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Weapons training essay language techniques

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author sample resume Crafting Your Work. Training Essay! The Writing Business. The Writing Life. The Writing Life. Business Pdf! Fiction Writing - General. Fiction Writing - Genres. POD Subsidy Publishing. Weapons Essay Language Techniques! General Promotion Tips. This free script provided by.

Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and a query leter. Should I include only essays helping my writing credits and education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from training essay techniques, home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills.

You know that you have the essay for high, skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an training essay employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Gp Essays And Technology! Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. Language Techniques! This type of essay, resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and essay techniques enables you to focus on people, the skills and experience that are directly relevant to essay language, the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of english thesis, your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183

Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to list each type of skill that is relevant to the job you're applying for. Language! For example, if the essay format school, job listing asks for demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in essay magazine, newspaper, and business writing.

Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in ethical fact, employable. Weapons Techniques! If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently. Essays About Helping Poor! If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to training techniques, function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the name of the company and continuity planning its location, and a contact name and weapons training language techniques number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and major achievements. People! Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of weapons training essay language techniques, people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc. Business Continuity! If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in training language your employment history.

For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to Article Interpretation, present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. Essay! Needless to say, if you can find any duties in ethical your work history that relate to weapons essay language, writing or the job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about for high school, your previous employers. Language Techniques! Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and working backwards.

If you have a college education, omit information about ethical egoism, high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for weapons training techniques a degree in about writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to training essay language techniques, accept experience in lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. This is the section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and Article Interpretation editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information.

It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in weapons training essay language question, try to pdf, find a way to weapons techniques, list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Essays Poor! Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. Language! #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to contribute to the creative development of a publication and expansion of its circulation. Writing and Editorial Background.

Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business continuity business writing. Training! Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the for high school, Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. Training Essay Techniques! City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the essay format for high school, skills you've already listed above. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of your duties and weapons training language responsibilities; list major achievements and Interpretation promotions. Company Name Brief summary of training essay techniques, your duties and gp essays and technology responsibilities; list major achievements and essay promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English.

Certification in Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Awards and Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. About Poor! In addition to your resume (which you should try to weapons essay techniques, keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list. Format For High! This should also be kept to a single page. Training Techniques! Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Double-space the Article Interpretation, list, which should include the title of each article or story, the publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication.

If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the weapons techniques, URL as well. You may also be asked for essay school clips. Training Essay Language! Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for color copies. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of samples offered by job applicants. Essays People! One individual who was applying to a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of training essay language, her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?).

If you haven't assembled a portfolio of your best work, this is a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the english, black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. Weapons Training Essay! If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections. Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to egoism essay, put in your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an weapons training essay editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to english examples, job boards. For many of weapons techniques, these jobs, all you need is skill and a modem. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation.

While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by egoism essay the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on weapons training, your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to Interpretation, get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the training techniques, proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on gp essays, your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Moira Allen is the editor of, and has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and training language techniques Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests.

In addition to, Allen hosts, a growing archive of essays poor, articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. Training Essay Techniques! She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at english editors at Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen. All rights reserved.

All materials on this site are the property of their authors and may not be reprinted. Language Techniques! without the examples, author's written permission, unless otherwise indicated.

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ncftp resume The purpose of ncftp is to provide a powerful and flexible interface to weapons training essay techniques, the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol . It is people, intended to replace the stock ftp program that comes with the training, system. Although the program appears to be rather spartan, you'll find that ncftp has a wealth of essays helping poor people valuable performance and usage features. The program was designed with an emphasis on usability, and it does as much as it can for you automatically so you can do what you expect to do with a file transfer program, which is transfer files between two interconnected systems. Some of the cooler features include progress meters, filename completion, command-line editing, background processing, auto-resume downloads, bookmarking, cached directory listings, host redialing, working with firewalls and proxies, downloading entire directory trees, etc., etc. The ncftp distribution comes with the useful utility programs ncftpget (1) and ncftpput (1) which were designed to do command-line FTP. Language Techniques? In particular, they are very handy for shell scripts. This version of ncftp no longer does command-line FTP, since the main ncftp program is more of a browser-type program. The program allows you to specify a host or directory URL on ethical essay the command line.

This is a synonym for weapons language techniques, running ncftp and then using the open command. On Science And Technology? A few command-line flags are allowed with this mode: Upon running the weapons language, program you are presented a command prompt where you type commands to the program's shell. Usually you will want to open a remote filesystem to transfer files to Article Interpretation, and from your local machine's filesystem. To do that, you need to know the symbolic name of the remote system, or its Internet Protocol (IP) address. Weapons Essay Language Techniques? For example, a symbolic name might be ``,'' and its IP address could be ``'' To open a connection to that system, you use the program's open command: Both of these try to open the machine called typhoon at the University of Nebraska . Using the symbolic name is the preferred way, because IP addresses may change without notice, while the on science and technology, symbolic names usually stay the same. When you open a remote filesystem, you need to have permission.

The FTP Protocol 's authentication system is very similar to that of logging in to weapons training essay language techniques, your account. You have to english thesis, give an account name, and its password for training, access to that account's files. About Helping Poor People? However, most remote systems that have anything you might be interested in don't require an account name for use. Weapons Essay Techniques? You can often get anonymous access to a remote filesystem and school exchange files that have been made publicly accessible. The program attempts to training essay, get anonymous permission to a remote system by default. What actually happens is that the program tries to use ``anonymous'' as the account name, and when prompted for a password, uses your E-mail address as a courtesy to Article, the remote system's maintainer. You can have the program try to weapons training, use a specific account also. That will be explained later. After the open command completes successfully, you are connected to the remote system and logged in. You should now see the command prompt change to reflect the name of the current remote directory.

To see what's in about helping poor people, the current remote directory, you can use the program's ls and essay language dir commands. The former is terse, preferring more remote files in less screen space, and the latter is more verbose, giving detailed information about each item in the directory. You can use the program's cd command to move to other directories on the remote system. The cd command behaves very much like the command of the same name in the Bourne and Korn shell. The purpose of the Article, program is to weapons essay language, exchange data with other systems.

You can use the program's get command to copy a file from the remote system to your local system: The program will display the progress of the transfer on the screen, so you can tell how much needs to be done before the transfer finishes. When the transfer does finish, then you can enter more commands to the program's command shell. You can use the pdf, program's put command to copy a file from your system to the remote system: When you are finished using the remote system, you can open another one or use the quit. Before quitting, you may want to save the current FTP session's settings for training essay language, later.

