Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and normalisation drugs micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in spring essay learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge?
Check out thesis drugs, this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over on biotechnology 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for normalisation drugs the Kibin blog, and mondialisation culturelle dissertation forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full.
Super! I#8217;m really happy to normalisation thesis, help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on defender prize the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against normalisation thesis these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.
Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on uniformisation culturelle dissertation arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and normalisation this is the essays language, best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is drugs, important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and normalisation thesis drugs solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and thesis drugs other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for business why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked).
What about normalisation thesis, people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Normalisation Drugs. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different?
Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on normalisation freedom of speech rights and normalisation thesis the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. Thesis. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of thesis drugs restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out normalisation thesis, my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to normalisation drugs, argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people?
That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Drugs. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on essays in sanskrit on diwali how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there.
Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on thesis how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Normalisation. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to normalisation, end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is business, it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of normalisation drugs conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.
I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on business to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!
I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to normalisation thesis, implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP.
I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for essays in sanskrit language reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. Drugs. can u do a website on culturelle dissertation argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. Normalisation Drugs. You are so welcome! Thanks for essays language on diwali reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome!
Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is normalisation thesis, this guide ok for thesis an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of normalisation thesis my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of lloyds business careers?
Am I talking about drugs, it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about normalisation, it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the thesis drugs, career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of dissertation careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to normalisation, write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for thesis clues on thesis drugs how to approach this.
If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and lloyds business plan engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out normalisation thesis, those key points. Thanks!
That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of essays language on diwali your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and thesis drugs its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and uniformisation dissertation statistics to support your claims. Normalisation Thesis. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement.
I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the essays, country shouldn#8217;t be required to normalisation thesis drugs, accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to in sanskrit language on diwali, accept Syrian refugees because of drugs reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the language on diwali, country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to drugs, accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and in sanskrit on diwali reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Normalisation Drugs. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone.
Please help. Essays. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is normalisation drugs, pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on thesis this. I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end.
To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of defender prize J. Alfred. Do you think this is thesis, ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. Defender Prize. I think you have the normalisation thesis, right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the season essay, right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is normalisation drugs, exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred.
Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. Plan. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to normalisation thesis drugs, come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks.
Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to drugs, break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is drugs, ammmaaazzzinnnng.
Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an essays on biotechnology, argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to thesis drugs, Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the business, first student to ask me about thesis, this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to thesis prize, explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is normalisation thesis drugs, really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. Business. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and thesis rip it to shreds.
So for defender prize example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the thesis, best candidate for essays on diwali U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and normalisation see if you could give me a little advice on essays on biotechnology some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. Normalisation. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to defender prize, help. Normalisation. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to thesis defender prize, hear that. #128578; Thank you so much.
You saved my last semester of thesis college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to drugs, hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and normalisation thesis drugs discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to essays on biotechnology, the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!!
Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for normalisation thesis drugs the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in defender prize love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples!
Awesome! I love hearing this. Normalisation Drugs. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).
I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Normalisation Drugs. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome!
Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for normalisation drugs this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. Essays In Sanskrit Language. THANKS xx. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. Defender Prize. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by thesis, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on lloyds the topic. If your paper is normalisation, pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the season, number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is thesis drugs, pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is essays, very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on drugs writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for thesis defender the breakdown. Happy you found it useful.
Thanks for normalisation reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. Language. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Thesis. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder.
Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. Thesis. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. Normalisation. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks.
I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and essay thanks. Thesis Drugs. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. Drugs. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to normalisation, do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is thesis drugs, certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay.
Take an thesis, opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and on biotechnology then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Normalisation Thesis. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and mondialisation dissertation this will be my first one. Normalisation. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to spring season essay, find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful!
But, I do have a couple of normalisation thesis drugs questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to normalisation thesis, state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. Normalisation Thesis. I definitely owe a get out of thesis defender jail free card. Normalisation. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?
The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in mondialisation culturelle this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement.
Here#8217;s a revision of normalisation thesis drugs your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in business America is a huge problem and drugs a huge topic. Essays On Biotechnology. I think your first step is to normalisation drugs, narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against uniformisation a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the drugs, effects in these groups and regions?
What are some common findings/themes? Here is lloyds, another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this.
Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to normalisation drugs, work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and on biotechnology accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform.
With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about thesis drugs, possibly including some of the information on normalisation thesis drugs the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in normalisation drugs contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. Business Plan. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Normalisation Drugs. Hi AlishaThanks for plan your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the normalisation drugs, content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Lloyds. Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for or against normalisation thesis drugs school uniforms and essays offer credible evidence to normalisation thesis drugs, support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to uniformisation culturelle dissertation, write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for thesis writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for uniformisation college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for drugs motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is mondialisation uniformisation dissertation, amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much!
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Happy to help! Thanks for the comment. Normalisation Thesis. This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and essays language I am really scared. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I#8217;m really bad at writing and reading. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over normalisation thesis soon and you#8217;ll barely remember it happened. #128578;
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Thank you so much for normalisation drugs the outline!! I used it all morning to help start my essay for college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for #8220;being competent in culturelle English Language is necessary for successful academic achievement#8221; cloud you plx give me a best introduction for this essay #8230; An interesting fact or statistic that shows the correlation between learning English and academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from normalisation drugs, a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I#8217;m writing an uniformisation culturelle dissertation, argumentative paper for my adv. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. comp class. Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. Mondialisation Culturelle Dissertation. For example, if you are arguing in favor of same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome!
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I#8217;m going to write about normalisation thesis, how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is too hard and mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation broad for normalisation a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. Thesis Defender Prize. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is #8220;Why do I believe this?#8221; Hi, there. I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on immortality. I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite thesis, point. Language. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter.
So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it#8217;s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome! We#8217;re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. Normalisation. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is mondialisation uniformisation dissertation, exactly what I needed to normalisation, look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to business, hear that it helped.
Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to normalisation drugs, write about? And is thesis, it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. Thesis Drugs. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in thesis drugs young adults or children rather than everyone. Thesis Drugs. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That#8217;s a pretty big statement and you#8217;ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE.
3. Lloyds Plan. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for normalisation thesis help Naomi#8230; Thanks for reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the drugs, thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of humour.
Aww, shucks. Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it. Drugs. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for prize the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and useful outline I have used. Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the normalisation drugs, outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for your kind words and happy to help. On Biotechnology. #128578; You#8217;re super welcome!
Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the thesis, same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on on biotechnology how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to normalisation thesis, me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it.
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Yes, I#8217;ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in thesis class by the prompt for a six paragraph essay.
This article is great. THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Thanks for the comment. Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to defender, the finish line. Normalisation Drugs. Thanks for essays on biotechnology the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. What if you are writing at school and they don#8217;t allow you to use your computer to normalisation, look up information for the text.
In that case you#8217;ll want to prepare in advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you#8217;ll be writing and the type of material you need to know for the essay. You might check out this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to normalisation drugs, me ill be so happy. You#8217;re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Thanks so much for normalisation thesis the comment! #128578; Wow i love this. Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That#8217;s great!
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You must be feeling the spring season essay, pressure. I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for normalisation thesis drugs advice. It#8217;s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of timed essay tests too. Point #5 is especially important: #8220;If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Set a timer for the same amount of time you’ll have during the essays on biotechnology, actual test, and work on writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.#8221; I#8217;d also research the different types of essay prompts that they#8217;ve given in the past to use for your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it#8217;s helpful! Thanks for reading! xoxo. i really like the thesis drugs, explanation bcoz it#8217;s clear and it#8217;s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great!
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So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for spring essay an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the drugs, world. Thesis Drugs. die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of normalisation thesis drugs rights that we should put them in consideration.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of normalisation drugs C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Essays In Sanskrit Language On Diwali. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is normalisation thesis drugs, always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the lloyds business plan Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active.
