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Branding Your Resume: Tips for Job-Seekers. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. Today#8217;s resume establishes a brand relevant to targeted employers. The branding expressed in your resume should capture your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image. With objective statements currently unpopular with hiring decision-makers, job-seekers and intelligence, resume writers are turning to branding techniques, especially branding statements, to sharpen the focus of resumes. This article briefly discusses several methods of thesis oxford gloucester green communicating your personal brand on your resume and focuses on phd thesis emotional, creating a personal/career branding statement (often used in combination with a #8220;headline#8221;) for the top of your resume. We also offer numerous examples. Branding is best defined as a promise of the write value of the product#8230; a promise that the product is better than all the competing products#8230; a promise that must be delivered to be successful. Phd Thesis Intelligence? Branding is the combination of tangible and process an essay, intangible characteristics that make a brand unique.
Branding is developing an image #8212; with results to match. In a resume, branding can be executed through at least three components: The distinctive appearance of phd thesis your resume, which should be carried through with all your career-marketing communications #8212; cover letter, business cards, thank-you letters, portfolio, and much more #8212; to package you with a consistent, branded look. Every time an real book online employer sees this look, he or she will instantly associate it with you. A message woven throughout your resume that remains consistent and phd thesis emotional intelligence, does not contradict the image you want to co-education project. Every word, every bullet point should support the branded message you intend to convey.
A branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. A branding statement is a punchy #8220;ad-like#8221; statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. Your branding statement should sum up your value proposition, encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and intelligence, describe the added value you bring to a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. Consider integrating these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive?
What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? Your branding statement will guide your subsequent branding activities and can be used, not only on your resume, but also on your Web site, blog, and other communication venues. In their book Brand Yourself , David Andrusia and Rick Haskins present a simple formula for a branding statement: Skills + Personality/Passion + Market needs = Branding Statement. It#8217;s a great formula, but not the only approach. A number of resources are available for helping you to compose a branding statement, also known as a brand positioning statement, including several at our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools section. Especially see our Career Branding Tutorial beginning here and our article, Is #8220;The Breakfast of Champions#8221; in Your Resume? Other resources include these books: Final Thoughts and Samples A #8220;headline#8221; atop your resume usually identifies the type of high school homework job you seek. The headline and branding statement are often used in combination, as shown in some of the examples below: Poised to apply strong leadership, entrepreneurial, and business-development background as a successful MBA student.
TOP-PRODUCING SALES PROFESSIONAL Positioned to draw on record of achievement and success to deliver exceptional sales results that maximize unequivocal strengths as outstanding, top-producing sales professional. RECEPTIONIST Poised to contribute strong interpersonal, communications, and organizational skills and experience to your organization in a front-line, customer-support role. JUNIOR SOFTWARE ENGINEER Equipped to deliver current education and training in intelligence computer-science applications delivered through enthusiastic, positive, #8220;can-do#8221; attitude and trainability. High Math? Project Manager Delivering project-management expertise, along with unsurpassed business analysis and intelligence, application design, development, and implementation proficiencies, to organizations seeking a dynamic, self-motivated professional to build winning partnerships that produce exceptional results. PROJECT MANAGER Delivering excellence in operations management, design implementation, and strategic, collaborative problem-solving to the industrial construction industry. Thesis Binding Gloucester Green? SENIOR EXECUTIVE Specialize in raising the bar, creating strategy, managing risk, and improving the quality and caliber of emotional intelligence operations. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER, MANUFACTURING Prepared to oxford gloucester green deliver strong industrial-engineering skills and insights, gained through accomplished record of experience, to your firm in a Manufacturing Engineer capacity. Emotional? SALES PROFESSIONAL Offering exceptional sales instincts and significant record of progressive success to your organization in an inside/outside sales-development role. Write? SENIOR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL Providing expertise in phd thesis intelligence multi-disciplinary project management, program management, and product development.
Consistently deliver integrated solutions that yield tangible bottom-line rewards. KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Bringing a wealth and write an essay, diversity of intelligence skills in real management, education, and human relations and prepared to apply knowledge of medicine, science, and nutrition to enhance quality of life by promoting pharmaceutical products and services. Phd Thesis Intelligence? Product Marketing Manager Delivering entrepreneurial insight and marketing expertise to build winning partnerships and produce exceptional bottom-line rewards. REPORT COORDINATOR Poised to deliver excellence and professionalism in hsc past writing call-center efficiency, organization, and phd thesis emotional intelligence, operations. An Essay? SITE TRAINING MANAGER High-performing senior-level, training professional eager to provide leadership and deliver results for [name of firm]. TAX ACCOUNTANT Offering accounting experience and phd thesis emotional intelligence, specific expertise in tax research, strategy, and planning.
Delivering cutting-edge business-to-business and business-to-consumer strategic marketing and product-development methodologies for exceptional bottom-line results. Dedicated nursing professional committed to excellence in patient care and poised to deliver unsurpassed, individualized nursing care in an acute care setting. Poised to contribute strong coordination skills and experience in marketing, sports, and agricultural operations to new career focus in write an essay about co-education your organization as Events/Sponsorship Coordinator. PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGER Poised to contribute master#8217;s-level management and emotional, administrative skills combined with broad experience in technology-rich settings. SENIOR DESKTOP SUPPORT SPECIALIST Delivering leading-edge innovation to IT solutions. Hsc Past Papers? PHARMACEUTICAL SPECIALTY SALES REPRESENTATIVE Eager to strengthen the mission of intelligence leading-edge pharmaceutical advancement. DIRECTOR OF MARKETING AND RECRUITMENT Poised to deliver to essays strong proficiencies in marketing, communications, recruitment, and organization to promote your campus learning environment and facilitate student success. Human Resources Strategist Poised to deliver success-proven operations and human-resources management methodologies in management role.
SENIOR-LEVEL SALES and MARKETING LEADER Positioned to contribute progressive, innovative sales and intelligence, marketing methodologies with energy, enthusiasm, and real essays online, professionalism to your organization in a leadership role. Constructing dynamic, top-producing sales organizations through proven leadership and management style. Phd Thesis Emotional? Eager to contribute fresh degree in Environmental Science and strong applicable field experience to real essays book online your organization in a hands-on testing and phd thesis, evaluative capacity. Delivering out-of-the-box project-management leadership resulting in exceptional operational outcomes. Well prepared to provide executive-level administrative support and contribute to optimized work-product delivery through solid skills in organization, communication, and negotiation. Process Of Writing? Providing executive-level administrative support services through strong interpersonal skills, unsurpassed organizational abilities, face-of-the-department front-line professionalism, and highly successful career experiences. Ideally positioned to contribute exceptional teaching and curriculum-planning skills, in emotional intelligence conjunction with 15+-year career of professional cosmetology achievement, to your organization in a teaching capacity. Positioned to deliver visionary leadership and strategic direction to the Chemical Engineering industry in senior-level position in manufacturing, research and development, and knowledge exchange systems.
Uniquely positioned to deliver exceptional results in business-process management, solutions implementation, and service delivery, combined with expert-level technical proficiencies, in book online a Project Management capacity. Positioned to deliver exceptional marketing and product-management outcomes based on solid experience and emotional intelligence, success in key leadership roles in marketing, e-commerce, and technology industries. Positioned to provide leadership through solid foundation of accomplishments in finance, accounting, and customer service in a Director of business succession checklist Finance capacity. Uniquely positioned to deliver extraordinary outcomes in financial management opportunities. PRODUCT DEMONSTRATOR AND BRAND REPRESENTATIVE Prepared to contribute enthusiastic sales support and provide #8220;face-of-the-brand#8221; recognition to phd thesis emotional your marketing campaign. Even more (formatted) resume branding statement samples can be found in our Resume Branding Statement Samples. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and write an essay co-education, links) on phd thesis intelligence, key college, career, and job-search terms by write an essay co-education going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for emotional jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in real essays the job search at emotional A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in write an essay organizational behavior from phd thesis intelligence, Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for an essay co-education New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and intelligence, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com.
Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Dr. Randall S. Hans n is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and co-education, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. Emotional? He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in process books, and hundreds of articles. He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around th country. Finally, Dr.
Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in phd thesis the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and an essay, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.
Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Phd Thesis? Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on papers creative, the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is phd thesis intelligence, also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is of writing, publisher of emotional intelligence Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is business checklist, also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.
Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at email@example.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on emotional, GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and essays book online, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at intelligence A Storied Career. Binding Green? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and intelligence, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at process of writing firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out phd thesis emotional intelligence, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is binding green, your key source for all things career-change related.
You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and phd thesis, employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and real book online, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.
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resume yacht captain Flag on the play: As you all know, the NTSB recently released its report on the disaster/accident that was the phd thesis catastrophic launch of Motor yacht Baaden (Blood Baron). This report beyond any reasonable doubt, interpretation or measure completely supports my previous statement and position as well as exonerates me completely from any involvement of this senseless accident. Moreover, the report on the matter directly echoes and corroborates my previous statement and comments regarding the cause of the avoidable capsize of this once fine expedition yacht. Just a brief recap for all those late to write the party: “I can say without ego or hubris that I feel if I had been still involved with this project in phd thesis, a leadership capacity, this launch accident would never have happened.”-Captain Aaron Pufal. In the write an essay co-education final chapter of project Blood Baron AKA the Northern Marine Yacht Baaden, my vindication regarding the launch capsize comes without fanfare. The facts set out in this official document are absolutely clear. Firstly, as I stated the intelligence day of the incident, the cause of the capsize was due to lack of required ballast specified by thesis binding the naval architect. Secondly, and perhaps most egregious is the completely negligent lack of oversight and involvement of the emotional sales brokerage and owners representative from Fraser Yachts Yachts; namely Josh Gulbranson and Clive McCartney.
What a comedy of hsc past creative fools and errors. No wonder my tone is so vitriolic. It is an inordinately simple task to audit the amount of ballast bought and installed per the stability reports I had ordered long before projected vessel launch (see below documents) from the naval architect. And it is emotional, a even more elementary task to check and recheck the scales (load cells) readout vs what is recorded and submitted for analysis. This is a significant part of the job of the build captain and or owners representative, check everything, twice. In this role it is absolutely necessary to attend the ship yard several times a shift, sign off on every part ordered, commission studies, surround yourself with qualified people and simply be the guy who is ultimately responsible for the owners interests and the project as a whole. According directly to the fine folks at NTSB: “The buyer’s onsite “build captain” participated actively in high, styling and interior layouts of the Baaden design and requested the first weight estimate of the vessel during construction. In late 2013, the emotional intelligence build captain’s position was terminated, and his role was performed by a less active yacht management group.” The “less active management group” was Fraser Yachts Yachts, Josh Gulbranson and Clive McCartney. Do you see where this is going? Not a very good job of protecting the owner’s interests is it?
And guess what. They still got paid and very handsomely at that. It seems I also need to address the official published comments of essays Wes Fridell, the former media representative of Northern Marine (I say former because Northern Marine has ceased to exist). Not only did he incorrectly and erroneously state the cause of the capsize contrary to as determined in the NTSB report, he slandered/libelled my previous statements and professionalism in the same breath. Now that the NTSB has confirmed my position and statements, I’m sure all the publicized slander and libel issued by Mr. Emotional Intelligence. Friedell will not be retracted or deleted from the permanent record of the internet, this has caused me real damage.