You can use the bookmark command to save an entry into your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file. Gp Essays On Science And Technology? When you use the bookmark command, you also specify a bookmark name, so the next time instead of opening the full hostname you can use the name of the bookmark. A bookmark acts just like one for your web browser, so it saves the remote directory you were in, the account name you used, etc., and other information it learned so that the next time you use the bookmark it should require as little effort from you as possible. to change to the last directory you were in. Acts like the ``/bin/chmod'' UNIX command, only for weapons techniques, remote files. However, this is not a standard command, so remote FTP servers may not support it. Disconnects you from the remote server. The program does this for gp essays on science and technology, you automatically when needed, so you can simply open other sites or quit the program without worrying about essay language techniques, closing the on science and technology, connection by essay language, hand. This command is mostly for essay format for high school, internal testing.

You could type to turn debugging mode on. Then you could see all messages between the program and the remote server, and things that are only printed in debugging mode. Training Language? However, this information is also available in the $HOME/.ncftp/trace file, which is created each time you run ncftp . If you need to report a bug, send a trace file if you can. Prints a detailed directory listing. It tries to behave like UNIX 's ``/bin/ls -l'' command. If the remote server seems to be a UNIX host, you can also use the same flags you would with ls , for instance would try to act like. Downloads into a temporary file for editing on the local host, then uploads the changed file back to business planning, the remote host. Copies files from the weapons training techniques, current working directory on the remote host to your machine's current working directory. To place a copy of ``README'' and ``README.too'' in ethical egoism essay, your local directory, you could try: get README README.too.

You could also accomplish that by using a wildcard expression, such as: This command is similar to the behavior of other FTP programs' mget command. To retrieve a remote file but give it a different name on your host, you can use the ``-z'' flag. This example shows how to download a file called ReadMe.txt but name it locally as README : The program tries to ``resume'' downloads by default. This means that if the remote FTP server lost the training essay techniques, connection and was only able to english examples, send 490 kilobytes of a 500 kilobyte file, you could reconnect to the FTP server and do another get on the same file name and it would get the last 10 kilobytes, instead of retrieving the entire file again. There are some occasions where you may not want that behavior.

To turn it off you can use the ``-f'' flag. Weapons Training Essay Techniques? There are also times where you want to thesis examples, append to an existing file. You can do this by using the ``-A'' flag, for example. would append to a file named ``log.11'' if it existed locally. Another thing you can do is delete a remote file after you download it.

This can be useful when a remote host expects a file to weapons essay, be removed when it has been retrieved. Use the double-D flag, such as ``get -DD'' to do this. The get command lets you retrieve entire directory trees, too. Article? Although it may not work with some remote systems, you can try ``get -R'' with a directory to weapons training essay language techniques, download the directory and its contents. When using the ``-R'' flag, you can also use the english, ``-T'' flag to disable automatic on-the-fly TAR mode for downloading whole directory trees. The program uses TAR whenever possible since this usually preserves symbolic links and file permissions. TAR mode can also result in faster transfers for directories containing many small files, since a single data connection can be used rather than an FTP data connection for each small file. The downside to using TAR is that it forces downloading of the whole directory, even if you had previously downloaded a portion of weapons training essay techniques it earlier, so you may want to use this option if you want to resume downloading of a directory. On Science And Technology? Views the list of currently executing NcFTP background tasks. This actually just runs ncftpbatch -l for weapons training essay, you.

The lcd command is the first of school a few ``l'' commands that work with the local host. This changes the current working directory on language the local host. If you want to download files into a different local directory, you could use lcd to change to that directory and then do your downloads. Essays Poor? Runs ``/bin/chmod'' on the local host. Another local command that comes in handy is the lls command, which runs ``/bin/ls'' on essay language the local host and displays the results in the program's window. You can use the same flags with lls as you would in your command shell, so you can do things like: Runs ``/bin/mkdir'' on the local host. lookup. The program also has a built-in interface to on science and technology, the name service via the lookup command. This means you can lookup entries for remote hosts, like: There is weapons essay language, also a more detailed option, enabled with ``-v,'' i.e.:

You can also give IP addresses, so this would work too: Views a local file one page at a time, with your preferred $PAGER program. Prints the essays about helping poor people, current local directory. Use this command when you forget where you are on your local machine. Runs ``/bin/mv'' on the local host. Runs ``/bin/rm'' on the local host. Training? Runs ``/bin/rmdir'' on the local host. Essays? Prints a directory listing from the remote system. It tries to behave like UNIX 's ``/bin/ls -CF'' command.

If the remote server seems to be a UNIX host, you can also use the same flags you would with ls , for instance would try to act like. ncftp has a powerful built-in system for dealing with directory listings. It tries to cache each one, so if you list the same directory, odds are it will display instantly. Behind the scenes, ncftp always tries a long listing, and weapons training essay techniques then reformats it as it needs to. So even if your first listing of a directory was a regular ``ls'' which displayed the Article, files in columns, your next listing could be ``ls -lrt'' and ncftp would still use the weapons, cached directory listing to quickly display the information for you! Creates a new directory on the remote host.

For many public archives, you won't have the proper access permissions to pdf, do that. Establishes an FTP control connection to a remote host. Training Language Techniques? By default, ncftp logs in anonymously to essays people, the remote host. You may want to use a specific user account when you log in, so you can use the ``-u'' flag to specify which user. This example shows how to open the host ``'' using the username ``mario:'' Here is a list of flags you can use with the open command: would append to a file named ``log11.txt'' if it existed on training language techniques the remote server. Another thing you can do is delete a local file after you upload it. Continuity Pdf? Use the double-D flag, such as ``put -DD'' to do this. The put command lets you send entire directory trees, too. Weapons Training Essay Language Techniques? It should work on all remote systems, so you can try ``put -R'' with a directory to upload the Interpretation, directory and its contents.

Prints the weapons training, current remote working directory. A portion of the pathname is also displayed in essay format school, the shell's prompt. Of course, when you finish using the weapons language, program, type quit to end the program (You could also use bye , exit , or ^D ). This can be used to send a direct FTP Protocol command to the remote server. Generally this isn't too useful to the average user. If you need to change the name of a remote file, you can use the rename command, like:

Sends a help request to the remote server. Essay School? The list of FTP Protocol commands is often printed, and sometimes some other information that is actually useful, like how to reach the site administrator. Depending on the remote server, you may be able to give a parameter to weapons training language, the server also, like: One server responded: If you need to delete a remote file you can try the rm command. Essays Helping Poor? Much of the time this won't work because you won't have the proper access permissions. This command doesn't accept any flags, so you can't nuke a whole tree by using ``-rf'' flags like you can on weapons training essay language techniques UNIX . Similarly, the rmdir command removes a directory. Depending on gp essays on science the remote server, you may be able to remove a non-empty directory, so be careful. This lets you configure some program variables, which are saved between runs in the $HOME/.ncftp/prefs file.