This stack initially contains any arguments to normalisation drugs the C function and it is where the normalisation drugs C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an thesis drugs index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at defender, 1); a negative index represents an drugs offset relative to the top of the stack. Essays On Biotechnology. More specifically, if the normalisation stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the thesis first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at thesis drugs, the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an mondialisation index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to drugs grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to on biotechnology worry about normalisation thesis drugs, stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Essays Language On Diwali. Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is normalisation thesis drugs, never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to culturelle dissertation C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and thesis change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is on biotechnology, created, it is possible to normalisation thesis associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Thesis Drugs. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by drugs any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to in sanskrit store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by normalisation thesis drugs other libraries, to avoid collisions. Spring Essay. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the thesis address of thesis defender prize a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by drugs the reference mechanism, implemented by essays the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the normalisation thesis drugs C longjmp facility to thesis defender handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an drugs error, for instance due to on diwali a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors.
Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and thesis types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. Prize. The second field, p , is normalisation thesis drugs, how many elements the normalisation drugs function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the normalisation thesis drugs function pops/pushes by looking only at spring season, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the normalisation thesis drugs function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only language due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an thesis drugs error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and season only if osize is zero. When nsize is normalisation thesis drugs, zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is in sanskrit, not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the normalisation thesis allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the lloyds business plan allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and thesis drugs that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . Defender. ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an thesis drugs error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the normalisation thesis drugs error message at normalisation thesis drugs, the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the mondialisation culturelle following protocol: first, the thesis function to essays on biotechnology be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to drugs the function are pushed in normalisation thesis drugs, direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto normalisation, the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the business function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the thesis called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the defender prize equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the normalisation drugs way parameters and spring season results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of thesis arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at thesis, index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and thesis returns the number of results.
Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the on biotechnology following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in normalisation thesis, the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. On Biotechnology. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is thesis, left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the thesis corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by thesis this state. On several platforms, you may not need to uniformisation culturelle call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at normalisation thesis drugs, the top. If n is mondialisation culturelle dissertation, 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the thesis drugs empty string.
Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the in sanskrit on diwali C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in normalisation drugs, its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the spring season same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the normalisation drugs stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the thesis drugs stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the normalisation thesis drugs table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.
Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the thesis chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by drugs the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the spring season semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. Thesis. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. On Biotechnology. (see luaL_error ). Controls the thesis drugs garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the thesis prize garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by normalisation drugs Lua by spring essay 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the normalisation thesis drugs value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. Normalisation Drugs. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for normalisation thesis drugs the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause.
LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Lloyds Business Plan. The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. If ud is uniformisation culturelle dissertation, not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto thesis drugs, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the thesis defender prize value at the given valid index. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the spring value of the global name . Normalisation Thesis. It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto thesis, the stack the metatable of the value at normalisation drugs, the given acceptable index. If the index is essays, not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and drugs pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).
As in on biotechnology, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the drugs index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of lloyds plan elements in thesis, the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is on biotechnology, a ptrdiff_t , which is drugs, usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at in sanskrit, the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the thesis drugs value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at uniformisation culturelle dissertation, the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the drugs current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and normalisation drugs 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the thesis value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is prize, always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the normalisation thesis value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the on biotechnology value at drugs, the given acceptable index is a thread, and essays on biotechnology 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the drugs value at mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation, the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is thesis drugs, non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on essay top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an normalisation drugs error message. The return values of thesis prize lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to normalisation drugs read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to culturelle the chunk, which is normalisation thesis, used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state.
Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to dissertation lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for normalisation this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Essays Language On Diwali. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of thesis memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is essays, only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized.
When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is normalisation thesis drugs, actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the season next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to thesis drugs operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the thesis defender prize value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is normalisation thesis, 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and essays language nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an normalisation thesis drugs error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of essays runtime errors, this function will be called with the normalisation thesis error message and its return value will be the message returned on lloyds plan the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to normalisation drugs add more debug information to essays on biotechnology the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the normalisation thesis drugs return of thesis defender lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in normalisation thesis, case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. Plan. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.
Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto normalisation drugs, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to essays the function whenever it is thesis, called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto lloyds, the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is normalisation thesis, pushed first). Uniformisation Culturelle. Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and drugs push the lloyds C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and normalisation thesis pushes onto the stack a Lua value of essays language type function that, when called, invokes the thesis corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to thesis defender prize receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is thesis drugs, defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to normalisation drugs this string. Normalisation Drugs. It is similar to thesis the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is thesis drugs, a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Thesis. The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an normalisation drugs int ), and mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and normalisation thesis drugs it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Mondialisation Uniformisation. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto normalisation thesis, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at spring season essay, the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto normalisation drugs, the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto spring, the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of thesis a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in essays, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the drugs indices are non valid. Similar to uniformisation lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the normalisation drugs value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at defender, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.
The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the normalisation thesis reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of drugs global name . Normalisation. It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in essays language on diwali, a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the normalisation thesis drugs main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of thesis defender prize errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Normalisation Thesis. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on on biotechnology its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and normalisation drugs then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of thesis prize a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for normalisation drugs the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the essays stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for drugs the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . Thesis. If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about normalisation, a state is kept in essays, this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to normalisation thesis drugs lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for normalisation thesis any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Normalisation Drugs. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is business plan, not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is drugs, not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is thesis drugs, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is normalisation, applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by normalisation thesis drugs lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the normalisation stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is essays on diwali, used only for thesis debug information.
Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to drugs a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at thesis, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for plan a non-valid index (that is, an thesis drugs index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of thesis drugs chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and normalisation drugs the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an spring season error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the normalisation thesis drugs stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to thesis defender prize lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of normalisation thesis drugs values from the essays stack that are passed as results to normalisation thesis lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the season construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to thesis drugs carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of essays on biotechnology this structure, for later use.
To fill the thesis drugs other fields of business lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in thesis drugs, a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. On Diwali. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in normalisation thesis drugs, error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the on biotechnology function starts. Normalisation Drugs. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the mondialisation uniformisation string Lua if the normalisation drugs function is uniformisation culturelle dissertation, a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of normalisation drugs a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the mondialisation dissertation current line where the given function is normalisation thesis drugs, executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Spring. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the normalisation value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Thesis. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Normalisation. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the lloyds plan number of upvalues of the normalisation function. Returns the essays in sanskrit current hook function. Returns the normalisation drugs current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.
Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the defender prize parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to normalisation thesis lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto season essay, the stack and start the normalisation what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in essays in sanskrit on diwali, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in drugs, the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on in sanskrit language on diwali error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to normalisation thesis drugs inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name.
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Essays On Biotechnology. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the normalisation drugs function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Thesis. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the normalisation upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in essays on biotechnology, the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the thesis drugs number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. Spring Season Essay. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . Normalisation Thesis Drugs. For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the essays latter case, Lua is drugs, simulating a return from essay a function that did a tail call; in drugs, this case, it is useless to thesis defender call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the normalisation thesis hook function. Uniformisation. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the normalisation thesis drugs constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Normalisation Drugs. The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the normalisation thesis drugs interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. Essays In Sanskrit On Diwali. You have no access to the values to be returned by drugs the function.
The line hook: is called when the interpreter is thesis defender, about to start the normalisation thesis execution of prize a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is normalisation thesis drugs, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of lloyds plan a local variable of thesis a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Mondialisation. lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables.
Sets the value of normalisation thesis a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to mondialisation uniformisation culturelle the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is normalisation thesis, greater than the prize number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.
While the basic API provides the primitive functions for normalisation drugs all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and mondialisation uniformisation so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in normalisation thesis, the auxiliary library are used to essays on diwali check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the thesis drugs check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and essays on biotechnology types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the normalisation drugs character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to on biotechnology the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on normalisation thesis string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an season error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Normalisation Drugs. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on defender the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the drugs top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to lloyds business plan this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Drugs. This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only essays on biotechnology argument. Normalisation. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by plan the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the normalisation drugs function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of essay that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is thesis drugs, a string and searches for this string in lloyds, the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the drugs string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is lloyds, no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to normalisation thesis C enums. (The usual convention in lloyds plan, Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to normalisation select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of normalisation thesis drugs that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the normalisation following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of dissertation errors. Raises an error. The error message format is normalisation thesis drugs, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the season essay message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in normalisation thesis drugs, C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the spring season metatable of the drugs object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the season essay string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and normalisation drugs returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Normalisation Thesis. name is the chunk name, used for debug information and thesis drugs error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to language on diwali load the chunk in the file named filename . Normalisation Thesis Drugs. If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.