Keyboard warriors also cause a permanent record of unqualified harm, to family business succession be clear, the report does not cite the design of the vessel to be at fault in any way whatsoever. The NTSB findings are: “The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the phd thesis emotional capsizing of the yacht Baaden during its initial launch was the vessel’s low margin of stability due to the combined effects of book a recording error during the final vessel weigh, which resulted in an incorrect assessment of the vessel’s center of gravity, and an overestimation of the weight of installed ballast.” If you have not taken a single basic class on the topic of stability, please, take a look at a photo of other vessels out of the water such as an emotional intelligence aircraft carrier, cruise ship or car carrier before banging out harmful redirect from thesis, your basement. What are the tangible effects of this avoidable disaster? Who will it really effect in the long run, the owner of the phd thesis project? Will any party involved in an essay, this senseless and highly avoidable and ridiculous accident face punishment of emotional intelligence recourse? Not bloody likely.
I’m told the insurance I initiated and paid each month was still in place and seeing as the school owner wished to “get out of boating” and intelligence, sell the boat, as his life had changed direction, I can only speculate that he is at a zero net loss or better. As for the (Mis) Management group and brokers, well, Fraser Yachts is unaffected by thesis binding gloucester green this mess from what I can see. Josh and Clive still have their jobs at emotional, the firm according the brokers website at the time of this posting. On the other hand, even though this government report fully removes any and school math homework, all blame from me, any google search brings up damaging and unqualified libel/slander effectively setting my career back ten years. The irony that the one person who could have ensured the emotional safe and successful completion and launch of this vessel is the one who was damaged the most is not lost on me. All the people responsible for this accident had to do was properly install the real book required ballast the report said needed to be added, how hard was that? Captain Aaron David Pufal. New River, Fort Lauderdale Outbound to the ICW Time Lapse. Transiting the phd thesis New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida is often the subject of many passionate conversations at the yacht club bar. Fact is, local knowledge is truly is key to a stress free passage, recently, someone has placed a sign at the start of the co-education river “CH 9 for new river traffic”, this has saved many a visitor from suffering the yells of a local boater “turn on emotional, your radio to CH 9”! At the real essays book start of the New River, where it meats the ICW, there is an phd thesis emotional intelligence area locally called “the cross roads”, there is a shoal in succession planning checklist, the center, refer to emotional your charts as the day markers can be confusing and change often between the different waterways in the area.
In fact, and the end of the video, you can see a owner operator just run aground and of writing an essay, start to back off the phd thesis emotional submerged island that drys at thesis binding oxford gloucester green, MMLW. This video starts up river at Marina Bay and ends at the ICW/New River Crossroads in Fort Lauderdale FL USA. Here are some tips from my limited New River experiences. Monitor VHF CH 9. Announce security calls on VHF CH 9 at the start of intelligence your run and an essay, throughout depending on your size, location, current, towing, etc. Traffic is “inbound” or “outbound” not “northbound”, “down stream”, “up river” and so on. Down current has the right of way! And offer some curtesy to the owner operator running down street with the phd thesis intelligence single screw sailboat or similar, these kinds of boats can’t just stop with the current on their stern. The current changes direction with the tide.
Andrew Avenue is real essays, a good published tide and phd thesis emotional intelligence, current station. Communicate on CH 9 and make passing arrangements before you meet at a bad spot on the river, you can see examples of this in my little video. Note that I had the real essays book online current on my bow, so I was the giveaway vessel. Learn the landmarks before you set sail: Markers 1 2 Tarpon Bend The Girls School The Tunnel 3rd Ave Bridge Andrews Ave Bridge Performing arts center 7th Ave bridge The fork Little Florida Davie Blvd Bridge The wiggles LMC 95 and the CSX Railroad bridge Marina Bay Secret Woods Park Pipe Welders Broward Marine Rolly Marine. 8) Note the “rush hour” closure times for the bridges on the river. Bridges are closed to pleasure traffic: 7:30AM – 9:00AM and phd thesis, 4:30PM – 6:00PM Monday to Friday. 9) Bridges are on demand via VHF CH 9, but will have to clear foot and auto traffic first. Call when the bridge is insight.
10) If a bridge just opened and you missed it, the binding oxford gloucester bridge operator will clear some traffic then open for boat traffic when able. 11) The “Jungle Queen” or “JQ” is a big tour boat that runs the entire river and tends to slide around, you will here this boat on the VHF CH 9, make a passing arrangement is a safe area. 12) If you here a security call from a towing company like “Steel Towing”, they are likely towing a large vessel, also make passing arrangements in emotional, this case. 13) Learn the sound signal rules for passing and for blind corners for US inland waterways. 14) Long blast on blind corner…..
The rules are quite clear on business succession planning checklist, the matter, however, almost no one on this waterway follows this rule. One could say the locals are just “too cool” for this and rely on emotional intelligence, the VHF or home owners get upset with all the noise. Whatever the case, I choose to follow the of writing an essay law and phd thesis intelligence, I suggest you do also. You never know, a Captain may have just picked up a 120’ boat at the end of the an essay river for the first time and has no idea river traffic is monitoring VHF CH 9…. 15) No wake, my advice is, go as slow as you can to emotional intelligence keep proper steerage, this can be pretty quick with a 4-5 knot current pushing you along. For the process an essay geeks: Video shot with GoPro 4 Black at phd thesis emotional, 720p, external power supply, iMovie to crop and speed up. A very one of a kind and unique Electric Boat, Hull and Deck built from Glen-L drawings, this beautiful vessel is the twentieth boat I’ve built and by far the most elegant and innovative. Truly I cannot express how innovative this boat is, I am stopped all the time by binding oxford green people both on land (when launching) and while on the water amazed at not only the phd thesis emotional construction and function but the completely silent operation when cruising. A true premium and bespoke, handmade creation, I spared no time or expense when crafting this true work of art.
I used AAA Straight grain teak, 4 Mastervolt Marine Gel batteries in series to make 48 Volts (4000W output) for propulsion, Dual 12 V house batteries to run the 8 speaker premium audio system, lighting, VHF and school math homework, so on, professionally paint sprayed in very eye catching base-coat/clear-coat Deep Red Dupont Marine, Pod mounted Torqueedo Cruise 4.0 R motor complete with GPS based flight computer and so very much more. I have no idea what the range is because I’ve never run the batteries to phd thesis emotional less than 50%, truthfully, we have never used the boat long enough. We use the boat about 4 hours at displacement speeds, this works out to about 5knots, a very silent 5 knots I may add. Avoiding the real sometimes confusing diatribe about the metrics and emotional intelligence, intricacies of an electric boat it probably is an essay, best to emotional call me with any seriously deep questions (954.655.4625); however I will try a written walkthrough for those not inclined to telephone or feel free to ask a question through Ebay: I plug the boat in and the onboard smart chargers handle the hsc past charging and maintenance float charge of all total six marine MasterVolt Gell batteries, most often, I just plug it in phd thesis, the night before of the same day I want to go for a cruise but the smart chargers can just be left plugged in and they will maintain the system indefinitely. Currently I’ve got the chargers set for a 4 hour charge cycle, this will keep the batteries healthy for 5 years+ but you can change this setting to 2 hours if you want. Just pop the succession planning checklist boat into emotional intelligence the water, flip on your music and business succession checklist, cruise without vibration, exhaust smoke, fuel fumes, noise and without ever facing any “start-up” issues or any other problem you have with fuel powered boats.
How long will the batteries last? I actually don’t know the answer to this as all my 4-hour cruises leave me with plenty of remaining power and after 3-4 hours of boating I’m typically finished for the day. Phd Thesis Emotional. If I had to guess, at displacement speeds, you can get a full day of thesis binding boating without issue. As mentioned already, I have used the Cruise 4.0R and phd thesis, yes, this is hsc past papers writing, way too big for the boat, but remember, electric motors only use the energy you ask it to, so the power is there if you want it or need to tow a friends boat with motor trouble. I typically use 600watts to make 5 knots. There are 4000 watts of power available, so the phd thesis intelligence motor is very happy to run forever.
AAA grade solid teak for the deck Lloyds of London approved plywood for the hull shape West System epoxy and fiberglass cloth for the hull Epoxy fairing compound Dupont marine paint (Base coat and Clearcoat) professional and properly sprayed in a booth! (DEEP RED COLOR) MasterVolt Gell Battries for main propulsion and same for house batteries On-Board and wired into shore power 48V Gell smart charger 12V 2ch smart Gell charger USCG and CCG Approved Navigation nights (LED) LED deck lights LED work lights fore and creative writing, aft Teak Flag pole Hidden mooring cleats Marine grade stereo system with Sat, USB, FM, iPhone, AUX etc. Marine grade 4 CH Amp 6 Marine Speakers Raymarine Depth sounder (in-hull mounted) hidden Shore power inlet Shore power cord 2 Electronic smart bilge pumps (no float switches needed with auto and manual) 3 Marine – Battery disconnects – Main propulsion, House, bilge pumps House and Bilge pumps have auto resetting circuit breakers Every electrical connection uses marine grade Anchor head shrink crimp connectors Stick Steering Port and Starboard “pop-up” electric actuated and hidden switch panel and electronics panels USCG safety equipment included Canada VHF and HF international radio station license Northstar 25Watt VHF marine radio Glove box Trailer registered in FL The boat is in storage in the Fort Lauderdale, FL area 33325. Currently licensed in Canada but can be licensed or registered in any state or country . Boat (ON, Canada) and trailer (Florida) with clear title(s). We recently transited the Great Dismal Swamp Canal and Locks and I’ve always wanted to experience this waterway of American history. However, boats over 50? are not recommended to use the waterway, combined with a changing controlled depth and submerged logs are always a concern, in fact, we chopped up over five what I assume are branches or small logs resulting in no damage. Arts from the swamp : In 1842 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the poem “The Slave In Dismal Swamp”. Phd Thesis Emotional. The poem uses six quintain stanzas to an essay tell about the “hunted Negro”, mentioning the use of bloodhounds and describing the conditions as being “where hardly a human foot could pass, or a human heart would dare”. Phd Thesis. The poem may have inspired artist David Edward Cronin, who served as a Union officer in high math homework, Virginia and witnessed the effect of slavery, to paint Fugitive Slaves in the Dismal Swamp, Virginia in 1888.
In 1856, Harriett Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin , published her second anti-slavery novel, Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp . The title character is a maroon of the Great Dismal Swamp who preaches against slavery and incites slaves to escape. Situated on the N.C. and Virginia line was the 1830’s hotel known as the Halfway House. “A quality place for emotional intelligence sleeping, matrimonial celebrations, and family business planning, of course, duelistical engagements for the settling of disagreements”. Situated evenly on the North Carolina and Virginia state line, it is the one place where the long arm of the emotional intelligence law came up short as an outlaw simply hopped across the essays line to avoid arrest. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. It’s the place where a newlyweds could hold hands from different states and occasionally meet in the middle for a kiss on the lips. Between Gunfights, Marriages and an essay, occasional Lawlessness, it is also rumored that Edgar Allen Poe wrote “The Raven” while staying at the Halfway House. Some history : Scientists believe the Great Dismal Swamp was created upon emotional the last major shift of the continental shelf. The origin of Lake Drummond, one of only two natural lakes in Virginia, is not entirely clear; Native American legends tell of a giant firebird that made a nest of fire in the swamp that later filled with rain.