The basic syntax is: For example, to training, change the value you use for the anonymous password, you might do: See the next section for a list of things you change. This lets you display program variables. You can do ``show all'' to egoism, display all of them, or give a variable name to just display that one, such as: One obscure command you may have to use someday is site . The FTP Protocol allows for ``site specific'' commands. These ``site'' commands vary of course, such as: Actually, ncftp 's chmod command really does the above. Try doing one of training these to see what the remote server supports, if any: site help You may need to change transfer types during the and technology, course of a session with a server. Training Language Techniques? You can use the type command to do this. Article Interpretation? Try one of training language these: The ascii command is Article, equivalent to ``type a'', and the binary command is equivalent to ``type i'' and ``type b''. Sets the process' umask on the remote server, if it has any concept of weapons essay techniques a umask, i.e.: However, this is not a standard command, so remote FTP servers may not support it.

This command dumps some information about the particular edition of the thesis examples, program you are using, and how it was installed on training essay techniques your system. When a host is ethical essay, busy or unavailable, the program waits this number of seconds before trying again. Essay Language? The smallest you can set this is to 10 seconds -- so if you were planning on being inconsiderate, think again. If you set this variable to yes , the egoism, program will save passwords along with the bookmarks you save. Essay? While this makes non-anonymous logins more convenient, this can be very dangerous since your account information is now sitting in thesis, the $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file. The passwords aren't in clear text, but it is still trivial to decode them if someone wants to make a modest effort. If set to yes and operating from within an xterm window, the weapons training essay language, program will change the window's titlebar accordingly. If your operating system supports TCP Large Windows , you can try setting this variable to the number of bytes to set the TCP/IP socket buffer to.

This option won't be of examples much use unless the remote server also supports large window sizes and is pre-configured with them enabled. This timer controls how long to wait for data blocks to weapons essay techniques, complete. Don't set this too low or else your transfers will timeout without completing. You may find that your network administrator has placed a firewall between your machine and the Internet, and that you cannot reach external hosts. The answer may be as simple as setting ncftp to use passive mode only, which you can do from a ncftp command prompt like this: The reason for this is ethical, because many firewalls do not allow incoming connections to weapons essay language techniques, the site, but do allow users to establish outgoing connections. Article Interpretation? A passive data connection is established by the client to the server, whereas the default is for techniques, the server to establish the connection to the client, which firewalls may object to. Of course, you now may have problems with sites whose primitive FTP servers do not support passive mode. Otherwise, if you know you need to have ncftp communicate directly with a firewall or proxy, you can try editing the planning, separate $HOME/.ncftp/firewall configuration file. This file is training, created automatically the first time you run the essay for high school, program, and contains all the weapons essay techniques, information you need to get the program to work in english thesis, this setup. The basics of this process are configuring a firewall (proxy) host to go through, a user account and password for essay, authentication on helping poor the firewall, and which type of firewall method to use.

You can also setup an exclusion list, so that ncftp does not use the firewall for hosts on the local network. $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks Saves bookmark and host information. $HOME/.ncftp/firewall Firewall access configuration file. $HOME/.ncftp/prefs Program preferences. $HOME/.ncftp/trace Debugging output for entire program run. $HOME/.ncftp/v3init Used to essay language techniques, tell if this version of the program has run before. $HOME/.ncftp/spool/ Directory where background jobs are stored in the form of spool configuration files. $HOME/.ncftp/spool/log Information for background data transfer processes. PATH User's search path, used to find the ncftpbatch program, pager, and some other system utilities. PAGER Program to use to view text files one page at a time. TERM If the program was compiled with support for GNU Readline it will need to ethical egoism, know how to manipulate the terminal correctly for line-editing, etc. The pager program will also take advantage of this setting. HOME By default, the program writes its configuration data in weapons essay techniques, a .ncftp subdirectory of the HOME directory. Interpretation? NCFTPDIR If set, the program will use this directory instead of $HOME/.ncftp . This variable is optional except for those users whose home directory is the root directory.

COLUMNS Both the built-in ls command and the external ls command need this to determine how many screen columns the terminal has. There are no such sites named or . Auto-resume should check the weapons essay, file timestamps instead of relying upon just the file sizes, but it is ethical essay, difficult to do this reliably within FTP. Directory caching and recursive downloads depend on UNIX -like behavior of the remote host. Mike Gleason, NcFTP Software. Thanks to weapons training language, everyone who uses the program. Helping? Your support is what drives me to training techniques, improve the program! I thank Dale Botkin and Tim Russell at my former ISP, Probe Technology . Ideas and egoism essay some code contributed by my partner, Phil Dietz. Thanks to Brad Mittelstedt and Chris Tjon, for driving and refining the development of the backbone of this project, LibNcFTP . I'd like to thank my former system administrators, most notably Charles Daniel, for making testing on a variety of platforms possible, letting me have some extra disk space, and for maintaining the UNL FTP site.

For testing versions 1 and 2 above and beyond the call of duty, I am especially grateful to: Phil Dietz, Kok Hon Yin, and Andrey A. Weapons Essay? Chernov ( Thanks to Tim MacKenzie ( for the original filename completion code for version 2.3.0 and 2.4.2. Thanks to DaviD W. Sanderson (, for helping me out with the man page. Thanks to those of business planning you at UNL who appreciate my work. Thanks to training essay techniques, Red Hat Software for honoring my licensing agreement, but more importantly, thanks for providing a solid and affordable development platform. To the for high, users, for not being able to respond personally to most of your inquiries.

To Phil, for things not being the way they should be.

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10 Traits Of A Successful Options Trader. Options are one of the most versatile instruments in weapons training language the financial markets. They are flexible in that they allow you to Article Interpretation, leverage your position to boost returns, manage risk by using them for hedging, or to make profit from upside, downside and sideways movement in the market. Despite its many benefits, options trading carries substantial risk of loss, and it is very speculative in nature. It's not for weapons training essay language everyone and not everyone can become a successful options trader.

Like any other business, becoming a successful options trader requires a certain skillset, personality type and attitude. This article will help you understand the 10 must-have characteristics that you need to become successful at on science, options trading. (From picking the right type of stock to setting stop-losses, learn how to trade wisely. For more, see Day Trading Strategies For Beginners. ) Numeracy - Keep Sharpening Your Quantitative Skills. Options are high-risk instruments, and it is important for traders to recognize how much risk they have at any point in weapons essay language techniques time. What is the maximum downside of the trade? What is the implicit or explicit position with respect to volatility?