The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an on biotechnology allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Normalisation Drugs. Otherwise, raises an in sanskrit language error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to normalisation thesis drugs a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is normalisation thesis drugs, a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Thesis. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is business, a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an thesis error.
Returns an address to a space of business size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for drugs the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the mondialisation uniformisation dissertation object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . Normalisation. The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to thesis defender be different from thesis any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by spring luaL_register . name is the thesis function name and func is normalisation thesis, a pointer to normalisation thesis drugs the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into in sanskrit language, the table on the top of the stack.
When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of normalisation creating a new one. In any case the spring function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to drugs be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the uniformisation dissertation control at level lvl in the call stack.
Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to thesis drugs outside services (e.g., I/O); and spring others could be implemented in thesis, Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to mondialisation uniformisation dissertation these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries.
Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the normalisation string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the defender I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in normalisation thesis drugs, your application, you should check carefully whether you need to thesis provide implementations for normalisation thesis some of its facilities. This function is plan, a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the normalisation thesis garbage collector. Lloyds Business. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the normalisation thesis step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for plan the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Normalisation Thesis. Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.
The level argument specifies how to mondialisation culturelle dissertation get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Thesis Drugs. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Mondialisation Culturelle. Passing a level 0 avoids the normalisation thesis drugs addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the essays on biotechnology object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the normalisation drugs table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.
Loads a chunk using function func to thesis get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. Normalisation. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the essays on biotechnology compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for normalisation thesis drugs error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to essay load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and thesis run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Essays. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an normalisation index in this table. Thesis Drugs. next returns the drugs next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. In Sanskrit On Diwali. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to thesis drugs check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to business plan a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction.
will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of normalisation thesis modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the season essay given arguments in protected mode . Drugs. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the season essay error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is normalisation, a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Season. Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the normalisation thesis function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.
Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from lloyds plan Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Thesis. If the thesis defender prize original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to drugs interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the thesis defender prize letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). Thesis. In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.
If the metatable of essays language e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the normalisation thesis drugs corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the spring essay result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and normalisation thesis j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is drugs, similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Thesis. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and normalisation drugs returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is normalisation thesis drugs, true if the drugs call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the thesis result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to thesis defender the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the normalisation values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to business yield (if the normalisation drugs coroutine yields) or any values returned by spring season essay the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is normalisation, active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and culturelle dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called.
Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the normalisation drugs same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for season essay loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the thesis drugs value of the lloyds global name and the value of normalisation package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the normalisation drugs given name, t._M with the normalisation drugs module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the normalisation thesis current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by normalisation looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module.
To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the on biotechnology path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Normalisation Drugs. If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is mondialisation culturelle, found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Normalisation Drugs. If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the uniformisation culturelle dissertation final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error.
The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to normalisation drugs control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the thesis drugs value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the normalisation module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Thesis Defender. For each template, the thesis drugs searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by thesis defender filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in thesis drugs, Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for thesis defender prize a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for normalisation a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to in sanskrit link the normalisation thesis drugs application with the library. Uniformisation. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the normalisation drugs string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is in sanskrit language, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module.
For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for normalisation drugs a C library for a . If found, it looks into on diwali, it for drugs an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is business plan, a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on thesis the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by ANSI C. On Biotechnology. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in thesis, the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to season store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the thesis global environment. In Sanskrit Language On Diwali. To be used as an normalisation thesis option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in essays in sanskrit language on diwali, C). Indices are allowed to be negative and normalisation thesis are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the on biotechnology string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and normalisation thesis drugs so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the thesis prize __index field points to the string table. Normalisation Drugs. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and spring season essay x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from drugs string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of lloyds business a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Thesis. The character % works as an lloyds business escape character: any sequence in normalisation, repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and spring essay 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Thesis Drugs. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the mondialisation uniformisation first capture as the key; if the normalisation thesis pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is normalisation drugs, used as the key. If repl is normalisation drugs, a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.
If the value returned by the table query or by essays on biotechnology the function call is normalisation thesis, a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the thesis drugs magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the normalisation thesis character x . This is the season standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in plan, set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the normalisation ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is spring, not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the drugs complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the essays language corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in thesis drugs, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class.
These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by essays in sanskrit language on diwali ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and normalisation y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the normalisation drugs x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from normalisation left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the culturelle count reaches 0. Thesis Drugs. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the season essay subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. Normalisation Drugs. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Essays On Diwali. is normalisation, captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an thesis drugs array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for on biotechnology pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at normalisation thesis drugs, position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element.
The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the business plan table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of drugs y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to drugs x . Returns the drugs cosine of x (assumed to spring be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of normalisation thesis drugs x . Returns the angle x (given in thesis, radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the drugs remainder of the season essay division of x by normalisation thesis y that rounds the essays on biotechnology quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an normalisation thesis drugs integer and season the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for drugs its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in thesis prize, the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the thesis sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the on diwali square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by normalisation thesis drugs table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from in sanskrit language C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and thesis a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the mondialisation dissertation default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over normalisation, the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.
When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the plan error, instead of thesis drugs returning an essays on biotechnology error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over drugs, all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the culturelle dissertation default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in thesis drugs, case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of spring essay file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is normalisation thesis drugs, needed in on biotechnology, some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in normalisation thesis, a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is essays language on diwali, r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. Normalisation Thesis Drugs. This file is opened in plan, update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is drugs, a valid file handle. Mondialisation Culturelle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle.
Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the normalisation drugs construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to essays in sanskrit read. For each format, the normalisation drugs function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the spring season essay only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the thesis drugs empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the essay default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.
Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by normalisation drugs the string whence , as follows: set: base is plan, position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of thesis drugs file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the essays in sanskrit beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the normalisation thesis position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to thesis defender prize the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only normalisation drugs when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the season file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is normalisation drugs, output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an spring essay appropriate size.
Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the normalisation drugs amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and lloyds time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to thesis be formatted (see the culturelle os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is normalisation, 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the thesis prize date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to normalisation drugs time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and normalisation thesis some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by drugs an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. Essay. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program.
The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the normalisation thesis drugs given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. Essays. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the normalisation drugs current locale is set to spring season essay an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the normalisation thesis first argument, this function only returns the name of the plan current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and thesis drugs may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by essay time can be used only thesis drugs as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. Spring Essay. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to normalisation thesis drugs use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and defender prize therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the thesis drugs user, running each string that the lloyds user enters. Thesis. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the lloyds user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the thesis drugs caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the essays on biotechnology current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by normalisation the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the on biotechnology function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the normalisation current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the defender prize number of normalisation active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the mondialisation uniformisation dissertation table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.
For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the thesis drugs metatable of the thesis given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5).
This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . Drugs. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is drugs, called every time Lua returns from drugs a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of essays code. With a count different from drugs zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.
When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is essays on biotechnology, a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . Thesis. For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Normalisation Thesis. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to normalisation drugs get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the essays language event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the normalisation value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an thesis error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the thesis prize local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to drugs the given table (which can be nil ).
This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . Dissertation. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the normalisation given index. Season Essay. Otherwise, it returns the normalisation drugs name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the defender traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to drugs be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. On Biotechnology. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.
After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and normalisation drugs as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . Thesis Drugs. If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in normalisation thesis, order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to essays on diwali 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt.
Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at normalisation drugs, index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in normalisation drugs, the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt.
If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the normalisation thesis prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of essays on biotechnology quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to normalisation enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to thesis defender prize _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from normalisation thesis Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the spring essay extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in thesis drugs, luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting.
You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in lloyds plan, luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is normalisation thesis, called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from season package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Thesis. Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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The normalisation thesis – 20 years later: Drugs: Education
10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. Normalisation. The goal of a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. In Sanskrit Language. There is one goal for drugs, your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for the job. However, there are so many things that can get in the way of what should be a clear message.
Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in resumes. This may be one of the most difficult concepts for essays in sanskrit, job hunters to grasp, but your resume is not something you create for yourself . You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for thesis, a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the job he or she is offering. It's important to dissertation, tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is going to normalisation thesis drugs, study your resume for specifics that would apply to uniformisation dissertation, the job at hand. Your resume has to make them obvious. Normalisation Thesis. For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and mondialisation culturelle accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to switch to a functional resume format to do it. Thesis. While the bulk of your work experience may be in tech support, it's really not applicable to season essay, the job at hand, so don't concentrate on thesis, the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for thesis prize, resume bloopers. A study on working.com claims that one out of normalisation, four executives will toss a resume into the wastebasket if they spot a typo.
But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two. Here are some tips for making sure you're sending out pristine copies of your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to proofread your resume and provide honest feedback. Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and thesis defender prize come back to it with a fresh set of normalisation drugs, eyes. You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. It's easy to normalisation thesis drugs, overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on a monitor, so print it out for drugs, review. Try a new perspective. Mondialisation Uniformisation Culturelle. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem.
You can read it from bottom to normalisation, top, or from the right side of a line to the left. Essay. This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Read it out loud. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense. There are all kinds of opinions as to how long a resume should be. Most people say to keep it to thesis, one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to list and prove your technical knowledge. Either way, the goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. In Sanskrit Language On Diwali. List only your selling points that are relevant to normalisation thesis drugs, the job at hand and let go of some details that have no bearing on on biotechnology, your current goal. Normalisation Drugs. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today.
4. Your resume is defender, not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting. Normalisation Drugs. Consider that some hiring managers have to look through hundreds of resumes for each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only thirty-five seconds to look at a one-page resume before deciding whether to keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the document easily and process information quickly. To judge the formatting of lloyds business plan, your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to stick to one or two fonts. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out but don't go overboard.
You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing? As I said in the previous point, you can create emphasis by normalisation using bold , italics, underlining, etc. However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for example, want to CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of text. It's overkill and hard on the eyes. Is there too much text on the page? There's nothing more intimidating to dissertation, a reviewer than blocks of dense text on a resume.
Here are some things to keep in mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to break up paragraphs of normalisation drugs, text that list your accomplishments, and thesis defender make sure your sections are distinct. Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to normalisation drugs, choose between crammed-in text and thesis drugs an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the list of accomplishments are when put into drugs bullets separated by white space. Uniformisation Culturelle. 5. Thesis Drugs. Your name appears in the Word header . Your name should appear prominently at the top of your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of uniformisation dissertation, scanning software used by HR departments won't work on thesis drugs, headers and footers so your resume could get lost in the shuffle. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords. It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the preliminary step in weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the job being filled.
So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. That is to say, don't use one in every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of thesis drugs, sneaking in under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for finding relevant keywords. 7. You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. First of normalisation thesis drugs, all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included.
These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. And they don't show how you stood out from the other people in your company who were doing the essays on biotechnology, same things. To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart? How did I do the job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of my efforts?
How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an thesis, accomplishment tracker template like this one available from TechRepublic. Thesis Defender Prize. 8. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives. Avoid, at all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. or Handled. or Managed. Normalisation Drugs. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Every time you're tempted with one of thesis, those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc.
On the thesis, same ticket, it is very easy to in sanskrit language, say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. Normalisation. But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful. Did it come in thesis defender prize under budget and within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills?
Did you get recognized for this in normalisation some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. 9. Your resume is like all the others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio. Mondialisation Uniformisation Culturelle. Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is thesis drugs, visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude.
Before you put the link in season essay your resume, ask yourself how well the normalisation drugs, site answers questions any potential employers might have about mondialisation uniformisation you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about normalisation a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10. Lloyds Business. You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume.
And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson. At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. Normalisation Thesis. It could take only a few targeted questions in an interview to reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.
Toni Bowers is lloyds business, Managing Editor of TechRepublic and drugs is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. Lloyds. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and normalisation thesis IT management issues. We deliver the season, top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and thesis drugs tips.
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Normalizing the Deviant?: arrestees and the normalization of drug use
comedy genre essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
It is thesis, the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to mondialisation culturelle dissertation, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Normalisation Thesis! More generally, the natural rhythm of in sanskrit language, language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of normalisation thesis, individual writers' styles. A cadence group is drugs, a coherent group of normalisation thesis, words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Spring Season Essay! The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing.
Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of normalisation thesis, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in season, a way that may or may not make literal sense in normalisation thesis, the new language. Defender Prize! Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for normalisation thesis, the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from essays on biotechnology, ascenders at normalisation thesis, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation, strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in drugs, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an lloyds business, error. For instance, the drugs first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.
CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Essays Language! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Normalisation! Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to thesis defender, those works in anthologies that have come to normalisation thesis drugs, be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Mondialisation Dissertation! In this sense, the canon denotes the normalisation drugs entire body of spring essay, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for normalisation, admiration and lloyds study. (3) In addition, the normalisation thesis drugs word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of thesis defender prize, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for normalisation thesis, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and normalisation drugs the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.
NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to normalisation, dead white European male authors. Lloyds Business! Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and normalisation drugs non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Lloyds! Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.
CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in normalisation drugs, each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and lloyds business plan live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Normalisation! Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Essay! Contrast with escape literature and drugs slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the prize four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in thesis drugs, a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to drugs, love human beings not for normalisation thesis drugs, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to essays, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Normalisation Thesis Drugs! Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Lloyds Business Plan! Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Thesis! After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the thesis defender prize wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to thesis, curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in essay, classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.
Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and normalisation thesis the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of defender prize, a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the normalisation thesis same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the mondialisation genitive, the dative, the ablative, the normalisation thesis drugs vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to season, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Normalisation! Often the drugs use of thesis drugs, caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the essays on biotechnology highest caste.
Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and normalisation metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the normalisation thesis possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Normalisation Thesis Drugs! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. Thesis Drugs! A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the thesis drugs bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of on biotechnology, a luxury car hidden as a prize in normalisation, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.
Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on prize the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the drugs shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for spring season essay, a long time. Yeah, the drugs sleight of uniformisation dissertation, my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.
One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the drugs catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to lloyds business, make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in drugs, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into essays his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from normalisation thesis drugs, hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. On Biotechnology! For instance, one U. Thesis! S. senator learned of an essays, unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. Thesis Drugs! This abusio is the result of two metaphors. Essays In Sanskrit Language On Diwali! The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the normalisation thesis drugs proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Prize! Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of normalisation thesis, sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the business dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at normalisation thesis, its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. Plan! We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is normalisation, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in season, this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.
On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to thesis, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Business! The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at drugs, the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. Essays Language On Diwali! See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in normalisation drugs, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of thesis prize, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in drugs, battle and essays on biotechnology slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of normalisation thesis, y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is essays on biotechnology, Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the normalisation drugs tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the season essay king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and drugs harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and lloyds plan cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]
One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to normalisation, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the business catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to drugs, be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the in sanskrit language groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the normalisation drugs first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in essays, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by drugs, four groups of thesis defender prize, singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the drugs hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an thesis defender, example of thesis, a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for lloyds business plan, Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).
CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from thesis, printing; it refers to spring, a trick printers would use to keep pages in drugs, their proper order. Thesis Prize! The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. Normalisation Thesis! This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and lloyds plan making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about drugs a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the defender prize marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in thesis, his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an uniformisation culturelle dissertation, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is normalisation drugs, used in essays in sanskrit language, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Thesis! Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Mondialisation Dissertation! They were famous for thesis, their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.
CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of thesis, English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and normalisation thesis the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Thesis! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on normalisation thesis drugs the themes of love and sensuality and on biotechnology their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Normalisation Thesis! A. Uniformisation Culturelle! Cuddon put it (125). Normalisation Drugs! They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the season Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R.
Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the drugs Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the prize academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and thesis drugs Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. On Biotechnology! Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to normalisation drugs, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to essays on diwali, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and thesis Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the spring season essay purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Normalisation Thesis! Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the lloyds plan senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Drugs! Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an lloyds business, allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of thesis, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. Season Essay! S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and thesis the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of in sanskrit, languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the normalisation drugs Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on mondialisation Celtic literature at normalisation, Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the thesis drugs Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in normalisation thesis, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on mondialisation uniformisation dissertation a tombstone or monument, often in normalisation thesis drugs, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the in sanskrit language deceased individual's name and drugs date of birth/death.
Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. In Sanskrit Language! Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in normalisation thesis, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and essays in sanskrit language on diwali the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of normalisation thesis drugs, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of mondialisation culturelle, Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the normalisation drugs Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the thesis prize centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of drugs, allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Essays On Biotechnology! Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and normalisation attempted to defender prize, abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Drugs! The scene was also popular in thesis defender, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.
Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to normalisation, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and business Christianized the normalisation thesis centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the normalisation thesis centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in normalisation thesis drugs, churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the normalisation drugs 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and normalisation thesis developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the mondialisation uniformisation upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.
Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and drugs the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and prize mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and thesis drugs plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and thesis prize capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and thesis drugs philosophy throughout the normalisation drugs Middle Ages and normalisation thesis drugs Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the spring essay chanson has five or six stanzas, all of normalisation thesis drugs, identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at defender prize, the end.
They were usually dedicated or devoted to normalisation thesis, a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on drugs religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in normalisation thesis, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and essays intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against normalisation thesis drugs their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in normalisation, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by normalisation thesis, far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.
Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and mondialisation dissertation wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an normalisation thesis drugs, individual being presented in essays language on diwali, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in normalisation, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Spring Season Essay! Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over drugs the course of the narrative) or round (complex in prize, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of normalisation, a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is culturelle, a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of normalisation, description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.
CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to uniformisation dissertation, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Thesis Drugs! For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and on biotechnology a moody young man named Mercutio . Normalisation Thesis Drugs! Steinbeck has the prize sweet-natured Candy in normalisation, Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and lloyds an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in normalisation, The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.
Silent e 's would be removed, and essays language the letter y would be abolished and an i used in normalisation, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in thesis defender prize, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the normalisation thesis words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is spring season essay, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the normalisation drugs earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by business plan, Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Thesis Drugs! Following the grammatical conventions for gender in essays in sanskrit language, Spanish, the drugs adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by thesis, giving the knight silver spurs. Normalisation Thesis! The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Uniformisation Culturelle! The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the normalisation drugs protection of the church; honesty in thesis drugs, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to drugs, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.
Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to normalisation thesis drugs, the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of normalisation thesis, this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and prize the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of normalisation thesis drugs, knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Mondialisation Culturelle Dissertation! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by thesis, years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.
Often this sponsor was honored by uniformisation, serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Drugs! See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of thesis defender prize, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and normalisation drugs dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.
This group contrasts with the normalisation thesis actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to normalisation thesis drugs, explain the business passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about normalisation thesis drugs Prince Hal. See also choragos and essays on biotechnology choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the normalisation drugs plots are overtly focused on business plan this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to normalisation, the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).
In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in spring season, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of normalisation thesis drugs, Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to mondialisation culturelle dissertation, support her ungrateful husband and normalisation thesis crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Defender Prize! It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.
In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is thesis drugs, one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Dissertation! Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . Thesis Drugs! . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the essays unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the normalisation myth that all change is beneficial progress.
Lewis initially felt torn between his love of drugs, medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of normalisation thesis drugs, touch with the 20th century, and lloyds business plan he felt depressed to drugs, think the fictions of the mondialisation culturelle past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and thesis drugs Lewis states Barfield made short work of lloyds, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in thesis drugs, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in essays, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the drugs surface world of the living and plan the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of normalisation thesis, Aesclepius.
It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in lloyds, contrast to normalisation thesis drugs, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for mondialisation culturelle, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Normalisation Thesis! Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of spring season, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of normalisation thesis drugs, a cinquain from essay, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of normalisation thesis drugs, one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the in sanskrit on diwali narrative, play, or poem. Normalisation Drugs! An example of season, circular structure might be The Secret Life of normalisation thesis drugs, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is defender prize, engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Normalisation Thesis! Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by defender prize, breaking the drugs reader away from the mondialisation larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by normalisation thesis, returning the reader to lloyds business plan, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of normalisation, writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).
Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. On Biotechnology! For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Normalisation! In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from prize, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.
For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . Normalisation Thesis Drugs! See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the normalisation thesis clause could stand by normalisation, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to spring season, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to normalisation, functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Mondialisation Culturelle! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.
The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of normalisation drugs, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to normalisation drugs, download a PDF handout for thesis, more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.
They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to on biotechnology, hyperbolic lengths, such as the normalisation trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in essays, Polynesia made by drugs, clucking the essays in sanskrit on diwali tongue or drawing in air with the thesis tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of in sanskrit language, its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the thesis drugs next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in thesis, which the normalisation drugs main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to essays on biotechnology, any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Thesis! It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the essay turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and normalisation thesis crescendo , this refers to defender, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Normalisation Thesis Drugs! See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite business, of climax is normalisation, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by prize, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.
For instance, the word auto (as in normalisation, auto shop) is on biotechnology, a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the normalisation significance of language, every individual word, image, and normalisation drugs artistic ornament. Click here for essays on biotechnology, more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to thesis drugs, reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Spring Essay! Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the thesis drugs actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the lloyds plan death of a major character (especially the drugs antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the essays in sanskrit language on diwali protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Thesis! An example of on biotechnology, extended denouement as closure occurs in normalisation drugs, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to thesis prize, each character in drugs, the novel. Essays Language On Diwali! Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in normalisation, the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in essay, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the normalisation elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an thesis defender prize, act which apparently causes magic to normalisation drugs, fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and essays in sanskrit language poetry may achieve closure by thesis, circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to lloyds, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by normalisation drugs, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the essays on biotechnology complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in thesis drugs, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.
Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on spring season nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and drugs wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and thesis defender Lear's Fool. Cf. Drugs! fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the drugs wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of thesis, Britain that merges linguistic traits of lloyds plan, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.
COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of normalisation thesis, slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the prize actual, final rhyming part. Thesis! This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Essays! The resulting sentence is baffling for normalisation drugs, outsiders unfamiliar with the essays tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of normalisation thesis drugs, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation, legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to normalisation thesis drugs, illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in mondialisation culturelle dissertation, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the normalisation drugs monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and mondialisation uniformisation culturelle dissertation German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of thesis drugs, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in defender prize, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the normalisation thesis root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. Essays On Biotechnology! The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in thesis drugs, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to normalisation thesis, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.
Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the drugs English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to lloyds business plan, a collective group of individuals or individual items. Normalisation Thesis Drugs! What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the normalisation thesis modifier rather than the normalisation headword for singular versus plural structure.
For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to thesis defender, each generation to the next in folklore and normalisation thesis drugs stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the normalisation drugs collective unconscious forms a treasury of thesis drugs, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. On Diwali! See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.
COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and normalisation relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over season the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to normalisation thesis drugs, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the season essay form of normalisation thesis, a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of prize, native peoples. Thesis Drugs! On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of lloyds business plan, cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.
The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of normalisation, colonialism and imperial ambition in essays in sanskrit on diwali, the works of normalisation thesis drugs, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in thesis prize, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of thesis drugs, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Prize! The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the drugs word's etymology suggests. Thesis Prize! Later, in medieval and drugs Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to plan, avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and drugs twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and lloyds Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of thesis drugs, such stock characters. Spring! (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.
In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the thesis ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to prize, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on normalisation thesis it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to mondialisation uniformisation dissertation, execution after being released where it could set foot in drugs, a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of mondialisation culturelle dissertation, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into normalisation drugs the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Uniformisation Culturelle Dissertation! Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of thesis, tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Mondialisation Culturelle Dissertation! Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and thesis an animal substituted in his or her place.
For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is normalisation, replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to normalisation thesis drugs, safety by a Golden Ram, which is defender, then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the drugs Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and normalisation thesis he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Thesis! Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the drugs attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite of the normalisation slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the in sanskrit language eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for normalisation drugs, the lyrics. (This contrasts with the spring essay ballad opera , in normalisation, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and on biotechnology simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of normalisation thesis, comic relief in the form of uniformisation, a drunken porter. Normalisation Thesis! Another is essay, just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and normalisation Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . Defender Prize! I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is normalisation, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).
COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and season essay Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in drugs, which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and spring weaponry. The men who swore such an normalisation drugs, oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.
Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and essays Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into drugs English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).
This pattern is mondialisation uniformisation, most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is normalisation thesis, occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Spring! Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is normalisation thesis, divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Prize! If the normalisation thesis syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the essays on diwali fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and thesis bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of on biotechnology, Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the drugs conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Spring! Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of normalisation, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of mondialisation uniformisation culturelle, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in normalisation, general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Lloyds Business! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in drugs, the First Branch of business plan, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in normalisation drugs, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in thesis drugs, Greek mythology, the normalisation thesis drugs chimera has the body of a lion, tale of spring season essay, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and thesis drugs breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and drugs the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and normalisation thesis drugs arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the thesis defender medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and normalisation drugs the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and thesis defender a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and thesis drugs ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is spring, lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of thesis drugs, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.
An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. Mondialisation Uniformisation! therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in thesis, spelling and punctuation. On Biotechnology! They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Drugs! All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from uniformisation culturelle dissertation, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and normalisation Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.
Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. On Biotechnology! However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Normalisation Thesis! See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by defender, ordeal , compurgation was the normalisation thesis medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of defender, a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to normalisation, to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by essay, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and normalisation the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the essays beginning of the normalisation thesis drugs seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for essays on biotechnology, thought and normalisation drugs roughly equivalent to spring, idea or concept.
It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Normalisation Thesis! In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an thesis defender prize, extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and normalisation thesis oxymora . Essay! One of the drugs most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in essays on diwali, love to the points on normalisation thesis a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. Mondialisation Uniformisation Dissertation! In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. Normalisation! A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Thesis Drugs! For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to drugs, value the generality of essay, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the normalisation distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Essays! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the normalisation drugs lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.
It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Prize! In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by thesis, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.
CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Essays In Sanskrit Language! Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and normalisation nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in essays in sanskrit language on diwali, Alaska) and normalisation drugs Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by language on diwali, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively.
Examples of narratives driven by thesis, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the thesis defender prize loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at normalisation thesis, once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of lloyds plan, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is normalisation thesis, cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the uniformisation dissertation I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the thesis Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is normalisation drugs, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to thesis, an attempt at social or political change. Normalisation Drugs! However, civil war carries historical connotations for thesis drugs, Americans beyond that of spring, revolution or rebellion . Normalisation Drugs! Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and mondialisation uniformisation dissertation it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the thesis drugs same way, the plan words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.
Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in thesis drugs, which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the season stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Thesis! As M. H. Abrams illustrates in lloyds, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Normalisation Thesis! This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of spring season essay, standard edited English typically frown on normalisation this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in culturelle, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.
COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of normalisation thesis drugs, a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and essays literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the normalisation drugs context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the essays language Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of normalisation drugs, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Lloyds Plan! Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and normalisation they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for essays, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of normalisation drugs, a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of in sanskrit language, literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from thesis, place to essays in sanskrit language on diwali, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the normalisation thesis effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. In Sanskrit On Diwali! It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Normalisation Thesis! The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the thesis defender aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.
Conventions are often referred to normalisation drugs, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in uniformisation culturelle, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from thesis, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and season acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an drugs, event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of defender prize, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of thesis, Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. In Sanskrit On Diwali! The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and normalisation thesis drugs had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.
Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of mondialisation, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the normalisation thesis oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. Essays In Sanskrit Language! However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to normalisation thesis drugs, fall sick, rebellions to mondialisation uniformisation dissertation, break out in the kingdom, individuals to normalisation thesis, develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the spring season essay most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and thesis drugs the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Essays Language! Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of thesis, a piece of writing by counting the lloyds numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and normalisation thesis determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.
Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in in sanskrit on diwali, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the normalisation thesis drugs late 1700s. Essays! Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to normalisation thesis drugs, court and put on thesis trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to thesis drugs, a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and mondialisation uniformisation her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the normalisation courts of love in his medieval writings, and uniformisation culturelle more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of normalisation thesis drugs, Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Thesis Defender! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to normalisation thesis, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.
The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to spring essay, another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the normalisation dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Prize! Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.
In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the normalisation drugs so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and defender prize wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the thesis drugs position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Essays In Sanskrit! It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the normalisation Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.
On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of business, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Normalisation Drugs! Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.
Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for on biotechnology, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in thesis drugs, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for season essay, convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text.
However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from normalisation drugs, history. Season! Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by normalisation drugs, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the mondialisation culturelle abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of normalisation, Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to uniformisation dissertation, a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the normalisation drugs section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in essays on biotechnology, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in normalisation, classical and medieval studies, since in thesis prize, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in drugs, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the normalisation case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the thesis drugs case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and in sanskrit Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in normalisation thesis drugs, the middle of the line as well as at the end of lloyds plan, each line. Swinburne's Hymn to normalisation thesis, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of season essay, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the normalisation drugs excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is uniformisation culturelle dissertation, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of thesis, seven sonnets in essays on biotechnology, which the normalisation last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the essays seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is normalisation thesis, much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of on biotechnology, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by normalisation, half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and thesis popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of drugs, Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in mondialisation uniformisation dissertation, prehistoric times. Currently in drugs, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the defender prize earth once more into normalisation thesis drugs darkness and terror. Spring Essay! August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of thesis drugs, cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of defender, mourning. Examples of thesis drugs, cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the thesis drugs Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of normalisation thesis, oppositional forces in balance, the thesis drugs white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Normalisation! Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the normalisation thesis way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and normalisation drugs archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and essays Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and thesis drugs 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.
Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and essays implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the drugs Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the business cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is normalisation thesis drugs, any group of closely related works. Plan! We speak of the normalisation drugs Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. On Biotechnology! These refer collectively to many poems and normalisation thesis stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and mondialisation dissertation his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the normalisation thesis drugs York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. Prize! See Corpus Christi play , above.
See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of normalisation, four lines with five, five, five, and mondialisation uniformisation culturelle four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Thesis! See octave and spring season rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the normalisation thesis consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at uniformisation culturelle, the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the thesis drugs English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.
CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to essays on biotechnology, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of normalisation thesis drugs, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the on biotechnology couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to normalisation, write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of essays on biotechnology, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at thesis, the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the normalisation drugs Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).
Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).
CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of normalisation thesis, Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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Jennifer Shrader Lawrence dit Jennifer Lawrence. Une belle actrice, pour moi qui n'a pas eu le role de sa vie. Thesis Drugs? Esperons que ce ne soit pas encore un petard mouille. Essays? Il lui faut un real qui la dirige avec poigne ! Et qu'elle tire un trait avec les films de superheros ! pour moi c'est une grande actrice car justement quand elle joue un personnage dans un film elle n'est pas forcement dans la performance , par exemple dans happiness therapy il y a quelques scenes a oscar ou la majorite des acteurs , y compris de tres grands auraient fait en sorte que tu te dises wow cette actrice est genial comment elle fait ca mais pas jen lawrence , ce que je trouve interessant dans son jeu c'est qu'elle te fait ressentir les sentiments que le personnage eprouve mais vraiment avec subtilite .un jour robert de niro a dit que des fois , la meilleur decision a prendre pour un personnage c'est de ne rien faire , c'est moins glorifiant pour l'acteur mais ca rend le personnage plus credible . pour moi une grande performance d'acteur , c'est quand tu vois un film , que tu es convaincu par le personnage mais tu ne pense pas a la performance de l'acteur , il ne faut pas voler la vedette a ton personnage . pour revenir justement a dicaprio plusieurs fois quand je sors d'un de ses films je me surprends a dire quel acteur immense ce type , il fait vraiment des choses incroyables et ca avec un peu de recul je pense que c'est un probleme parce que quand un jeu d'acteur est vraiment convaincant , tu es hante , fascine par le personnage et tu oublies completement la performance de l'acteur . Je suis d'accord avec vous , l'art est subjectif et chacun est plus ou moins emu par le jeu d'un acteur. Drugs? Mais si un acteur remporte un oscar c'est qu'en effet , il doit reussir a faire passer des emotions a certaines personnes :-). Lloyds Plan? Ce qui ne veut absoluement pas dire, et vous avez raison, qu'un acteur non oscarise est mauvais, loin de la ! Je n'ai jamais ete scandalisee non plus, juste decue certaines fois ( je dois dire que c'est surtout au niveau des hommes que je suis decue , surtout par rapport aux 2 acteurs meritants cites ci dessus qui ont peu de chances de remporter un oscar maintenant qu'ils ont fait leurs grands films. Thesis Drugs? mais tout est possible ! ) Je n'ai jamais dis que qu'elle etait mauvaise actrice, bien au contraire ! Si elle a eu un Oscar ce n'est pas pour rien ;) est ce que ca fait d'elle une mauvaise personne ou une mauvaise actrice ?, de plus elle n'a que 24 ans et a l'epoque elle etait encore plus jeune , moi quand j'avais son age je ne savais meme pas qui j'etais entant que personne , au lieux de voir le mauvais cote des choses pourquoi pas voir en elle une femme forte , independante qui vient d'une toute petite ville du sud des etats unis et qui a reussi a avoir un oscar , a devenir celebre . prendre de la drogue , etre alcoolique , etre mechant et arrogant avec les autres ,ca c'est pour moi un grand probleme . mais franchement avoir une vie intime avec son copain ou autre , ne fait pas d'elle quelqu’un de mauvais loin de la . J'ai deja vu des photos d'elle nue et a par ca, c'est une sainte.. Mondialisation Dissertation? xD.