Archaeological evidence suggests people have inhabited the swamp for 13,000 years. In 1650, Native Americans lived in the swamp; in 1665, William Drummond, the binding green first governor of North Carolina, discovered the swamp’s lake, which was subsequently named for him. In 1728, William Byrd II, while leading a land survey to establish a boundary between the emotional intelligence Virginia and North Carolina colonies, made many observations of the process an essay swamp, none of them favorable; he is phd thesis intelligence, credited with naming it the Dismal Swamp. In 1763, George Washington visited the area, and he and others founded the school homework Dismal Swamp Company in emotional intelligence, a venture to drain the swamp and book online, clear it for settlement, with the company later turning to the more profitable goal of timber harvesting. Several African American maroon societies lived in the Great Dismal Swamp during early American history. These maroons consisted of black runaway slaves seeking safety and liberty. Emotional Intelligence. The swamp’s role in the history of write about co-education slavery in the United States is reflected in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s second novel, Dred: A Tale of the phd thesis Great Dismal Swamp . Binding. The Underground Railroad Education Pavilion, an exhibit set up to educate visitors about the fugitive slaves who lived in the swamp, was opened February 24, 2012. The Dismal Swamp Canal was authorized by phd thesis intelligence Virginia in 1787 and by North Carolina in 1790, with construction beginning in 1793 and completing in 1805. The canal, as well as a railroad constructed through part of the swamp in 1830, enabled the harvest of timber. The canal deteriorated after the Albemarle and process of writing an essay, Chesapeake Canal was completed in 1858; however, in emotional intelligence, 1929, the business planning checklist U. S. Government bought the Dismal Swamp Canal and began to improve it.
The canal is now the oldest operating artificial waterway in intelligence, the country. Like the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canals, it is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. Yacht “Baden” (Blood Baron) Northern Marine Launch. It is with great sadness and heartbreak that I write today about the tragedy that occurred in Anacortes, Washington while launching project Blood Baron (Motor Yacht Baden). My best wishes and thoughts go out to an essay all those involved and injured in this accident. It was to emotional my utmost dismay that on Dec 15th 2013 when I was removed from control of this project. I was asked by the owner to step aside and thesis oxford gloucester green, allow Josh Gulbranson and phd thesis, Clive McCartney to finish the project as it was going to high be listed for sale with Fraser Yachts. I can say without ego or hubris that I feel if I had been still involved with this project in a leadership capacity, this launch accident would never have happened. I hope everything works out for phd thesis intelligence all parties involved and business succession checklist, that the phd thesis emotional injured have a speedy recovery, may the US Coast Guard investigation provide some answers and closure for everyone affected by yesterday’s events.
The Blood Baron (Baden) moves to the finish bay. Just finished building the Glen-L Designed rowboat “Fife” of stitch and glue construction. Here are some photos and video. Project Blood Baron (Baden), Fly Bridge stacking day. Another video of Northern Marine yacht builder stacking our Fly Bridge atop Project Blood Baron.
To design, negotiate and build your vessel with project management by. Captain Aaron D. Thesis Oxford Green. Pufal, please send an email to: email@example.com. A quick time lapse video by emotional YachtVid of our fly bridge being stacked atop Motor Yacht Blood Baron, a 85? tri-deck expedition vessel built with Northern Marine. To design, negotiate and build your vessel with project management by. Captain Aaron D. Pufal, please send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Available in HD. It’s was a quite the succession milestone today having the bridge deck stacked and I am especially pleased that the emotional complex shape of the real essays book online hull extension was a perfect fit. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. Special credit is due to Ben Eddy, Northern Marine’s CAD departments lead, and everyone involved with its construction and flying. Having this deck in hsc past creative writing, place, allows us to better visualize and layout the Saloon, Dining, Galley and Master Cabin spaces.
As in every custom build, “as drawn” and “as built” are two very different things no matter how many 3D renderings you have made. To design, negotiate and emotional intelligence, build your vessel with project management by Captain Aaron D. Pufal, please send an email to: email@example.com. Take a moment to watch this great video by oxford gloucester Jason at YachtVid of our 61? Marlow (M/Y Immunolin) that we have listied for sale. You can contact me directly or the listing broker for more information. Aaron Pufal: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jason at phd thesis emotional intelligence, YachtVid is binding oxford gloucester green, available to produce your own Yacht Video. Located in the Abaco chain of emotional intelligence islands in the Bahamas, Hope Town is creative writing, my favorite settlement in phd thesis emotional, these cruising grounds. High tide is a must for boats that draw around 6 feet, but once your in the protected harbor, there is high math homework, plenty of water. Mooring balls are available, reservations are impossible and unorganized, just tie up to any ball that is not marked private or with a boat’s name, the owner of the mooring will visit you in the morning to collect the fee of around $10-$20. Marina’s are on the leeward side of the bay along with the lighthouse and phd thesis, currently under expansion (2012). “Hope Town was settled by British Loyalists who were seeking safe refuge after the American Revolution.
Many of the settlers came from the Carolinas, by family checklist way of East Florida, after that area was turned over to Spain in the Peace of emotional Paris (1783). The same treaty called for the evacuation of New York by oxford gloucester green the loyalists. Many people moved back to England, Canada, or south to the British Caribbean. The initial settlements were at Carleton (near the current Treasure Cay) and Marsh Harbour. By 1785, there were over 1,000 refugees in Abaco who were distributed in phd thesis emotional intelligence, five or six settlements. The settlement at Hope Town was founded in of writing, 1785, in part, by a widow from South Carolina named Wyannie Malone. Wyannie, along with her children, started a dynasty in phd thesis emotional, Hope Town that spread the Malone name throughout the Bahamas, over to Florida, and about, outwards from there.”
Motor Yacht Final Act burns and phd thesis intelligence, sinks. Just off the coast of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, we noticed a little grey smoke coming from a vessel close to us, within 90 seconds it was fully ablaze. in the 2-3 minutes it took us to get to “Final Act” all the decks were engulfed with flames and the owner of the boat was on the fly bridge saving his dog, they both were in the water as the flames took the tender. I towed the life raft about 100 feet away from the of writing an essay fire and emotional, got everyone onboard. Only the real essays online captain suffered minor burns and smoke inhalation, besides the expected shock and exposure to all 5 people and the 2 dogs, shortly after we dropped them off at Skull Creek marina. I never would have thought a fire could have taken the phd thesis emotional intelligence ship so vary fast, just goes to show how little time you have to process get off the boat when there is a fire. Also a great example of how proper engine room fire systems could either save the ship or at minimum, slow the fire down.
Proper video surveillance, shutting down the ventilation, closing passive air vents, shutting off fuel and engines in addition to standard fire suppression systems would have made a difference in this shipboard emergency. Also, there was no viewing port in emotional, the engine room door, the captain noted this as he opened the real essays online door to see the scope of the fire, often these windows are not installed because of noise and cost concerns. Positioned between Nassau and Fort Lauderdale, Chub Cay Marina is situated perfectly for a stop along the emotional way. Additionally, there is a landing strip with Bahamas customs on the island if you need to fly home for a break or fly in guests. Airport buss $5 pp. Landing Fee $20 (single) In this fun little video I get dropped by my flight instructor to hsc past writing complete my voyage back to FL.
Available in HD. Here are my photos of my recent build from your Lo-Voltage plans. I am happy to phd thesis emotional intelligence say the build went well and I had to make only a few changes for my build and hsc past writing, use. I used 40 solid ?” X 16? teak strips for phd thesis the cap rail and rub rails as it was so much easier to laminate and worked well with the teak and process of writing, rubber decks that are finished only with teak oil. Updating the propulsion I am using a Torqeedo Cruise 4.0 R with 4 gell battries that I well mounted and added my own electric tilt for beaching. I would recommend the Torqeedo Cruise 2.0 R as I never use more then 1800 watts to achieve maximum hull speed with a run time of over 10 hours! There are 2 onboard gell battery chargers for the 48V and emotional intelligence, 12V house system with a shore power cable outlet for homework easy changing.
Separate 12v gell batteries run the marine stereo, marine amp, Raymarine depth sounder, Northstar VHF radio, LED deck lights, LED retro fitted nav lights, work lights under for and aft deck, linear actuators that pop up 2 electronics panels and motor tilt. I’ve used “ez-stick”steering, it works great and emotional intelligence, frees up the online deck. I have discovered a new product that from West System called “Six10” that makes stitch and emotional, glue quick, strong and less messy, however, only after I built the hull the old fashion way. As a note, the Torqeedo Cruise 4.0 R motor for some reason burned up the motor and control unit just after 3 uses, I’ve sent it to the warranty service center in the US and will update this posting with that experience and let you all know how the motor performs over hsc past creative writing time. This is a time laps film shows how sometimes the emotional intelligence most narrow fairways can sometimes be very easy to navigate. We have all done it, we have looked at a chart or cruising guide sketch and hsc past creative, immediately written off an emotional anchorage or an entire area because of write an essay about how intimidating it looks sitting at your desk. Phd Thesis Emotional. Compounding this issue are the old sailors at the yacht club bar droning on about how hard it was to get in to that bay in 1976!
Well, in today’s world it’s the blog posting by a bean counter pontificating for a paragraphs about strong currents and coral heads. Relax! I run this little 61 motor yacht alone and have a friend or guest help out when needed, like in high school math homework, this video. Emotional Intelligence. Furthermore, on this day the winds were 20kts and a ebbing tide of about 3 knots, no problem. My point is, don’t pass up that anchorage just because it looks crazy on paper, sometime the high math more insane it looks on paper the easier it is to phd thesis emotional intelligence navigate, this is write an essay co-education, a good example of that. Devil’s Backbone transit on yacht (time laps) Almost every yacht that transits this inside reef channel to Harbour Island uses a Pilot, and for emotional intelligence good reason. Many props and shafts have been lost in this apply named channel spanning from Spanish Wells to high school math homework Harbour Island.
This video is phd thesis emotional intelligence, shot in time laps and shows some of the many corral heads and how close to the beach you must sail to avoid running aground. Bimini Channel, Bahamas – G#038;G aground on the beach. In the school short video below, GG Marine was pushed on to the emotional beach at the new small ship channel entrance to real online Bimini in the Bahamas. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. I found it interesting that the captain was able to keep the power on in ahead gear until the tide was high and family business succession checklist, she made it out safe. As a note, 2 other yachts touched bottom on the way in just after us on phd thesis intelligence, our little 61? Morlow.
There are times the channel markers are not in the advertised position or not even there from my experience.
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The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
Sample MBA Application Essay - After. EssayEdge significantly improves each essay using the same voice as the author. The only way to evaluate editing is to compare the original essay with the edited version. We significantly improve essays both for clients who write poorly and for intelligence, clients who write well. Essay 1: Discuss the factors that influenced your career decisions to date. Also discuss your career plans and why you want to obtain an real online, MBA. Early in my childhood, the Internet became more than just a luxury--it became a necessity. My father moved from Singapore to Indonesia to start a textile company when I was four years old, leaving me alone with my mother. To alleviate the pressures of phd thesis emotional intelligence, separation, I developed the computer skills needed for thesis binding oxford gloucester, electronic communication and was able to emotional, remain in close contact with my father. This experience solidified my interest in information technology and exposed me to the enormous potential of this developing field. In the summer of 1992, I exploited my knowledge of IT to help those in my community.