How much of my capital is format school, allocated to the trade? These are some of the questions that traders will always have to keep in their minds. Traders also need to take appropriate measures to control the risk. In particular, if you are a short-term options trader, you will regularly come across loss-making trades. For example, if you hold a position overnight, your bet may go bad because of adverse news. At any time, you need to be able to minimize the risk of your positions. Some traders do so by limiting their trade size and diversifying into many different trades so that not all their eggs are in weapons training the same basket. An options trader also has to be an excellent money manager. They need to use their capital wisely.

For example, it wouldn't be wise to block 90% of your capital in a single trade. Whatever the strategy you adopt, risk management and english examples money management cannot be ignored. (Risk is inseparable from return. For more, see Measuring And Managing Investment Risk. ) 2. Be good with numbers: While trading in options, you are always dealing with numbers. What's the training essay language implied volatility? Is the option in the money, or out of the money? What's the breakeven of the trade? Options traders are always answering these questions. Egoism? They also refer to option Greeks, such as the delta, gamma, vega and theta of their options trades. For example, a trader would want to know if his trade is short gamma.

It is important for the traders to language, be able to easily calculate and interpret numbers. English? You don't need to be a rocket scientist, but you should train as an weapons essay language, aspiring quant jock. English Examples? (Understanding price influences on options positions requires learning delta, theta, vega and gamma. For more, see Getting To Know The Greeks. ) Behavioral – Develop the Right Attitude. To become successful, the options traders must practice discipline. Doing extensive research, identifying opportunities, setting up the right trade, forming and sticking to a strategy, setting up goals, and forming an exit strategy are all part of the language techniques discipline. A simple example of Article, deviating from the discipline is to go with the advice of the herd. Never trust an opinion without doing your own research. You can't skip your homework and blame the herd for your losses. Instead, you must devise an independent trading strategy that works for your situation.

5. Match your trading style with your personality: Learning – Become an Active Learner. 6. Read and understand news: It is crucial for traders to be able to interpret the news, separate hype from weapons language, reality, and make appropriate decisions based on Article, this knowledge. Weapons Essay Language Techniques? You will find many traders who will be eager to put their capital in an option with promising news, and the next day they will move on to the next big news. This distracts them from identifying bigger trends in the market. Most successful traders will be honest with themselves and english thesis make sound personal decisions, rather than just going by the top stories in the news.

7. Learn from weapons techniques, losses: The Chicago Board of Trade recently reported that 90% of options traders make losses. What separates successful traders from average ones is that successful traders are able to learn from their losses and implement what they learn in english their trading strategies. (For related reading, see Options Trading Strategies: Understanding Position Delta. ) 8. Weapons Training Language? Be an Interpretation, active learner: The financial markets are constantly changing and evolving; you need to have a clear understanding of what's happening and weapons language techniques how it all works. By becoming an business continuity, active learner, you will not only become good at your current trading strategies, but you will also be able to identify newer opportunities that others might not see or that they may pass over. Weapons Training Language Techniques? Administrative – Develop the essays helping poor people Right Routine. An options trader who plans is more likely to succeed than one who flies on instinct and language techniques feel.

If you don't have a plan, you will place random trades, and consequently, you'll be directionless. On the other hand, if you have a plan, you are more likely to on science and technology, stick to it. Training Techniques? You will be clear about what your goals are and Article how you plan to achieve them. You will also know how to cover your losses or when to book profits. Weapons Training Language? You can see how the plan has worked (or not worked) for you. All these steps are essential to developing a strong trading strategy. Business Pdf? 10. Maintain records: Most successful options traders keep diligent records of weapons essay, their trades.

Maintaining proper trade records is an essential habit that can help you avoid making costly decisions. The history of your trade records also provides a wealth of information that can help you improve your odds of format for high, success. (For related reading, see Make Better Options Trades With The Average Monthly Range. )

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case study yin stake Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of real-life situations, issues, and problems. Reports on case studies from many disciplines are widely available in training language the literature. This paper explains how to use the business case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to weapons training language techniques examine how one set of format for high, users, non-profit organizations, make use of an electronic community network. The study examines the essay language techniques issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Stake, Helen Simons, and Robert K. Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for format, organizing and conducting the research successfully.

This introduction to case study research draws upon techniques their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to essay which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by essay techniques forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and determining a purpose for the study. The research object in a case study is often a program, an entity, a person, or a group of egoism essay, people. Each object is likely to be intricately connected to essay language political, social, historical, and personal issues, providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and about helping poor adding complexity to the case study.

The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the training language techniques research questions. Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with how or why. The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. To assist in targeting and helping poor people formulating the questions, researchers conduct a literature review. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined, insightful questions about the problem.

Careful definition of the training essay language questions at the start pinpoints where to look for format, evidence and helps determine the methods of analysis to be used in the study. The literature review, definition of the purpose of the case study, and early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed, conducted, and publicly reported. Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. During the design phase of case study research, the researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real-life cases to training essay techniques examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use. When using multiple cases, each case is english thesis examples, treated as a single case. Weapons Language? Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to the whole study, but each case remains a single case. Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the continuity pdf validity of the study. Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. The researcher must determine whether to study cases which are unique in weapons essay some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters, or other parameters. A useful step in the selection process is to repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the study in school order to focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the research questions posed. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element, but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis.

For example, a case study may involve study of a single industry and weapons language a firm participating in that industry. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and increases the on science complexity and amount of data to be gathered and analyzed. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to training essay techniques gather and what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer the research questions. Data gathered is normally largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative. Tools to collect data can include surveys, interviews, documentation review, observation, and even the collection of physical artifacts.

The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in collecting the evidence. Throughout the design phase, researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to ensure construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of multiple pieces of evidence from multiple sources to uncover convergent lines of inquiry. Article? The researcher strives to establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases; the more variations in places, people, and procedures a case study can withstand and weapons training techniques still yield the same findings, the more external validity. Egoism? Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. Reliability refers to the stability, accuracy, and precision of measurement. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and can be repeated with the same results over and over again.

Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data. Because case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources, systematic organization of the data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the original research purpose and questions. Advance preparation assists in handling large amounts of language, data in a documented and systematic fashion. Researchers prepare databases to assist with categorizing, sorting, storing, and retrieving data for analysis. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators, establish clear protocols and continuity procedures in advance of investigator field work, and conduct a pilot study in weapons essay techniques advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study, terminology, processes, and methods, and teaches investigators how to examples properly apply the techniques being used in the study. The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for weapons training essay language techniques, triangulation during the analysis phase of the ethical essay study.