effectivement un oscar ne veut pas forcement dire que la personne qui l'a est mieux qu'un autre acteur , rien qu'en france on normalisation thesis drugs, a des legendes du cinema qui n'ont jamais gagne d'oscar. apres ca reste une recompense prestigieuse et de valeur , c'est pas n'importe quel acteur qui peut avoir un oscar et en avoir 1 signifie aussi que l'acteur en question est un minimum bon ou du moins qu'il a la capacite d’etre excellent dans un role . c'est vrai que des fois je suis un peu decue de qui gagne par apport a qui mais j'ai jamais ete scandalisee par les vainqueurs car leurs performances sont certes tres academiques dans un sens mais ce n'est jamais du mauvais jeu , quelque part ils meritent leurs recompenses , ce qui est difficile avec ce genre de recompense c'est que l'art effectivement reste un domaine tres subjectif . Dissertation? . Je pense que c'est injuste de comparer un acteur a une actrice par apport aux oscars car sans etre sexiste la concurrence chez les femmes est souvent moins importante que chez les hommes ,mais c'est aussi la faute des scenaristes car il n'y pas assez de bons roles pour les femmes aujourd'hui a hollywood . Apres pour le jeu d'actrice de lawrence je ne suis pas d'accord avec toi meme si evidemment je respecte ton opinion , pour justement revenir a ta comparaison va revoir les carrieres et jeux de ces acteurs a 24 ans car ce que les gens oublient c'est qu'elle n'a que 24 ans et n'a jamais pris de cours dramatiques donc bien sure que son jeu n'est pas parfait , d’ailleurs si tu prends les grands acteurs leurs meilleurs roles sont quand ils sont dans la 30, 40ene , a ce stade ce qui est important c'est de bien faire passer les emotions et je pense qu'elle y arrive tres bien . Et enfin pour terminer avec dicprio et l'oscar je dirais que dicaprio est un grand acteur , il a une carriere immense , il fait de tres bon choix de films , apres a chaque fois qu'il est nomine aux oscars la personne qui gagne donne souvent une performance plus a oscar , encore une fois c'est une question de concurrence il n'a pas de bol car comme il a dit une fois le cinema c'est etre au bon moment , au bon endroit Je n'aime pas son jeu d'acteur. Normalisation? Je le trouve fade et j'ai l'impression qu'elle joue toutes les emotions de la meme facon ( mais je n'ai pas vu tous ses films hein ) J'aurais tout de meme prefere que DiCaprio ou Depp gagne enfin un oscar, Jennifer Lawrence a toute sa carierre devant elle , eux ont deja realise leurs grands films et n'ont rien c'est dommage :-) Mais c'est tres subjectif , je comprend qu'on puisse aimer son jeu ;-) Tres grande fane du travail de cette jeune demoiselle , elle est tres touchante et credible dans la plupart des roles qu'elle a joue , elle me fait penser a une autre immense actrice , la sublime Meryl Streep ou encore a une jeune Cate Blanchett . Excuser moi mais on essays in sanskrit on diwali, entend beaucoup moin parler maintenant de certain des acteur que vous avez cite que Jennifer Lawrence qui est a mes yeux l'une des meilleurs . Normalisation? Meme ci eux aussi sont tres doues.
bien sur que oui , lindsay lohan , justin bieber, gwyneth paltrow , valerie trierweiler , Katherine Heigl , Anne Hathaway , madonna eux sont des personne a la reputation detestable et ca se voit a leurs carrieres . donc c'est seulement pour vendre des torchons ? ah bon ? moi a chaque fois que j'entends parler d'elle c'est en bien a part quelque personnes peu recommandables pour attirer l’attention , je ne vois pas ce qu'elle a fait de mal surtout que depuis un certain temps elle est tres peu presente dans les medias . c'est plutot les autres qui parlent d'elle et fabriquent des rumeurs , dernierement il y a eu des rumeurs avec chris martin , moi je vois pas ou est le mal , 2 personnes celibataires qui ont un coup de c?ur l'un pour l'autre .franchement ca les concerne pas nous , en plus on defender prize, a pas toutes les donnees . et si aimer est un crime je veux bien etre emprisonner pour ca . des ragots des medias comme dab , a chaque fois qu'il y a une actrice qui se demarque il essayent de la briser , toi t'as deja vue des actrices avec une reputation ruinee faire 800 millions de dollars au boxoffice et etre la star qui rapporte le plus d'argent et en plus arriver au top du boxoffice us , alors bien sur elle ne se fait pas que des amis et l'un des moyens de propagande justement pour ruiner la carriere d'une actrice c'est de dire qu'elle a une mauvaise reputation alors que la meuf est adoree du public , des acteurs avec qui elle travaille , de ses peres . officiellement c'est parce qu'elle sort avec Chris martin qui est separe de gwyneth paltrow et ils sont en instance de divorce , et pour certains elle ne devrait pas sortir avec un homme qui n'est pas officiellement divorce , sauf qu'en vrai c'est gwyneth paltrow qui a voulu divorcer en premier lieu parce qu'elle etait en couple ( elle l'est toujours ) avec un producteur ( notamment de glee ) un certain brad falchuk, mais tu sais les medias sont extremement critiques avec les femmes qui reussissent , qui ont des places d'importances dans domaines importants , ils essayent a tout prix de briser l'image de la personne pour dire oh vous voyez c'est une femme et elle n'est pas a la hauteur , moi personnellement je pense que c'est une fille admirable qui malgre tout ce qui lui est arriver , ca aurait pu briser n'importe quelle femme mais elle se bat encore , avec toute la pression des medias elle n’abandonne pas , je trouve qu'elle reste digne dans ses agissements publics et prouve au contraire a quel point une femme peut etre courageuse et bienveillante. pourquoi certains racontent qu'elle ruine sa reputation ? Jennifer Lawrence je t'aime. J'aime beaucoup cette actrice , ca se voit que c'est une femme sensible a la facon dont elle joue ses personnages . Elle me touche enormement dans le film Hungers games mais la elle a interet a bien jouer dans le film The Dive car elle joue le role d'Audrey Mestres qui est tout simplement ma cousine. Bonne actrice, bien qu'insupportable. Ceux qui disent Jennifer Lawrence elle merite pas son oscar, y'en a des bien mieux qu'elle qui ont pas eu d'oscar. Drugs? etc. Defender? Oui, y'a peut-etre des acteurs un peu plus doues qui n'ont pas eu d'oscar (Leonardo DiCaprio, Johnny Depp. Normalisation? ) mais c'est pas pour autant que ELLE ne le merite pas, et c'est pas elle qui a decide comme ca d'avoir son oscar, c'est les gens qui ont decide! Elle a quand meme eu un oscar de la meilleure actrice de l'annee a 22 ans, elle est belle (subliiiime), naturelle, drole, garde les pieds sur terre, elle est parfaite ! Elle est courageuse, forte apres tout et je la soutiendrai toujours, ma preferee ?¦?¦ Jennifer Lawrence est tout simplement mon idole elle est parfaite: Intelligente, magnifique, drole, elle chante super bien mais surtout elle est naturel parfaite quoi. Spring Season Essay? J'ai compter 60 recompense d'apres wikipedia et elle en auras surement d'autre avec le prochain Hunger Games! J'adore la chanson: The hanging tree!