I volunteered at a local library, helping people with computer and Internet-related questions. High Math Homework! Also at that time, my father's business had launched many technological changes that led to the automation of phd thesis emotional intelligence, its production line. These improvements had saved his company from hsc past creative writing bankruptcy. Visiting him and seeing how the new system had increased his profits heightened my interest in IT. I now live in Canada, where computers continue to play a large role in my daily affairs. I use electronic mail and Internet chats to communicate with both parents, and have chosen management information systems as my course of study.
Information technology fascinates me not only because it makes companies more competitive, but also because it can bridge great distances to bring people together. Phd Thesis Intelligence! I have much respect for and interest in the IT industry. Personal satisfaction also plays a key role in math homework, my career decision. While monetary rewards are of practical importance, true job satisfaction springs from the opportunity to grow and intelligence learn within an industry. I enjoy acquiring new skills and information, which help me to adapt to the fast-changing world, as well as pique my interest in innovation. In addition, a career with open prospects would give me constant incentive to improve myself and to gain more knowledge. I currently volunteer for an on-campus organization, Job Web, in which I am responsible for thesis oxford gloucester, posting employment opportunities on the World Wide Web, answering questions and preparing informative handouts. This position has broadened my computing abilities and has improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to any business endeavor. Phd Thesis Emotional! I enjoy the sense of write about, productivity and phd thesis intelligence usefulness I gain from the an essay work, and feel it is phd thesis intelligence, a valuable experience for future employment.
Given the confluence of my personal and professional interests, my goal is to obtain a master's degree and then to work in an IT-related industry, either with a consulting firm or as a systems analyst with a financial institution. In addition to this, I plan to use my private time to attend computer programming courses in order to process of writing, maintain a competitive knowledge of technology. When I have gathered enough experience and emotional intelligence skills, I plan to launch a consulting company of binding green, my own. Attending a Master's of Science program will smooth the path to these goals. Such a program will deepen my expertise and emotional intelligence broaden my perspectives. Moreover, the MIS option will help me to hone my skills in IT areas that I have not yet encountered. As I have attended the University of Toronto for four years, I am familiar with and have confidence in the faculty professors whom I believe can help me become an IT professional. Essay 2: Describe two events in your life to date that demonstrate your ability to do well in business.
My classmates called me the alien, and they avoided me like the family succession checklist plague. As a young boy, I suffered from severe dermatitis, which filled my limbs with ulcers and scars. The true pain of intelligence, my condition, however, was social; I was alienated from my classmates and lived a life of loneliness and binding isolation. Doctors predicted that I would never fully recover, but my parents refused to accept this. They encouraged me to hope for the future, teaching me that any obstacle could be overcome. Phd Thesis! I therefore took an papers writing, active role in my health, trying many medications and herbs.
Approaching my loneliness with bravery, I came to view it as a challenge to be overcome. The summer after I graduated from primary school, my disease improved dramatically. Although my body remained riddled with scars, the ulcers vanished. The self-confidence I regained was profound; I realized that my personal will had led to this improvement. I began to seek out phd thesis intelligence, friendships at about co-education, school, and I took part in activities like volleyball, Girl Guide, and Art Club. Phd Thesis! Through it all, my attitude toward challenges remained the same. In every examination or competition, I told myself that I could easily excel since nothing could be more difficult than what I had already overcome. By the family business succession time I moved to Canada, I had fully recovered both socially and physically.
Moreover, I had learned to be confident and never to fear failure. Phd Thesis Emotional! This credo echoes through my personal life and gives me the inner resolve to succeed at any endeavor, including my professional pursuits. Like my personal battle with dermatitis, I learned a great deal about leadership by overcoming adversity. High Homework! While enrolled in an ESL program in Canada, I joined the Culture Club as a Special Event Director. I managed a group of emotional intelligence, six individuals in organizing various functions. I was the real essays book most advanced ESL student among the group, and I therefore assumed myself to phd thesis, be the high school math homework most capable. I quickly learned my mistake. While preparing our first function, I was strict with my team members and often rejected their ideas in favor of my own. Emotional! I performed most of their tasks myself, allowing them to assist me only in an essay, minor details. As a result, the intelligence function was not very successful. Few people attended, and we had problems with decorations and presentation.
The setback disheartened me, and I spoke of it to the club's supervisor. Real Essays! She responded that she trusted my ability to succeed in the future. This comment filled me with surprise, for I realized that I had never trusted my own team members. Although they were weak in English, they had many valuable talents. I immediately changed my policy, allowing team members to choose the tasks they desired and to complete them on their own.
Meetings evolved into group brainstorming sessions, which yielded many good ideas. Most importantly, the atmosphere among us improved dramatically. We were happier and more eager to devote time to the program. I learned what true leadership is, and the experience undoubtedly improved my ability to handle challenging business situations. You are absolutely the best! Your explanations were clear and extremely helpful. You manage to edit my essays without changing any important fact. The thing I was mostly impressed is phd thesis emotional, how you organized my essays, the weakest point in family planning, the original and intelligence how you edit the structure of my sentences, the issue I always struggle with since I am not a native speaker. Your service was worth every penny and I would definitely recommended EssayEdge to my friends currently applying for B-schools.
Additionally, it was on time . very impressive! It took me days to business succession planning, write the originals and you were able to polish them in emotional intelligence, the way I probably would never be able to. Also, through your comments and changes I learned how to improve my writing and communicate my thoughts a little bit better. About! You almost made a frustrating application process fun. THANK YOU SO MUCH. Click Here for emotional, the Edited Version. This is a strong pair of essays that puts a very human face on your application. You come across as an engaging and likeable IT professional, and the details you provide about your personal life are both interesting and informative. However, there were ways in which these essays could be improved. The major problem I noticed with these essays was the length of your paragraphs.
It is necessary to of writing an essay, break your discussions into easily digestible segments so that the reader is not overwhelmed by the breadth of your observations. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence! I have substantially reworked the structure of these essays to real essays book, make them more accessible to the reader. Throughout each essay, I took liberties to correct stylistic and grammatical problems. My changes largely took the form of making sentence transitions smoother and more compelling, varying sentence structure to keep the phd thesis intelligence reader interested, and pruning unnecessary words to increase sentence comprehension and coherence. I consciously tried to hsc past papers, leave your own voice and emotional intelligence ideas intact. Here are my specific notes on each original paragraph of the text:
The first few sentences of your original draft seemed too self-pitying. It is essential to begin your essay with something that captures the reader's interest. Write! I have provided a new introduction that illustrates the unique role that the Internet played in intelligence, your family dynamic. In addition, it is useful to separate the introduction proper from the rest of the first paragraph. I have provided a strong transition that illustrates the relevance of your volunteer IT experience. Finally, the new second paragraph that I have adapted from co-education your original text incorporates extensive sentence-level adjustments to improve your diction. When I visited him, the new automated production line and intelligence the whole computerized firm amused me. It is best to hsc past, omit this detail since it suggests that you failed to appreciate the difficulty of your father's work. See the alternative treatment of this idea I have proposed in the revised essay.
I provided a stronger transition to this sentence, which encapsulates your main motivation for pursuing a career in IT. Emotional Intelligence! Your original paragraph was a bit too general, so I anchored your assertions in concrete fact to family checklist, make them more compelling. Although monetary reward is intelligence, practically important in reality. This is redundant. I suggest the following: While monetary rewards are of practical importance. Oxford Green! I like learning new skills and emotional intelligence acquiring up-dated information, because they can help me adapt the fast-changing world, enrich my experiences, explore my interest, and writing give me higher self-esteem as I am a valuable person. This is too effusive. I have provided a shorter version of this idea below. I have improved the diction of this paragraph to emotional intelligence, make it more compelling.
I will attend a computer-programming course in order to continuously update myself and become more competitive. This construction is slightly awkward. You can rephrase this idea as follows: I plan to use my private time to process of writing, attend computer programming courses in order to maintain a competitive knowledge of technology. I have adjusted the tone of emotional, this paragraph to process, use a more confident voice. For instance, I replaced the phrase, the program can deepen expertise, with, such a program will deepen my expertise. Emotional Intelligence! This adjustment is subtle, but it makes a big difference. Your original introduction failed to introduce your subject to the reader in business checklist, an adequate fashion or to engage his attention. Rather than summarizing your arguments in an essay this short, it is better to provide a hook that draws your reader into intelligence, the piece. See my suggestion in family business succession, the text. This paragraph was too wordy, and many of your arguments were redundant. I have streamlined your discussion to make it more direct, and I have separated this paragraph into emotional, two parts to make it more readable.
In addition, it was necessary to reduce the book online graphic description of your physical ailment. It is better to phd thesis, focus on how you overcame adversity rather than to dwell on how you suffered as a child. . full of ulcers, sores, bandages and scars. I always felt itchy and painful, and I dared not play with others. Moreover, my hairs had never been longer that two inches. These are distracting details that fail to illustrate how you overcame adversity.
I suggest reducing these descriptions to a minimum. During every examination and competition, I told myself that I was able to do the best because nothing was tougher than the time when I was in the primary school. This is a very powerful argument that does a great job of illustrating your resolve. I have highlighted and gloucester expanded upon this idea in the revised essay. This paragraph is also best divided into two separate parts. To ensure that your essay reads smoothly, I have provided new transition sentences to each paragraph.
However, I quickly found that I was wrong after we completed our first function. This is a good place to vary sentence length for dramatic effect. I propose the following: I quickly learned my mistake. I followed up my members' tasks very strictly and did not accept their idea very often. While it is important to be honest, you should cast this detail in the most favorable light possible. Emotional! I propose the process of writing an essay following: I was strict with my team members and often rejected their ideas in emotional intelligence, favor of my own. With all the changes I have proposed, you will have to use your judgment and accept only online those which you think are best. Overall, these essays now do a very good job of phd thesis intelligence, putting a human face on your application. Process Of Writing! I wish you the emotional intelligence best of luck in the application process. See how EssayEdge experts from schools including Harvard, Yale and Princeton can help you get into business school! Review our services.
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The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Educating the Machine: A Study in the History of Computing and the Construction of the SIMULA Programming Languages . Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the book in which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Center for Technology and Society. University of Trondheim. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.
The SIMULA programming language was designed and built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in Oslo between 1962 and 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to explore the wider history of the SIMULA project. By means of a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the emotional, technical development of the language with what is normally seen as its social, economic, and essays, politic context. Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to investigate the phd thesis emotional intelligence, heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of about technology Thomas Hughes has shown in his remarkable studies of Edison and others, technologists in their work often pay little attention to commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in order to accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the limits of what is normally considered technical or scientific and that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. Thus for Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to which they relate their work becomes the prime focus of interest. His principal argument, in effect, is that one cannot fully comprehend the complex processes of technological and emotional intelligence, scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to follow the actors and seek explanations for technological and scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to show, the construction of SIMULA was indeed an effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of the two principals, Dahl and Nygaard. The main portion of the chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the language was constructed and implemented.
In line with what has been stated above, the analysis attempts to incorporate a socio-technical approach to history and thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in family succession planning checklist, some detail. Emotional. The closing sections provide a brief survey of some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in the 1970s, as well as a commentary on NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in thesis oxford, 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to conceptualize complex real world systems. Emotional. One of the process of writing an essay, major problems he encountered in this pursuit was how to intelligence, describe the heterogeneity of a system and its operation. In the 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of symbol notation, i.e. flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to be a serviceable tool for analysis of these models and high school math, when the Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in late summer of 1957, Nygaard and his team immediately started to emotional, write computer simulation programs. As I have pointed out in previous chapters, the late 1950s saw the family, proliferation of a new scheme for emotional computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in high math homework, this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in this line of work, he was well acquainted with the principles of phd thesis emotional intelligence programming languages.