The program covers protocols for case study research, including time deadlines, formats for narrative reporting and field notes, guidelines for collection of documents, and training essay language techniques guidelines for field procedures to be used. Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the words being used by those interviewed. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. Good investigators review documents looking for facts, but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change, missed appointments, or lack of office space.

Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the issues and must be open to contrary findings. Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of school, what the case study will bring. After investigators are trained, the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected. Weapons Language? Researchers need to anticipate key problems and events, identify key people, prepare letters of introduction, establish rules for confidentiality, and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to address and add to the original set of business continuity planning, research questions. 4. Collect Data in the Field. The researcher must collect and essay store multiple sources of essay for high school, evidence comprehensively and systematically, in formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of language techniques, inquiry and patterns can be uncovered. Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and english identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. Renegotiation of weapons essay techniques, arrangements with the objects of the egoism study or addition of training language techniques, questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches, pose questions, and document the work in about poor people progress.

They record testimonies, stories, and illustrations which can be used in later reports. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the client to special attention, or give an early signal that a pattern is weapons training essay techniques, emerging. They assist in continuity pdf determining whether or not the inquiry needs to weapons training essay be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed. Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and stored for analysis. Maintaining the relationship between the issue and the evidence is mandatory.

The researcher may enter some data into a database and physically store other data, but the researcher documents, classifies, and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for thesis examples, sorting and examination over the course of the weapons training essay language techniques study. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the english Data. The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the research object and the outcomes with reference to the original research questions. Throughout the evaluation and weapons language techniques analysis process, the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. The case study method, with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques, provides researchers with opportunities to ethical essay triangulate data in training techniques order to Article strengthen the essay language techniques research findings and conclusions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to business improve the weapons training techniques likelihood of accurate and reliable findings. Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to disconfirm the analysis.

Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study, and conduct cross-checks of facts and ethical discrepancies in accounts. Focused, short, repeat interviews may be necessary to gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays, creating matrices of categories, creating flow charts or other displays, and tabulating frequency of events. Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the language techniques qualitative data which is most useful for understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and Article Interpretation insights examine the data and the patterns.

When the multiple observations converge, confidence in the findings increases. Conflicting perceptions, on the other hand, cause the researchers to pry more deeply. Another technique, the cross-case search for patterns, keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at the data in many different ways. Cross-case analysis divides the weapons data by type across all cases investigated. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. When a pattern from one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another, the finding is stronger. When evidence conflicts, deeper probing of the differences is thesis examples, necessary to identify the techniques cause or source of conflict. In all cases, the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original how and why research questions.

Step 6. Prepare the report. Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and examine the study and reach an english thesis understanding independent of the researcher. The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation. Researchers pay particular attention to training displaying sufficient evidence to gain the reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored, clearly communicating the boundaries of the helping poor people case, and giving special attention to essay language conflicting propositions. Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. Some researchers report the case study as a story. During the report preparation process, researchers critically examine the document looking for ways the report is incomplete.

The researcher uses representative audience groups to continuity pdf review and comment on the draft document. Weapons Training Essay Techniques? Based on the comments, the ethical essay researcher rewrites and makes revisions. Essay Language? Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Applying the Case Study Method to an Electronic Community Network. Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. In general, electronic community networks have three distinct types of users, each one a good candidate for case study research. The three groups of business, users include people around the world who use the electronic community network, the non-profit organizations using the electronic community network to weapons training language provide information to potential users of essay format for high school, their services, and language the community that forms as the result of interacting with other participants on the electronic community network. In this case, the researcher is primarily interested in determining whether or not the electronic community network is format school, beneficial in some way to non-profit organization participants. The researcher begins with a review of the literature to determine what prior studies have determined about this issue and weapons training language techniques uses the literature to Interpretation define the following questions for the study of the non-profit organizations providing information to the electronic community network: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network?

How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission? How? Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. Many communities have constructed electronic community networks on the World Wide Web. Weapons? At the outset of the design phase, the researcher determines that only thesis, one of these networks will be studied and further sets the study boundaries to essay include only some of the non-profit organizations represented on that one network. The researcher contacts the Board of Directors of the thesis examples community network, who are open to the idea of the case study.

The researcher also gathers computer generated log data from the network and, using this data, determines that an in-depth study of representative organizations from four categories -- health care, environmental, education, and religious -- is feasible. The investigator applies additional selection criteria so that an urban-based and a rural-based non-profit are represented in the study in order to examine whether urban non-profits perceive more benefits from community networks than rural organizations. The researcher considers multiple sources of data for this study and selects document examination, the gathering and study of organizational documents such as administrative reports, agendas, letters, minutes, and weapons training techniques news clippings for about helping, each of the organizations. In this case, the investigator decides to also conduct open-ended interviews with key members of each organization using a check-list to guide interviewers during the interview process so that uniformity and training essay language consistency can be assured in the data, which could include facts, opinions, and unexpected insights. In this case study, the researcher cannot employ direct observation as a tool because some of the organizations involved have no office and meet infrequently to conduct business directly related to on science the electronic community network. The researcher instead decides to survey all Board members of the selected organizations using a questionnaire as a third data gathering tool. Within-case and cross-case analysis of data are selected as analysis techniques. Step 3. Training Essay Language Techniques? Prepare to format for high school Collect the Data. The researcher prepares to collect data by first contacting each organization to training techniques be studied to gain their cooperation, explain the purpose of the study, and assemble key contact information.

Since data to be collected and examined includes organizational documents, the researcher states his intent to request copies of these documents, and plans for thesis examples, storage, classification, and retrieval of these items, as well as the interview and survey data. The researcher develops a formal investigator training program to include seminar topics on non-profit organizations and their structures in each of the weapons language techniques four categories selected for this study. The training program also includes practice sessions in conducting open-ended interviews and documenting sources, suggested field notes formats, and a detailed explanation of the purpose of the case study. The researcher selects a fifth case as a pilot case, and Interpretation the investigators apply the data gathering tools to the pilot case to determine whether the planned timeline is feasible and whether or not the interview and survey questions are appropriate and effective. Based on the results of the pilot, the researcher makes adjustments and assigns investigators particular cases which become their area of expertise in the evaluation and analysis of the data. Step 4. Collect Data in weapons essay language the Field. Investigators first arrange to visit with the Board of Directors of each non-profit organization as a group and ask for copies of the organization?s mission, news clippings, brochures, and thesis examples any other written material describing the organization and its purpose. The investigator reviews the purpose of the study with the entire Board, schedules individual interview times with as many Board members as can cooperate, confirms key contact data, and requests that all Board members respond to the written survey which will be mailed later.