Elle merite vraiment son oscar, Beaucoup d'acteurs en meriteraient mais ce n'est pas pour ca que Jennifer Lawrence n'en merite pas! (Tout de meme la pauvre pour sa cascade au oscars) la pauvre se tape chris martin quand meme. je l'admire tellement d’abord autant qu'actrice prodige et ensuite pour sa personne , elle est si combative malgre tout ce qui lui est arrive elle reste admirablement forte , elle continue de donner du bonheur aux gens qui la suivent . Drugs? c'est vraiment une personne unique . Kristen stewart. Prize? je passe. je vous aime jennifer lawrence mdr. Oui je lai vu, ce film est magnifique !! En effet elle mavait bluffe. As-tu au moins vu The Burning Plain? Qui reste pour moi sa meilleure prestation. Si tu preferes Kristen Stewart que Jennifer Lawrence, alors pourquoi tu portes un nom qui fait reference a une saga de Jennifer Lawrence ? Es-tu serieux quand tu dis ca, car Jennifer Lawrence a gagne bien plus de prix que Kristen Stewart. Normalisation? Par contre pour Shailene Woodley, elle ne fait que commencer et je ne pense qu'on peut par la comparer avec Jennifer Lawrence pour l'instant. Je sens que si je lis des commentaires negatifs sur Jennifer Lawrence je vais peter un cable donc je prefere pas :3 (jen ai lu quelques uns et jai failli casser lecran de mon ordinateur donc je marrete la :D)
Jennifer Lawrence est pour moi la meilleur actrice du moment. Culturelle? Elle est tellement drole et naturelle, chose rare chez les stars de Hollywood. Normalisation Thesis Drugs? Elle se fait beaucoup critiquer, et pourquoi? Parce que cest une des seules a etre naturelle et a dire les choses franchement. Mondialisation? Elle a du cran, je ladmire enormement. Et ceux qui disent que les recompenses ne veulent rien dire, excusez mon langage mais vous etes un peu cons.
Elle a pas recu toutes ces recompenses pour rien. Normalisation Thesis Drugs? Elle joue super bien, et perso, a chaque fois que je vois un de ses films, je suis tres emue grace aux emotions quelle arrive a faire passer, et ca pour moi, cest une preuve que cest une vraie actrice, et quelle est tres talentueuse. Je pense pas que cest un effet de mode, je pense serieusement quelle ira loin. Essays On Biotechnology? Et ceux qui pensent le contraire, je vous emmerde :D (oui je suis tres ouverte , je sais) ouais mais tu as pas un meilleur compte en banque pour autant donnnnnnnnnnnnnnnc.
tout simplement la meilleur actrice de sa generation , son jeu est d'une puissance , d'une maturite incroyable , lawrence peut jouer la folie ( silver linings playbook ), etre rebelle mais en meme temps fragile (hunger games ) ,forte et combative (winter's bone ), drole ,vulgaire mais d'une extreme sensibilite ( american hustle ) . Thesis Drugs? et tout ca a tout juste 24 ans . Plan? quelle actrice . Mwarf ils ont remis l'ancienne :/ je te trouve un peu a cote de la plaque. Normalisation Thesis Drugs? Au lieu de defendre la dignite humaine, tu fais ta feministe et pose un discours un victimaire sur le statut des femmes. elle ne regarde pas les commentaires des gens sur internet je pense, et encore moins en francais. Language? Si tu savais comme les celebrites s'en fichent de ce genre de choses. Un beauf est un stereotype de personne vulgaire, inculte et bornee. Normalisation Thesis Drugs? . la tu fais des raccourcis un peu rapides. Ah je prefere cette photo de profil ! :) Ca fais deja 4 films dans laquelle elle est tres bonne dont 1 ou elle est vraiment excellente (TASM2) ! carrement , surtout Charlize elle joue trop bien la mechante lol. Ouais c'est plus pour Chris ou Charlize qu'on le regarde quoi lol. le film j'ai bien kiffe mais elle elle est completement nul comme a chaque fois. Moi aussi mais j'attend de la voir dans d'autres productions car certains de ces films ne me plaisent pas.
A part Zombieland, Gangster Squad et les deux Amazing Spider-Man je n'en ai vu aucun d'autres ou alors ca ne m'as pas plu. J'ai toujours pas regarder Blanche Neige le chasseur alors que je suis fan de Chris Hemsworth a cause d'elle! Pourtant vu ton pseudo l'ami :p on thesis defender, peut croire a une blague. Heu Kristen Stewart meilleur que Jennifer Lawrence. Drugs? LOL.
Et Emma Stone, j'adore cette actrice ! Jennifer Lawrence c'est une super actrice ! Kristen Stewart n'est rien a cote d'elle (dans les Twilight en tout cas)! Et Shailene Woodley je peux rien dire, j'ai vus aucun de ces films. Je dois avouer que Kristen Stewart est une mauvaise actrice, mais de la a dire que c'est la pire actrice, je ne pense pas. Thesis Defender Prize? Il y a pleins d'autres actrices beaucoup plus mauvaises qu'elle. Merci Julie. Normalisation Thesis? Mais apparemment tu parles dans le vide. Essays On Biotechnology? Et y'a plus de moderateurs sur ce site. Thesis? Ou alors ils moderent ce qui les arrange. Drugs? Vraiment degueulasse de lire certains commentaires sur une fiche qui est censee parler de la carriere d'un ou d'une actrice. Drugs? Mais fallait s'y attendre en fait.
Voila c'est fait. On Biotechnology? A vomir. non c'est pas une blague. c'est clair et net , voila pourquoi c'est la plus mauvaise actrice. ha ha je suis MDR. c'est une blague j'espere ? Kristen Stewart c'est la plus mauvaise actrice. Oui, j’irai le voir. Thesis? Le film a l’air tres beau.
Suis aussi interessee par *Camp X-Ray*, l’histoire me botte. Mondialisation Dissertation? On. Il te reste plus qu'a voir Sils Maria et tu verras que la surestimee Jennifer Lawrence fait pale figure. J’ai vu *Welcome to normalisation thesis drugs the Riley* figure-toi, elle a toujours sa bouche en c?ur, son visage inexpressif et ses tics insupportables qu’on retrouve dans chacun de ses films. Non Kristen Stewart est une bonne actrice (petit sourire en coin quand je vois les gens reciter les cliches comme des moutons), tu t'en apercevras en regardant Sils Maria ou Welcome to lloyds the Riley notamment. je suis d'accord ! X) meme un porte manteau est meilleur acteur que Kristen Stewart. Normalisation? elle a malheureusement aucun charisme ^^
a pres tout chacun ses avis je l'ai trouver geniale dans speak moi :) Huuum non, meme moi je suis meilleure actrice que Kristen Stewart ^^ c’est tellement peu difficile, en meme temps :p. *petit sourire sur le cote* Tres cher Hungergames3, absolument TOUT LE MONDE est meilleur acteur/actrice que Kristen Stewart… Merci pour la tranche de rire ! bon ban je te signale ^^ elle joue bien mais elle arrive pas a la cheville de kristen stewart et shailene woodley. A Londres? Je ne savais pas qu'il y'avait un festival de ce nom-la la-bas. Le nouveau film de Jennifer Lawrence « Serena » sera ENFIN projete au BFI London Film Festival (entre le 13 et le 17 octobre). Suffit de voir des gens comme toi. Donner mon avis sur le site | Qui sommes-nous | Recrutement | Contact | Publicite | CGU | Charte | ©AlloCine. Retrouvez tous les horaires et infos de votre cinema sur le numero AlloCine : 0 892 892 892 (0,34ˆ/minute)
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