Encouraged by the promising prospects of computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to think conceptually about how he could formalize the procedures for an essay systems description in a way that would allow standardized concepts to be easily processed by a computer. Given his background from NDRE, the idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in phd thesis emotional intelligence, terms of technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and book online, rather vague set of ideas began to phd thesis intelligence, take shape. In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to his colleague, the French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on thesis binding oxford gloucester the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on how to describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of large classes of phd thesis emotional situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the compiler, since the presently used ways of describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. #93; The work on papers the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to phd thesis intelligence, have been reached. The expert programmer who is interested in this part of the job will meet me tomorrow. Real Essays. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from this letter, SIMULA was intended from the very outset to be simultaneously a systems description and a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and phd thesis intelligence, programming skills. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at NDRE before he was assigned to process of writing, operations research in 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to undertake an phd thesis intelligence extensive task like this on his own.
He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from family business succession, outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. During the phd thesis intelligence, spring of 1962 Nygaard and Dahl joined in a series of discussions which in May, 1962 resulted in the first formal language proposal. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to anticipate the course of events a little by examining how the language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of 1962. The occasion was the second international conference on information processing held in Munich, Germany in late August that year. In the introduction to his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of school homework ALGOL to the Description of Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and phd thesis, others studying network systems, there is a definite need for a precise language which allows a description of a network in terms of green standardized and generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the phd thesis, network.
SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an effort to school math, meet this need with regard to discrete-event networks, that is, where the phd thesis, flow may be thought of family succession planning checklist as being composed of discrete units demanding service at phd thesis emotional intelligence discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the process of writing, elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of time. Examples of such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and concurrent processing of programs on computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by the quotation above, based on phd thesis the notion of a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of binding oxford green active stations serving a flow of passive customers. As illustrated in Figure 7, these stations consisted of a queue part and a service part, and phd thesis, the actions associated with the service part were described by process of writing an essay a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to be generated by the service part of a given station, then transferred to the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Here the customer was served, and then passed on to the next station in the network, and so on until it ultimately disappeared by not being transferred any further. The actions taken by the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at discrete points in time, and phd thesis emotional intelligence, accordingly, this class of family business planning checklist systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Station in discrete-event network. The intention was to build the language around a general mathematical structure.
Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from phd thesis emotional intelligence, scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to an already existing one. Dahl and Nygaard decided early on that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an process an essay academic paper language, they would have to join forces with one of the dominant programming languages. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in Europe. The elegant and powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and Nygaard and about, made it, in their opinion, the perfect match for SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to ALGOL 60 was made during the spring of intelligence 1962, and would later prove to be both an enormous strength and business succession checklist, a serious obstacle. I will return to these technical matters later on, but for the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. In order to understand how SIMULA grew from a set of loose ideas in intelligence, Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in this area.
From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in write co-education, 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. In 1958 the emotional, NCC was given charge of running the about, Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Chapter 3, this led to a reorganization of the emotional intelligence, computing center. Essays Book Online. According to NTNF's Annual Report for phd thesis emotional intelligence 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for book online computing, and do numerical and emotional, statistical computing for public agencies and real, industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of phd thesis fulfilling these obligations. The amount of work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and yet a third from the fact that the DEUCE was an extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in any other computer of its day, and given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to solve this posed tremendous difficulties for its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to the parties involved that something had to be done and hsc past papers, as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of 1960, to restate the Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. As mentioned, toward the end of the emotional, 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at NDRE increasingly difficult, and thus, when the NCC, in May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. Papers Creative. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.
In order to accomplish this he brought along six members of his previous operations research team from NDRE. To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the remains of the group at emotional NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. In the long run this event resulted in far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. When Nygaard and his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the SIMULA project at NCC, and hsc past creative, Jan Garwick later moved to the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at NDRE disappeared. The effect of this was that NCC in the 1960s took over as the phd thesis emotional intelligence, leading milieu in informatics in Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to execute its commissions and by 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Process Of Writing. Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.
What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of a highly qualified and professional staff, and in this respect the intelligence, introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to an essay about, be a step in the right direction. Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the SIMULA project off the paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to emotional intelligence, NCC's computer problems. In April 1961 NCC received an write an essay co-education informal proposal from the Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the phd thesis emotional intelligence, Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for a large network of an essay Scandinavian computing centers called the Scandinavian Electronic System. According to phd thesis emotional intelligence, the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of this network and would in family business planning, the short run benefit from such cooperation in phd thesis, several ways. From the point of view of an essay NTNF and NCC's board, the Danish proposition seemed to phd thesis emotional intelligence, offer the gloucester, ideal solution to NCC's most immediate problems, and after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the task of drawing up a report on NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by recommending a GIER from the Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Nygaard and Ørjansen's opinion not the ideal solution for NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.
However, this computer was, at the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and consequently they settled for GIER. Based on the conclusions in the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from Denmark, and granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the situation when another important actor, the Univac Division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the stage towards the end of May 1962. In connection with the marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an phd thesis executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Kristen Nygaard was invited to participate on behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the status on the SIMULA project. As mentioned earlier, the hsc past, SIMULA concept had, by May 1962, reached a state of semi-maturity, and Dahl and Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at hand.
The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to phd thesis emotional intelligence, seek out hsc past papers writing, financial resources. As reported by Dahl and Nygaard in 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the phd thesis intelligence, valuable moral support given by the board of NCC. The main objection according to creative writing, them was that there would be no use for a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and that they in general lacked the competence needed to embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of work should not be performed in phd thesis, small countries like Norway.
From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and real book, protracted mission. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to introduce SIMULA to the Americans. As soon as the party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to phd thesis intelligence, set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Present at this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of writing systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the phd thesis emotional intelligence, Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.
He told me about process of writing an essay his project SIMULA. Intelligence. My yearly budget for Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for in the neighborhood of write about co-education 325 people. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of that money was my discretion, to do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and chairing a session at the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to emotional intelligence, which Nygaard's project was a close fit.
I invited him to thesis binding oxford gloucester, give a paper at that session. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in phd thesis, the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at IBM, but at UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the show!). #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and essays book online, as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in Munich, and that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for this occasion. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the significance of such an phd thesis emotional opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of SIMULA at green the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for the introduction of phd thesis intelligence SIMULA, and simultaneously provided Dahl and Nygaard with an important entry to the distinguished community of computer professionals. Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to write about co-education, draw professional attention to SIMULA, the phd thesis emotional intelligence, vital question of financial support was still unsettled. High Math Homework. At this point, however, Univac started to move. In connection with the marketing of the UNIVAC 1107, the company needed a demonstration site in Europe as soon as possible.
In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an impression on the Univac people and really succeeded in convincing them of phd thesis emotional intelligence NCC's professional qualities, because upon his return to Norway, Nickitas approached him with an informal proposal for Univac to establish this demonstration site at NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and write an essay, NCC would get a 50% discount on an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the linear programming system developed by Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the conditions for the SIMULA project changed considerably. As previously explained, the prospects of attaining grants within the NTNF system were not at emotional all promising. Now all of write an essay about a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the terms by emotional linking the development of SIMULA to NCC's computer acquisition.
It is an essay worth noticing that Univac at the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and the LP Package in emotional, return for their computer offer, they clearly aimed at enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and an essay co-education, inside man in Norway. From Nygaard's point of view Univac's initiative must really have had an appealing sound to it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in phd thesis intelligence, terms of computing power, for the development of thesis oxford a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the most important aspect was probably the prospect of emotional intelligence NCC taking on the development costs related to the SIMULA project.
In a broader context a number of online other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Here however, we shall settle for emotional perhaps the most momentous one, which also to a high degree was interconnected with the SIMULA effort. From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and that his professional aspirations were largely linked to NCC's position as a research center in informatics. In this respect he must have judged the essays, possibilities of attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the ultimate solutions in high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to fortify Norwegian computer science, and undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for the SIMULA project, and that Kristen Nygaard and intelligence, Univac had common interests in this case, even though they pursued different goals. Negotiating for the Univac/SIMULA Deal. Back in Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to canvass opinion for of writing the Univac proposal at NCC and within NTNF.
Since the Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from phd thesis intelligence, Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in this case. Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of Univac Scandinavia, and an essay, James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. Emotional Intelligence. In connection with this, members of the binding oxford, board of emotional intelligence NCC together with a few influential people within the Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the Univac representatives. At this meeting Univac came up with an offer which meant that NCC could acquire an 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the discussions however, the Univac representatives got the notion that the computer configuration in question was too large and thus too expensive. So in an attempt to hsc past creative, make it more appealing to the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to extend their offer.
In the following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and the LP Package. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to entice NCC and Kristen Nygaard in particular, was actually an ace that they had been hiding all along in real book, an attempt to emotional intelligence, get SIMULA for free. It is useful to recall that, at the time, head of papers creative Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of about $8 mill. out of which he could spend up to phd thesis, 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the SIMULA project, in his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the necessary funding of the project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in an essay, SIMULA is found in a letter from Univac to Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for our interest in emotional intelligence, SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in St.
Paul. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and real essays, your material #91;progress reports and specifications on SIMULA#93; is being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for further engagement. With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the really the big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from NDRE, Finn Lied. As director of NDRE, chairman of the board of IFA, member of NTNF's working committee, and with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of emotional Finance and the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of considerable power and influence in Norwegian science policy and he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at all. As early as September 1960 IFA and NDRE had first begun to real online, look into the question of acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in emotional intelligence, high-technology RD, it was imperative that the two institutes had at green their disposal the most powerful and modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to phd thesis emotional intelligence, the Ministry of Finance, but it soon turned out that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.
In May of that year, Lied wrote to his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the greatest difficulties in the Ministry of Industry. Details orally. I have had to appeal to the two Secretaries of State both orally and in writing. I have yielded in thesis, every aspect except for the essentials. This is, in my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the case partly in the hands (yours) of the intelligence, Council. #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on the horizon. Kristen Nygaard was back from the States with an exceptionally favorable offer from Univac, and the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. In July NTNF's working committee decided to take the 1107 question under deliberation, and Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to about co-education, draw up a report on the subject. Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and Nygaard new very well what was at phd thesis emotional stake. He had to act fast.
While Lied and others who were liable to interfere were away on summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the hsc past papers writing, NTNF should purchase the UNIVAC 1107. He argued that the needs for computing power in research, public agencies, private commerce and phd thesis emotional intelligence, various industries were rapidly increasing, and that a computer like the 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the competitors' (IBM and English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Secretary of the Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the opinion that one mainframe computer had to be utilized to its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and NCC's plans were put into family succession planning, action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by NTNF's working committee at meetings held on 21 August and 12 September 1963. The committee members were generally in favor of the conclusions in Nygaard's report, that is phd thesis with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. Lied pointed out that it would be an book unfortunate development if NCC were to expand its staff by recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.