Investigators take written notes during the essay techniques interview and record field notes after the essays interview is completed. The interviews, although open-ended, are structured around the research questions defined at the start of the case study. Research Question: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? Interview Questions: How did the organization make the training essay language decision to thesis place data on the World Wide Web community network? What need was the organization hoping to fulfill? Research Question: How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Interview Questions: What process was used to training essay language techniques select the information that would be used on Article Interpretation, the network? How is the information kept up to date? Research Question: Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission?

How? Interview Questions: How does the organization know if the electronic community network is beneficial to the organization? How does the electronic community network further the mission of the organization? What systematic tracking mechanisms exist to determine how many or what types of users are accessing the organization information? The investigator?s field notes record impressions and weapons training essay questions that might assist with the interpretation of the on science and technology interview data. The investigator makes note of stories told during open-ended interviews and flags them for potential use in the final report. Data is entered into the database. The researcher mails written surveys to all Board members with a requested return date and a stamped return envelope. Once the surveys are returned, the researcher codes and enters the data into the database so that it can be used independently as well as integrated when the training language techniques case study progresses to the point of cross-case examination of data for all four cases. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. Within-case analysis is the gp essays on science and technology first analysis technique used with each non-profit organization under study.

The assigned investigator studies each organization?s written documentation and survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for that single organization. Individual investigators prepare detailed case study write-ups for each organization, categorizing interview questions and answers and examining the data for within-group similarities and differences. Cross-case analysis follows. Investigators examine pairs of cases, categorizing the similarities and differences in each pair. Investigators then examine similar pairs for differences, and language dissimilar pairs for similarities. As patterns begin to emerge, certain evidence may stand out thesis examples as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the weapons training language initial data in order to tie the evidence to business continuity planning the findings and to training essay state relationships in answer to the research questions. Step 6 Prepare the Report. The outline of the report includes thanking all of the participants, stating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the methods used to conduct the research and any potential flaws in the method used, explaining the data gathering and analysis techniques used, and essays about poor concluding with the answers to the questions and suggestions for further research. Key features of the report include a retelling of specific stories related to the successes or disappointments experienced by the organizations that were conveyed during data collection, and answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions.

The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data collected, and points out the triangulation of training language techniques, data where applicable. The report also includes confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for further research activity, so that another researcher may apply these techniques to another electronic community network and its participants to determine whether similar findings are identifiable in other communities. Final report distribution includes all participants. Applicability to Library and Information Science. Busha, C. H., Harter, S. P. (1980). Research methods in librarianship, techniques and interpretation. New York: Academic Press. Chang, H. C. (1974). Library goals as responses to essays helping people structural milieu requirements: A comparative case study.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. DuMont, R. R. (1975). Weapons Essay Language Techniques? The large urban public library as an agency of social reform, 1890-1915. Article? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of language, Management Review, 14 (4), 352-550. Emory, C. W., Cooper, D. R. (1991). Essays Poor? Business research methods. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Irvin. Goldhor, H. (1972).

An introduction to scientific research in librarianship. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Hamel, J. (with Dufour, S., Fortin, D.). (1993). Case study methods. Training? Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Harris, S., Sutton, R. (1986). Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5-30. Lawson, V. (1971). Interpretation? Reference service in university libraries, two case studies.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York. McAdams, D. C. (1979). Powerful actors in public land use decision making processes: A case study in Austin, Texas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. McClure, C. R., Hernon, P. (Eds.). (1991). Library and information science research: perspectives and strategies for improvement. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods.

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miller, F. (1986). Use, appraisal, and research: A case study of social history . The American Archivist: 49 (4), 371-392. Paris, M. (1988). Library school closings: Four case studies. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Patton, M. Q. (1980). Weapons Training Language Techniques? Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Powell, R. Essays Helping Poor People? R. (1985).

Basic research methods for librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Schindler, D. (1996). Urban youth and the frail elderly: Reciprocal giving and receiving. Language Techniques? New York: Garland. Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation.

Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education. Stake, R. Gp Essays On Science? E. (1995). The art of training essay language techniques, case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swisher, R., McClure, C. R. English Thesis Examples? (1984). Training Language Techniques? Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association.

Taylor, R. Essay Format For High? S. (1967). Question-negotiation and information-seeking in libraries. Bethlehem, PA: Center for the Information Sciences. U.S. Department of Education. (1988). Rethinking the library in the information age: Issues in library research: proposals for the 1990s. Volume II.

Washington, DC. Weiss, C.H., Bucuvala, M. J. (1980). Techniques? Social science research and pdf decision-making. New York: Columbia University Press. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., Newcomer, K. E. (Eds.). (1994).

Handbook of practical program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yin, R. K. (1984). Case study research: Design and weapons methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This page is created and maintained by Sue Soy Last Updated 02/12/2006. Copyright 1996 Susan K. Soy.

Please feel free to copy and distribute freely for academic purposes with attribution. Cite as: Soy, Susan K. (1997). The case study as a research method . Unpublished paper, University of Texas at Austin.

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War Poetry- Bruce Dawe s Homecoming and Weapons Training

Cultural Appropriation: Whose culture is it anyway, and what about hybridity? Before I start, I’m going to lay my cards on the table: I don’t fit race and ethnicity boxes very well. Weapons. Whenever I have to fill in one of those diversity questionnaires, I always tick ‘other’ because none of the options really describe me. My dad was born in Tanzania of British and for high school Austrian-Jewish parents (one of whom was born and grew up in essay techniques, India), spent his childhood and adolescence between South Africa and the UK, and is now a China expert who has spent at least half (probably much more) of his adult life in China. Ethical Egoism Essay. My mum was born in Beijing, of Cantonese and Hakka parents who were born and grew up in Singapore and Thailand, respectively. She has spent almost all of her adult life in the UK. As for essay language techniques me, I was born in Shropshire, near the border with Wales, grew up between England and China, spent the Article Interpretation last decade in weapons training essay language, Scotland, England, the Czech Republic, China and America, and ethical egoism now live full-time in Scotland.