He was also concerned that the acquisition of a large and phd thesis, expensive computer like the 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of school math homework getting a similar computer in the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to intelligence, dissent in this case. One reason why he refrained from essays book online, interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and NCC's intention was to emotional intelligence, finance 60 percent of the machine through private loans, and an essay about co-education, thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of phd thesis intelligence Industry. When the contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on 24 October 1962, the of writing an essay, software systems to accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the contract that these systems would be available in phd thesis emotional, time for delivery. The original delivery date was set for March 1963, but for process various reasons was later postponed. Phd Thesis. When the computer eventually arrived, in an essay, August 1963, it became apparent that the phd thesis emotional intelligence, software systems provided did not meet the standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on Univac amounting to approximately 1.8 mill. NOK ($250,000). However, progress was being made, and in June 1964 NCC finally considered the software situation satisfactory. By then NCC's standing claim on Univac had become substantial, and important people within the Univac organization found themselves in a most awkward position. So, in order to maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to accept an high upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of a cash payment.
In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the UNIVAC 1107 arrived in Oslo. After a few weeks of phd thesis emotional intelligence assembling and testing, the high school math homework, computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. Phd Thesis Intelligence. The Department for Special Projects. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at family business succession checklist last settled, and the technical premises fairly well clarified. However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the development of SIMULA really took off. The reason for this seemingly unexpected delay is partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and research are largely dependent upon external premises.
Ever since Univac's offer was first known to NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the fact that an phd thesis engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the bulk of NCC's available resources had to be directed strictly towards the business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. School. It is somewhat difficult to establish exactly how this situation might have affected the development of SIMULA, since this project was financed by Univac. It is evident, however, that the 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and gave way for intelligence a professional profile which, at least to a certain extent, resembled the situation before 1960. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at write an essay co-education the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and dynamic organization, the board decided to restructure the entire institute by dividing it into a number of independent departments.
According to the board's resolution of 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to phd thesis intelligence, engage in practical commissions as well as applied research on specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to this new organizational structure. Hsc Past Creative Writing. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. It was, so to speak, a disturbing element inflicted on phd thesis emotional intelligence NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in connection with the real online, UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of interests must also have been important with regard to another of the board's reasons for reorganizing the institute. When NTNF decided to go for UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to emotional, attach greater importance to economics. This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to the rest of the staff. As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from being curtailed by scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for process of writing an essay NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against Ørjansen and Nygaard. Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in emotional intelligence, further discussions here.
As a result of this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from his position as director of NCC and was released by of writing Leif K. Olaussen in phd thesis, December 1963. Business Planning Checklist. For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in wake of the crisis lead to a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. This difficult situation must also have contributed to slow down in the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the phd thesis emotional, board subsequently decided to establish a Department for Special Projects and put Nygaard in charge as director of research. The new department should focus on important problems within NCC's mandate, of business planning such character that they could not be adequately treated by emotional any of the other departments.
As examples of this kind of activity the write an essay about, board puts forward: software development, research in new areas of phd thesis emotional intelligence computer application, special projects related to the development of NCC's professional profile, public relations and consulting services for important customers. Papers Creative. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. In this way they could keep him occupied, and prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for software development.#91;40#93; The Department for Special Projects became a precedent for software development at NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for phd thesis emotional intelligence Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Let us now return to the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of 1962, they had a rather vague set of ideas for a programming language which should meet a broad set of co-education specifications. If we compare these initial ideas with the actual outcome of intelligence their scientific endeavor, the SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a rather distinct difference between these two positions. In the following I will point out a few reasons for write an essay this change of goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on emotional intelligence an idea of papers a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to ALGOL and then in turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to operate strictly within the intelligence, framework of ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.
However, at this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the idea that customers in a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and family business succession planning checklist, characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the spring of 1963 however, Dahl's work on phd thesis intelligence the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. In short, the problem facing Dahl and hsc past papers creative, Nygaard at phd thesis emotional intelligence this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to real, a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in a simulation model rather tended to behave according to phd thesis, the queue principle. In light of papers this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to emotional intelligence, get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. Write An Essay About. During the summer and phd thesis emotional, autumn of succession 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the preprocessor idea completely. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. Instead they decided to implement SIMULA through a modification and extension of Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.
This change of strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on SIMULA, and family business succession planning, accordingly, they were compelled to start over again. This time they derived the basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from job shops via airport departure systems to emotional intelligence, epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the other way around, i.e. active customers making use of essays book online passive stations. This in phd thesis emotional, turn led to the realization that an in-between, or dual point of view could profitably be adopted. From this perspective the customers were regarded as active in moving from station to station, but passive in of writing an essay, their interaction with the service parts of the various stations. Emotional. (See Figure 8) As a result of this vital construct, the joint activity within the system itself now became the one general principle applying to wide classes of systems. In light of this new understanding they found that the process an essay, simple network concept seemed too narrow and thus inappropriate, and for phd thesis these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and Nygaard introduced the far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of a system being described by a general mathematical structure had been substituted by a much more powerful concept.
The system was now understood as consisting of a series of interacting processes operating in an essay, quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to an end. It was now time to translate the paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from two American software engineers Ken Jones and Joeseph Speroni, the latter was the phd thesis emotional, responsible for the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the year, and in December 1964, the an essay co-education, first prototype of the SIMULA I compiler was up and running on phd thesis emotional intelligence NCC's UNIVAC 1107. Oxford Gloucester Green. According to the SIMULA I manual which appeared in May 1965, the two main objectives of phd thesis emotional intelligence SIMULA were: 1. to provide a language for a precise and essays online, standardized description of a wide class of phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. Emotional. 2. to provide a programming language for an easy generation of simulation programs for discrete event systems. #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for system description and simulation programming had become a reality. During that year three courses were given in book online, the language, and its use picked up so fast that in his report on the use of SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by SIMULA since there are many users outside the institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and emotional intelligence, scheduling, renewal, computer operation and an essay about co-education, design, and analyses of various social systems. As an phd thesis intelligence illustration of the specific problems SIMULA was applied to that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an analysis of the hsc past creative, layout of the phd thesis emotional, new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the write about, object was to find the proper arrangement and dimensioning of cranes, storage points etc.
The SIMULA program for this job was punched on 1130 cards. Compiling time was 50 seconds, and intelligence, a simulation of two and hsc past creative, a half days of operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an airport departure system was being developed in emotional, cooperation with the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on the transportation, pre-production, and of writing, storage system of a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and phd thesis emotional intelligence, that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and Nygaard first commenced work on SIMULA during the spring of 1962, their idea was to develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on hsc past creative top of ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to emotional, be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against process an essay, the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. As we have seen, the solution to this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. Emotional. From then on real essays book their ambitions grew and in wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. From the end of 1963, it is evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in phd thesis emotional, order to realize a real high-level programming language. In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an intermediate position en route to what was later to become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and process an essay, 1966 Dahl and phd thesis, Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and teaching SIMULA, and the use of the language rapidly spread to Sweden, Germany, the Soviet Union, as well as a number of other countries.
Apart from the UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and later on, the hsc past papers, Russian URAL-16 computer. Phd Thesis Emotional. However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. They knew that they now had a powerful and fairly generalized language at hand, which would make an excellent platform for a general purpose programming language. Furthermore, through utilizing the language, they subsequently realized that a number of short-comings existed. In his report on the use of SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to oxford, implement tracing and emotional intelligence, debugging facilities in hsc past, order to make it easier for the user to detect and correct errors in the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an obvious lack of serviceable tools for expressing common properties between interrelated processes in emotional intelligence, the system. Hsc Past Creative. Moreover, it was obvious that the emotional intelligence, sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in high school math homework, SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and finally they had become aware of phd thesis emotional intelligence certain serious deficiencies in the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of 1965 the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim contacted NCC and expressed it's interest in implementing a new and improved ALGOL compiler for the 1107. Their idea was to design this compiler especially with SIMULA in business succession planning, mind. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. From Dahl and Nygaard's point of papers writing view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Knut Skog in intelligence, Trondheim were maintained. Write. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an intelligence increasing amount of time trying to come up with as general and unifying concepts as possible.
As this pursuit proceeded throughout the summer and autumn of math 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the phd thesis emotional intelligence, opportunities embedded in Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of very useful properties, it failed to fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of real online generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to their problem suddenly appeared in phd thesis emotional, December 1966, when the idea of prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of two layers: A prefix layer containing references to write an essay co-education, its predecessor and successor along with a number of other properties, and a main layer containing the attributes of the phd thesis intelligence, object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to establish class and school math, subclass hierarchies of concatenated objects. As an example we can imagine the class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. In other words, the basic concept of speaking in general and more specific terms had been adopted as a way of expressing reality in the context of a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in terms of which an improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to the fact that Dahl and emotional, Nygaard wanted to make the new version of SIMULA a general purpose language.
In what follows I will try to point out some of the reasons for this. Hsc Past Creative Writing. As heralded by Nygaard at the IFIP-62 World Congress and further evidenced by emotional the SIMULA manual of May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. The 1960s saw an enormous proliferation of school math homework these so-called special-purpose languages. This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the computer itself as I argued earlier in Chapter 2. Intelligence. Since the real book online, computer increasingly came to be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over the function of configuring it for specialized application areas like simulation, for example. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by the sense of crisis that emerged in phd thesis intelligence, the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over real essays book online, budget and emotional intelligence, below specifications. During the 1960s, the call for a more concerted effort in math homework, programming language design grew stronger, and one solution that more and phd thesis, more language developers found promising was the general-purpose language, the programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for all conceivable purposes. At an IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at an essay about co-education Lysebu outside Oslo in phd thesis intelligence, May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to say that: The only business succession planning checklist, salvation for phd thesis emotional intelligence the programming world is the really general purpose language. Even if it does not exist yet, it is clear that is the only thing we must strive for if we are going to real essays online, give all programmers access to the necessary tools. We can not just produce new special purpose languages the phd thesis intelligence, whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. #91;56#93; As I noted in an essay, Chapter 2, the very first effort to produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.
This project, born out of a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from both sides of the phd thesis emotional intelligence, Atlantic, came to form the basis for most theoretical and practical language and compiler work during the an essay, 1960s and well into the `70s. Although ALGOL was intended to be a general-purpose programming language, it came to phd thesis emotional, be seen essentially as a tool for numerical computations. School Homework. To bring the language more in line with the original intentions, in 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to phd thesis intelligence, appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at process IBM. In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in phd thesis, connection with the discussion of IBM's new product line, the System/360. As opposed to ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by IBM. In the 1960s these two large and prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in the idea of general-purpose languages, and this is background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.
To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and real, I started out to phd thesis emotional, make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to some extent fallen in high school, love with the concept of emotional general purpose languages. #91;60#93; As a result of a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the Norwegian representative to IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an IFIP Working Conference on simulation languages should be held in Oslo in May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for their efforts, and when the thesis binding oxford gloucester, conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the year, they were determined to present a new and revised version of SIMULA at this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to emotional intelligence, the Lysebu conference Dahl and Nygaard had been working desperately to finish their Class and an essay about co-education, Subclass Declarations paper. Despite the short time available to them they managed to incorporate all the important new aspects, and phd thesis, thus this paper became in a sense the first formal definition of the new language. The conference's response to SIMULA 67 was positive, and the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. Two weeks later, in June 1967, another important conference was organized. The purpose of this conference was mainly twofold, first to define a standard for the exchange of school math homework SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Common Base Standard, and secondly to initiate implementation projects for the Control Data 3000 (upper and lower) series and the UNIVAC 1100 series. Once again Dahl and Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.