This is in weapons training language, part, perhaps, why I have a very hard time getting my head around the idea of cultural ownership and appropriation — identity is messy and fluid, after all, so who gets to and technology say who owns what? And from language whom do we seek permission? I was on-board, more or less, with the anti-cultural appropriation arguments when they mostly centred around condemning the use of racist stereotypes in halloween and essay fancy dress costumes. Weapons Essay Language Techniques. Dressing up as ‘default Indian woman’ or ‘stock Chinese man’ almost always has the unwholesome whiff of racist cartoons about Interpretation, them, often only serving to promote absurd stereotypes, disrespectful by nature. Essay. If I had a penny for every time a kid in school or in the park pulled the corners of their eyes up and shouted “ching chong chang” at me, for instance, or for every “oh but what about maths?” comment I received when I said that my favourite subjects were art and literature… Even as a kid I wanted this stuff challenged. But I also never for a second believed that the way to essays poor people challenge these instances of weapons training language techniques ignorance, and ignorant othering, (which is english thesis examples, essentially what they are) is to fence off areas of culture to be the sole preserve of specific peoples, based on some kind of birthright.

For one thing, insisting that certain types of clothing, activities, food, etc, can only be worn, mastered or enjoyed by certain peoples can only serve to language techniques divide and alienate. Interpretation. Condemnation of dreadlocks on non-blacks, yoga practised or taught by non-Indians, Chinese food chefs who aren’t Chinese, can never reduce or end racism, because the reason for racism isn’t appreciation, adoption and interest towards other cultures, but ignorance, ostracisation and othering of training essay them. Telling me that only I can openly and without challenge celebrate Chinese New Year or wear qipao or teach Chinese cookery (haha, me and cooking!) can only serve to business planning pdf promote the training language techniques idea of me as an exotic other, or Chinese stereotype, as things deemed to be culturally ‘mine’ become off-limits to anyone not Chinese, or at least East Asian. I have experienced attempts at policing cultural appropriation on egoism essay my behalf that, while well-intentioned, feel like the (similarly well-intentioned) patronising over-respect I sometimes received in the ‘90s/early-2000s from people who’d bow, carefully compliment my English and techniques offer to english examples make me a bowl of rice (because surely that’s what all Chinese-looking people want!), without knowing anything about me, out of some misguided sense that that was the culturally respectful thing to do. Despite being mixed, I’m generally read as Chinese or some other East Asian grouping in the West, and just as I shouldn’t have been subject to appearance-based stereotyping, assumptions or name-calling, the weapons training essay language mere fact of looking Chinese also shouldn’t grant me ownership and business planning gatekeeping powers over the artefacts and practices of a culture that, to be honest, I don’t even try very hard to inhabit. But even if I grew up all my life in weapons training essay, China, or amongst the Chinese community, celebrating every festival and going to Chinese cram school, the very fact of this should only, ideally, give me knowledge that I can enjoy and share, rather than withhold.

I have seen opponents of cultural appropriation furious at non-Asians for blogging about their experiences cooking Asian dishes, for instance, and then in the next breath complain about Westerners’ ignorance about Chinese food and clumsiness in ethical, using chopsticks (for the training record, I’ve used them ‘wrong’ all my life). Article. How can one not be ignorant if one isn’t allowed to appreciate, experiment and training language learn without fear of attack? Some would argue that part of the problem with cultural appropriation is that those in business planning pdf, the dominant culture get to be ‘cool’ or ‘edgy’ when they appropriate things from other cultures that are otherwise mocked or vilified. I can empathise with this, but I think it misses the point. Mockery and demonisation of things from weapons essay other cultures is racism and bullying, obviously. A kid being laughed at for their ‘smelly’ packed lunch or their ‘weird’ clothes speaks of ignorance, a lack of diversity, and of a culture where the norms of Article acceptability are too rigid and focused on specific cultural values. I can totally understand the desire to training essay language want to format for high reclaim what was mocked and essay language techniques ban anyone else from enjoying it just because it became cool ‘when white people did it’ — but that won’t help. It won’t undo the bullying that happened, and it won’t stop it from Article happening again. Only greater mixing of cultures, experimentation and fusion can, as it normalises what’s seen as other and makes it seem less weird or threatening or icky. Of course there’s a problem with the fact that the media so often serves up the products of other cultures through white vessels in essay language techniques, the belief that it makes them more palatable or desirable, but we should challenge that through calling for more diverse representation, rather than calling out Justin Bieber from having dreadlocks or Miley Cyrus for twerking.

Additionally, I think that part of the reason for helping poor people these people seeming ‘cool’ or ‘edgy’ has more, in fact, to do with the novelty of training techniques hybridity, rather than just them being white. In a culture where the expectation is that ‘white people do white people things’ and ‘black people do black people things’, anyone who goes against the grain is going to stand out. Business Continuity Planning Pdf. In a more mixed society where culture is constantly being borrowed and melded and merged, it likely wouldn’t seem so exotic or amazing. As an aside, I seriously considered getting dreadlocks in training essay, my late teens precisely because I was sick of people typecasting me as ‘that Chinese person’, and to do something to show that I don’t fit the stereotype. I’d suggest that a black celebrity in traditional Japanese clothing, for example, could attract just as much interest and influence fashion trends—especially if the mainstream media gave them enough attention. Another big problem with the arguments against cultural appropriation is that it suggests that there is some kind of inborn cultural essence, possessed by everyone from any given race; a concept that is not only examples critically flawed, but also all but erases the existence of techniques hybridity. If we say that only black people can have dreadlocks, how ‘light’ would one need to be before they run the risk of business continuity being accused of cultural appropriation?

If I had a child who looks more European than Asian, can they safely wear traditional Chinese clothes? Can their children? Should we not be rather alarmed at the idea that people are now judging and deeming others not black or Asian or whatever enough to access certain cultural practices, much as the South African government did under apartheid? I know next to nothing about Thailand, my grandmother’s birthplace, and training essay techniques it slightly amuses but also depresses me that there are people who’d vehemently defend my right to police how others want to experience Thai culture, should I so wish. Saying that only certain people, largely based on appearance and/or parentage, can do or wear or eat certain things, or become experts in them, not only implies ingrained differences between peoples where there essentially are none, but also leaves no room for those who are caught in between, those who are a mixture, or adopted, who maybe pass for only half or a quarter of their cultural identities but none of the others, and essays helping who are uncategorisable. What is more, these cultural and racial boundaries are constantly shifting and weapons training essay techniques evolving, usually much to the enrichment of human culture and civilisation, and mainly thanks to cultural mixing and hybridisation. Helping. Dreadlocks have emerged and belonged to a number of different cultural traditions, in training, Africa, India, the examples Americas, Australia, Asia and Europe, with people of all hues. Much ‘traditional’ clothing from China and language techniques Japan has influences back and forth historically along the about poor people Silk Route, from Europe and the Middle East and India, and language as a result of trade in the 19th and 20th centuries. What we think of as ‘traditional Chinese clothes’ now was not always the case, and certainly won’t always be.

In Japan currently there is a great push towards selling clothes made using traditional Japanese techniques, but with new and continuity planning pdf modernised (and hybridised) designs to appeal to modern Japanese and global consumers, in order to prevent these skills from dying out. Protests against cultural appropriation, such as the weapons one at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts’ kimono event last year, do not consider that by complaining that trying on kimonos should be off-limits to about helping poor people non-Japanese visitors, they are depriving skilled craftsmen and women in Japan of a potential market to keep their techniques alive (the protestors were largely not Japanese themselves, incidentally). Go back far enough in history, and it rarely needs to be that far, and all culture is hybrid culture — no matter what some nationalists may claim. Training Essay Techniques. We are doing a disservice to how humans communicate and how societies and cultures evolve by wishing to preserve these things in essay format for high school, aspic or categorise them into boxes: X peoples do this; Y peoples do that. Susan Scafidi, law professor at Fordham University whose definition of cultural appropriation is probably the most-widely quoted calls it, “Taking intellectual property, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions, or artefacts from someone else’s culture without permission.” But whose culture is it anyway, and weapons essay techniques how can we possibly decide definitively who owns this cultural “intellectual property” that is by school, definition shared amongst many? If we are forced to “ask permission” or talk about ownership, we are also forced to draw boundaries of weapons blackness or Indian-ness or Chinese-ness that will always cause harm to, and negate the existence of those caught in the middle of those definitions. As Kwame Anthony Appiah discusses in his excellent Reith Lectures series on Mistaken Identities, “cultural values aren’t a birthright, you need to keep caring about them”, and I think this is also true of essay format cultural practices and artefacts. The idea of inherent and inalienable ownership of weapons essay clothing styles, foods or activities makes no sense when we consider that, not only Article are cultural identities constantly shifting and evolving, but also no individual can be the ultimate authority on all things relating to a shared culture. If someone were to enrol for training essay a flamenco class or French pastry course as a beginner, we’d think them a fool if they talked as if they were any kind of business continuity authority on it, even if they were Spanish or French, just as a black belt in judo or a master classical cellist would be afforded the respect due to them in their knowledge of their field, irrespective of where they are from, or even where they might look like they’re from. I find it hilarious that people might listen to me over my dad when it comes to authoritative information about essay techniques, Chinese culture, even though he speaks, reads and english thesis writes fluent Chinese and weapons training essay language has spent over thirty years in China, while I stumble over my toddler vocabulary, regularly forget when the essays about poor people major festivals are, and only lived there full-time for about 3–4 years of my childhood, and not-quite a year of adulthood (I couldn’t stick it out; I needed bread and weapons training pasta too badly). The idea that my face should somehow automatically confer on me an aura of authenticity, knowledge and ownership over All Things Chinese (or even East Asian), while my dad’s should do the opposite, baffles and rather annoys me.

Going back to gp essays and technology the issue of passing, I have met people with more Chinese heritage (and lived experience or knowledge) in them than I have, who *don’t* pass as Chinese, and would not receive the same amount of weapons language automatic respect when talking about Chinese matters; they sometimes even receive accusations of cultural appropriation due to not ‘looking the part’. I find it interesting, incidentally, that so many of these discussions seem to essays about helping poor people have come from, or are based on, an assumption of race and cultural dynamics as they currently are in America. Perhaps one of the most unhelpful cultural assumptions a lot of these discussions make is weapons essay, that everything works the way it does in America, and everywhere is the same. I have purposefully steered clear of the topic of cultural appropriation and American Indian cultural traditions, for instance, because I know that I am limited in my knowledge of for high that particular dynamic, and I know that there are many more complex issues there relating to training essay techniques the use of school sacred iconography and weapons techniques so on. Of course there is business, racism in the UK, and in training essay language, the rest of Europe, and in China, to name three examples I feel I can speak on with more authority, but the english thesis dynamics are often very different. People aren’t discriminated against along the same lines, and weapons essay language the cultural stereotypes that have caused problems and divisions are different.

Even when it comes down to individual words in a shared language things are different on essays about people either side of the Atlantic. Oriental, for instance, doesn’t have the same shocking racist connotations here as it does in the States — as I discovered after referring to essay techniques my “Oriental half” to a group of shocked US college students. What this means in the discussions on business pdf cultural appropriation is that nuance in accounting for weapons essay language techniques different circumstances and contexts is often lost, at the expense of attempting to define a set of Article hard and fast rules that we can call people out for breaking. It also means that the subtleties of different hybrid cultures become lost — are London school kids, for essay language example, really appropriating black or Asian culture when they grew up in massively culturally diverse schools speaking the same slang, that can be from a mixture of British, Asian and African (as well as media) cultural influences? As with so many things, respect and a willingness to learn — and forgive — is key. There are of course instances where the use of cultural artefacts/practices crosses the line from respectful and/or appreciative to mocking or even just irritatingly ignorant.

I remember getting very cross in my London primary school by the line in a song we learnt to sing about Chinese dragons that went, “wandering and weaving down the continuity planning street, Chinatown dragon has a lot of feet!” (“TWO PAIRS of feet!” I’d correct furiously under my breath, not taking into account the fact that for language anyone watching dancers in a dragon costume, they did have a lot of feet sticking out essays poor people of the bottom — they just weren’t *technically* meant to belong to the dragon). We’ve got to learn to distinguish the racist and mocking, which we do call out, from the simply ignorant, which we can help by sensitively adding more info. Crucially, we also need to distinguish both of those from the hybrid and new. It should be ok to techniques have ketchup with your fried Chinese dumplings, or put ‘Western’ ingredients in sushi or mix clothes from different traditions on your person or use Chinese watercolour techniques in non-traditional ways, or practise yoga purely for fitness and relaxation — and planning talk about all of that openly — whatever your background. Creativity and weapons training language experimentation and business continuity planning appreciation of different things is where new cultures and traditions come from, and also represents and creates space for hybrid populations to exist and thrive; it’d be tragic to lose that. Recommended Further Reading/Listening. Here are some pieces I read/listened to while researching for weapons essay language this blog post, which I thought were thought-provoking and interesting (even if I don’t always agree with all of them entirely —although I concede that they are all largely critical of campaigns against cultural appropriation. They are also almost all written by other cross-cultural PoC):

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