One of the things that they wanted to incorporate was a unification of the related notions of Type and Class. The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the pragmatic approach prevailed and the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and phd thesis emotional, I/O had not been discussed in any of Dahl and online, Nygaard's many proposals to phd thesis emotional intelligence, the conference. However, the process of writing an essay, implementers unanimously stressed the need to have these things incorporated and defined as part of the Common Base Definition. In order to secure high standardization and portability, it was therefore decided to furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for design and development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and Nygaard. The results of his work were accepted at the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.
As has been stressed, Dahl and phd thesis emotional, Nygaard had great ambitions for SIMULA 67. Hsc Past Papers. They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on paper. They envisioned at the time that only a few of the many programming languages developed in intelligence, the 1960s would still be in use by 1980 and online, if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on the important mainframes. Emotional Intelligence. Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for green the UNIVAC. Whereas the intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to these technical problems and partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of phd thesis emotional Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from scratch. The code of the ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the entire effort and wherever they could this code was cannibalized and reused. This way the binding oxford, only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to SIMULA-specific items. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and Kubosch took great pains to emotional, ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. Write An Essay About. This painstaking work contributed largely to the fact that the UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the fastest SIMULA systems ever made. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on the performance. For various reasons the phd thesis emotional, Research Council decided in September 1969 to sell the 1107, and hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to business succession checklist, approximately 1.2 mill.
NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to Computas, a company owned by the large and influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. #91;68#93; In spite of the abandonment of the old 1107 the UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an phd thesis immediate and significant setback because of high school math all the recoding it necessitated. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and its new operating system (EXEC 8), in many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on the compiler performance. Another problem was that the new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the order of the day this undoubtedly contributed to a slowing of the project. In any event, progress was being made and in March 1971 the first commercial version of UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in phd thesis, its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and improved version.
Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on the SIMULA I project, and saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of discussions between NCC and Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the case of the high school homework, IBM 360/370 compilers, the situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and his team in intelligence, 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and UNIVAC the conditions for book doing this were stated very clearly. Firstly, such projects could only be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in the course of 5 years, would be able to cover the total expenses by selling the phd thesis emotional, compilers on school math a strictly commercial basis. Intelligence. #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. The hunt for investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in binding oxford green, the summer of 1969. FOA had, for many years, been wanting to make use of SIMULA in connection with their research activities, and intelligence, as they had recently purchased an IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for this particular system.#91;72#93; On the basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to support the IBM 360/370 project by hsc past papers creative writing funding the participation of phd thesis emotional intelligence two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. Apart from this, IBM also made an important contribution by giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to be used in connection with the development and high math homework, testing of the compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of extensive work the IBM compilers was released to phd thesis intelligence, the public in May 1972.
Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in charge of the project and, in addition to Enderin and Arnborg, the team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the code generation part, Paul Wynn on the CMS modification, and last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and who, during the second part of the an essay co-education, 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the costs related to the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and emotional, both were conducted at NCC under the auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. Thesis Binding Oxford. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over phd thesis intelligence, a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in succession checklist, excess worldwide for emotional intelligence more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of NCC's own compiler development projects. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to book, the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and emotional, lower) and 6000 series of real book online computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in emotional intelligence, Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on a SIMULA 67 implementation for the CDC 6000. Write An Essay Co-education. This compiler was later refined by SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and a new version for emotional intelligence the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in process, 1973/74 by NDRE. In Norway, a team from the emotional intelligence, University of Oslo, headed by papers creative Per Ofstad, carried out the emotional intelligence, CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and the University of Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at family business succession planning Kjeller (KCIN), headed by Svein A. Øvergaard, handled the emotional intelligence, CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from succession checklist, KCIN, and phd thesis emotional intelligence, both were completed during the spring of succession checklist 1969.
Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in turn obtained marketing and distribution rights, whereas the maintenance responsibility for the respective compilers remained with the phd thesis emotional, University and KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to these projects, compilers for CII 10070 and IRIS 80 were implemented by the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). Binding. The two identical systems were released in 1972, and were provided free of phd thesis emotional charge to family succession, CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in Sweden in the first half of the phd thesis, 1970s, this time the target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the Swedish Research Institute of an essay about co-education National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to intelligence, establish a laboratory for family succession planning checklist advanced military studies in operations research. In connection with this they intended to purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of a committee whose purpose was to draw up an phd thesis emotional evaluation report on papers the subject. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on emotional intelligence the PDP-10. Since this computer at the time had no SIMULA compiler in its software library, such an implementation was immediately ordered from the Swedish software house ENEA Data. The first test version of the compiler was available to programmers at the QZ data center in Stockholm, and via communication networks from September 1974. The first public release took place in January 1975.
The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in real essays online, many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and emotional, re-setting of real essays book online break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the compiler was especially designed for interactive use, and would soon set a new standard for the development of SIMULA compilers. Apart from phd thesis intelligence, FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to oxford, the project under the condition that the compiler should be distributed free of charge. This condition was accepted, with the result that the DEC System-10 compiler came to emotional intelligence, have a major impact on the dissemination of SIMULA, especially in the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the compiler had been distributed to 28 installations, 22 of process of writing which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on NCC's SIMULA Engagement in the 1970s. In the phd thesis, early days of the planning, 1960s promotion and marketing of SIMULA was mainly done by the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. However, as the phd thesis emotional, language rapidly spread to larger groups of users, and hsc past papers, the amounts of money invested in the project steadily grew, this situation had to be done in a more professional manner.
As mentioned in connection with the intelligence, two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and IBM, the computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the accomplishment of write an essay co-education these. Phd Thesis. As reported by Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the lifetime for book online a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into consideration the phd thesis emotional, costs of developing a compiler, not to creative, mention the great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for the two compiler development projects, their conditions for doing this were that sufficient external financing was at bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Based on this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in 1967/68 and IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for investors. Phd Thesis Intelligence. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to papers creative, a point beyond no return, and NCC had to carry the financial burden alone.
Due to these circumstances, NCC found itself in the early 70s in a very difficult economic situation. The Centre operated largely on a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in this case. From the management's point of phd thesis intelligence view it was therefore necessary for the SIMULA activity to of writing, be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to phd thesis emotional intelligence, show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. This critique has in an essay about co-education, some cases been justifiable, e.g. when Donald Knuth in phd thesis intelligence, 1973 was prevented from introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of NCC's unwillingness to about co-education, reduce prices, and give it away free of charge to universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in mind the fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to a number of intelligence other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Binding Oxford. Nevertheless, by 1973 the use of SIMULA had spread to phd thesis, such an extent that NCC had lost track of write an essay co-education it, and despite the fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the language was estimated to be in regular use at more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in the 1970s, one must also mention the Centre's instrumental role in the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the exchange of ideas among SIMULA users was actually an intelligence old idea first proposed by Dahl and papers creative writing, Nygaard back in 1967. However, at that time other and more pressing needs were given priority, but in 1972/73 the idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the Association of SIMULA Users was formally founded.
Through annual conferences, workshops and phd thesis, newsletters the ASU came to constitute an international forum for discussion and book online, exchange of ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the organization also represented an important channel for phd thesis emotional intelligence exchange of information and ideas between the SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of write co-education members from the various SIMULA implementation teams, and the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the first ASU conference in Oslo the number of phd thesis emotional founding members were 43, one year later, in August 1974, this number had increased to a total of book 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Courtesy of emotional intelligence Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to dwell a bit on one interesting aspect of the SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and real book online, technological activity is just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of emotional what he saw as the dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over the large masses which did not have access to the same knowledge base. To illustrate how Nygaard's views on technocracy influenced the development of SIMULA, I want to reproduce a portion of a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on real book online Simulation Programming Languages in May of 1967. His concern surfaced in a dispute with Jan Garwick, the emotional intelligence, author of the general-purpose language GPL, over the implications of technocracy in the programming community.
It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is family business succession not true, since I am a representative of the 99% group and I think since we are so many and phd thesis emotional, we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to say something here. We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to face these complex problems. #91;. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is just for of writing the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to intelligence, provide a number of different languages which are defined in the general language so, therefore, we are forced to learn all these languages instead. This is not what we want. What we want is to be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for school math homework the layman is emotional intelligence charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and the users of technology. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and school math homework, called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to phd thesis, learn and use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.
As the use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and 1967, Nygaard observed that the language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in real book, the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. Phd Thesis Intelligence. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to thesis green, organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in phd thesis emotional, this area: More routine work, less demand for knowledge and hsc past papers, a skilled labor force, less flexibility at the work place, more pressure. I could see this because I was involved in many of the projects where SIMULA was being used. Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and heroic as the one the nuclear physicists experienced over phd thesis emotional, the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. I realized that the homework, technology I had helped to develop had serious consequences for other people, especially the people that I had come to identify with politically. The question was what to phd thesis emotional, do about it? I had no desire to about co-education, un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an immensely important role. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and intelligence, technical expertise to the labor movement. He wanted to warn them about what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to educate them and help them build up a knowledge base about the new computer technology. Write An Essay About Co-education. His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in the late 1960s lead to a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at NCC collaborated with members of the emotional, labor movement to process, build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the intelligence, first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for his efforts by the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is a different story that will have to hsc past papers, remain beyond the scope of this study.
This chapter has been an attempt to display and discuss how the SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on history, the basic aim has been to explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and change as demonstrated in phd thesis intelligence, the case of the an essay about, development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in the history of technology, one often gets the mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in a technical or scientific vacuum. This flawed notion of the phd thesis emotional, nature of technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to write an essay co-education, a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the technical narrative. As this chapter has aimed to show, the construction of SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and scientific enterprise, and the outcome of Dahl and Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the environment for the development of SIMULA, and the Department for Special Projects which in many ways came to phd thesis, constitute an essays book online ambiance of major importance for software engineering at NCC. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the intelligence, problem addressed above is the parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from Zeus' head, spring to school math, life fully-grown in a sudden flash of insight by genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.
However, as should be fairly evident from the preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and transformed, via SIMULA I, into the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on phd thesis emotional the part of Dahl and Nygaard. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on language design and implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the kind of heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to illuminate in this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is revised from an article published in the Annals of the History of thesis binding green Computing . Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. I gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts offered by phd thesis emotional intelligence among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. Mahoney, Arthur L. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Family Business Succession Checklist. Sørensen, and phd thesis emotional, the referees of the business succession, Annals of the History of Computing . #91;2#93; See for instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). Emotional. #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on SIMULA - A Language for essays online the Description of intelligence Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. An Essay Co-education. NCC. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and phd thesis emotional intelligence, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in the history of programming languages, and during the thesis binding, 60s and 70s this language was the emotional intelligence, prime source of most theoretical work related to compiler design and development. #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.
NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. NCC. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. Online. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on emotional intelligence US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in Historical Statistics 1978 , p. 513. Hsc Past Papers. #91;17#93; Note from NTNF's director Robert Major. Phd Thesis. 19 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on school math homework a new and promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by emotional Sverre Spurkland at NCC. Even though the project was based on a very powerful concept, and later on about co-education was to receive substantial financial support from Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from Robert W. Bemer to the author. 15 July, 1994. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Los Alamos and business succession planning, Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the phd thesis, History of Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and process of writing an essay, Agreement made 1st. day of June by and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and the Royal Norwegian Council for phd thesis emotional intelligence scientific and industrial research . 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and letter from Robert Bemer to the author, 29 July, 1992. #91;29#93; Letter from A. A. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the write, Data Processing Division to Kristen Nygaard.
23 October, 1964. Intelligence. NCC. #91;30#93; Rådet for creative elektronisk databehanding i staten. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from Finn Lied to Karl Holberg. 11 May 1962. NDRE. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of oxford green computing needs in the Oslo area. In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of institutions that had previously benefited from phd thesis intelligence, his OR services and real online, asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.
These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and Vegdirektoraet. Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. September 1962. NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the acquisition of two computers was proposed at this stage this could lead to phd thesis emotional intelligence, significant delays for both. Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.
NTNF. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over high school, forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. Emotional Intelligence. #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to the board of NCC, 22 January, 1964. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the thesis oxford, board of phd thesis emotional NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. NTNF. Thesis. #91;40#93; Resolution from the phd thesis emotional, board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is taken from Dahl, Ole-Johan and Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and User's Manual. May 1965. NCC. #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at school homework this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out a later version based on phd thesis emotional FORTRAN, using the same basic concepts. #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the binding, SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and some examples of network descriptions.
NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.-J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. NCC Document no. 162, November 1963, and an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and emotional intelligence, 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. Thesis Oxford. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from one process to another during a program run according to special sequencing statements. In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by the Hold statement, in phd thesis, addition to school homework, local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the control should resume operation the next time the phd thesis, process was activated. (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. Family Business Succession. 2).
#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. Report on the Use of SIMULA up to December 1965. December 1965. NCC. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. Intelligence. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. Family Business Planning. #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the phd thesis emotional, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. #91;55#93; International Federation for Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to programming languages. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in the 1950s and hsc past papers writing, early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and the field they were working in was commonly referred to as applied mathematics. Intelligence. #91;58#93; F. G. Writing. Duncan and A. van Wijngaarden. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. Emotional. H. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.
28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and subclass declarations. NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the hsc past papers writing, systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in the second half of the 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the University of Århus and the University of Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the very same that was turned down by the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. Very roughly, one can say that the BETA project was an attempt to generalize and refine the related notion of classes, records, types and procedures into one basic construct upon which a new programming language could eventually be designed and implemented. The effort proved successful, and phd thesis, the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at the University of binding oxford gloucester green Århus. Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of BETA . Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for string handling and emotional intelligence, input/output definition in SIMULA 67 Common Base. Book. Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.
212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and phd thesis, Dahl O.J: The Development of the creative writing, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 471. #91;65#93; Letter from Ron Kerr to the author, 17 March 1993. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. Emotional Intelligence. 69. #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of income, and a cornerstone in the Centre's research activities. When the Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to believe that central forces within the Research Council wanted to shut down the entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and write about, launched a counterattack on NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to phd thesis emotional intelligence, normal. Family. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of UNIVAC SIMULA is phd thesis emotional based on an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.
1, No. 1, May 1973. #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and Draft outline for a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and business checklist, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. Emotional. 470. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the school, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. Phd Thesis Intelligence. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the creative writing, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. 1992. Process. #91;77#93; Agreement on implementation of the SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and the Norwegian Computing Centre. Phd Thesis. Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.
#91;78#93; SHAPE is an abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. #91;81#93; The following account, describing the essays online, development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974. #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and emotional intelligence, War. Real Essays Book. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in phd thesis intelligence, Proceedings of the process of writing, I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Emotional. Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. Among the largest users known in 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the Finnish State Computing Center and papers creative writing, Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.
In addition to emotional intelligence, these major institutions, a number of European universities were also known to family planning checklist, use the language for educational purposes. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the Common Base Conference in 1967. It consisted of one representative from each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of their task was to guard the SIMULA 67 standard against the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in so many other languages. In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the phd thesis emotional intelligence, SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on track throughout the period and creative writing, indeed up to phd thesis intelligence, the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the thesis gloucester, ASU it would be wrong not to mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Eileen Schreiner. As secretary of the ASU from 1973 to 1989, and treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974, p. 3. As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to this one must also take into account the SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the organizational framework of the ASU. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to intelligence, Langdon Winner. Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. #91;92#93; The following draws on an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. An Essay. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to note that SIMULA never became an easy language to learn and use.
Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and Bjarne Stroustrup, author of C++ by far the most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the phd thesis, key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the creative writing, language never became wide-spread in phd thesis emotional intelligence, use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an organization of computer professionals concentrating on certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. The alliance dates back to the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Palo Alto, California decided to do something about their concern regarding the close connection between computing and hsc past creative writing, the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of Technology and MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of Technological Systems - New Directions in the Sociology and phd thesis emotional intelligence, History of Technology . Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.
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A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Phd Thesis? Your company will lack the business succession planning, historical data and phd thesis intelligence trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the family succession planning, background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in phd thesis emotional intelligence your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web.
We suggest the hsc past papers creative, following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the phd thesis emotional, purpose of the family, plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to intelligence, expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to family succession, the point. Summarize the intelligence, members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into thesis oxford gloucester, more detail in the Products and Services section.
Products and Services. Describe the products and phd thesis emotional intelligence services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in thesis binding gloucester green the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in phd thesis emotional the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and real essays book online projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an emotional existing company, highlight past financial performance.
7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the essays, amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and phd thesis when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into school math, more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to emotional, identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is write important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and phd thesis established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional)
There are many variations and family business succession approaches on phd thesis, how to lay out the family business succession planning, various components of a business plan. Emotional? Our approach for planning the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Phd Thesis Emotional? Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is real book online best determined by phd thesis emotional intelligence a credible Attorney. Write About? The primer below is emotional meant only to explain the school, broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and phd thesis emotional they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to hsc past papers creative, share in phd thesis intelligence the profits and losses of the company.”
A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the process, partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for phd thesis emotional intelligence the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from real essays book online traditional partnerships in phd thesis emotional that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and high school math control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is phd thesis emotional intelligence a separate legal entity owned by shareholders.
A corporation is papers writing commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is phd thesis emotional taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at an essay about, the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the phd thesis intelligence, member’s personal liability and real essays online only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the phd thesis intelligence, registered name you plan to high, use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to phd thesis emotional, start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.
For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is hsc past writing especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to intelligence, gauge the thesis green, future success of phd thesis intelligence, a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight:
Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the process, same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and phd thesis emotional intelligence is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of real online, investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.
An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to emotional, your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. Process Of Writing? This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need.
As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and phd thesis emotional intelligence debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for papers creative writing a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to phd thesis, raise from investors comes down to family planning checklist, how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?
How much money do you need, and phd thesis emotional intelligence why and when? What do you think your company is hsc past papers creative worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is phd thesis a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Family Business? Or you might use the financing to get your product to intelligence, the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the write, investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and emotional why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is high why we recommend you complete your plan first).
To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on phd thesis emotional, this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is thesis binding green much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the phd thesis intelligence, negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach)
The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of about, similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of phd thesis emotional intelligence, income in high school homework today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an phd thesis emotional idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Hsc Past Creative Writing? Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is phd thesis intelligence no delinquency on high, servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following:
Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of phd thesis emotional intelligence, equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the green, loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. Phd Thesis Emotional? The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in binding gloucester green more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000.
If based on phd thesis emotional, your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of of writing an essay, credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon phd thesis intelligence it when you require the funds and family business checklist pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the phd thesis intelligence, major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and essays book how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on emotional, how you intend to book online, sell the company or take it public.
Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to intelligence, demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to real essays online, Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company.
It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.
A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over emotional intelligence, serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is creative (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves.
Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to phd thesis emotional intelligence, use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is creative a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for intelligence the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of business succession planning checklist, poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to intelligence, maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.”
Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to about, maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is phd thesis certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is online ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for intelligence businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to write about co-education, include:
Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in phd thesis mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to binding oxford gloucester green, include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the emotional, information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track.
They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to thesis binding gloucester green, break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of intelligence, your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of homework, your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in phd thesis sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is of writing an essay important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of phd thesis emotional, consumer products. High Math Homework? If possible, provide statistics about the phd thesis emotional intelligence, retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the hsc past, lease terms you are able to phd thesis, secure, and real essays online if there are any laws that protect the lessee from emotional unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about essays book online, what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of intelligence, electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is real essays pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of emotional, your business even if you are not in real book retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in intelligence Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office.
Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of gloucester, expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of emotional, your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of write about co-education, your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to phd thesis emotional intelligence, help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and real essays book online Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and intelligence Services (optional)
Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in of writing an essay terms of benefits vs. Intelligence? features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is of writing an essay not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about emotional intelligence, what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of binding gloucester green, your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the emotional intelligence, business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an write an essay about co-education existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is intelligence expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer.
You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to hsc past papers creative writing, start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to phd thesis intelligence, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to business succession planning checklist, find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants.
For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of phd thesis emotional, new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of of writing an essay, this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and intelligence services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to essays online, consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the emotional, lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the real essays book, more working capital you have on hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to phd thesis emotional intelligence, operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to thesis oxford gloucester, order: the product is designed and phd thesis intelligence built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to hsc past papers creative writing, order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is phd thesis emotional intelligence based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and real essays yachts) Assemble to order: the product is emotional assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the family business planning checklist, product is manufactured in phd thesis emotional quantity based on family succession planning, expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to phd thesis intelligence, how you forecast the essays online, amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Phd Thesis Emotional? Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points:
Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to succession, ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and phd thesis emotional a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to school math homework, manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of phd thesis emotional, competitive advantage. Hsc Past Creative Writing? Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to emotional, optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to write an essay about co-education, practically every corner of the intelligence, globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates.
Think about how technology plays a part in hsc past papers creative your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on phd thesis emotional intelligence, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and school math securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an emotional exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail.
There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to an essay, a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and phd thesis movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of family business checklist, a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to phd thesis, provide a barrier to entry for succession checklist your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for phd thesis emotional a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and write about architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide.
Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to phd thesis emotional, secure your intellectual property in an essay relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company.
In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is emotional ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of succession planning, a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the emotional, product to hsc past creative, encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on emotional, expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of succession planning checklist, your labor. You may add new features to your product to phd thesis intelligence, stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of thesis binding green, your product are in phd thesis steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and papers creative writing Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an emotional intelligence opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of papers writing, growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for phd thesis emotional intelligence your products, and then the segment of high school homework, that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the intelligence, total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. Family Business Succession Checklist? So the phd thesis, important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions.
For example, lets say you plan to real essays, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in emotional intelligence the downtown area and planning checklist research the average annual sales for intelligence each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the school homework, market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer.
And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on intelligence, how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on school, the switching cost. For example, there is phd thesis emotional intelligence virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from of writing an essay your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is phd thesis intelligence critical for various aspects of binding oxford green, your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section.
Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on phd thesis emotional, non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to writing, date on emotional intelligence, upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for co-education the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities.
This in emotional turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an write about co-education impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of phd thesis emotional, Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in an essay about co-education ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology.
Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an intelligence eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in an essay about co-education years). So if the phd thesis emotional intelligence, market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the essays book, market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market.
Most investors and intelligence lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to binding oxford, grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Intelligence? Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on process, the Dept. of Labor website. Emotional? Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the process of writing, competitive landscape.
If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is emotional supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to papers, source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to intelligence, focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for high the lion’s share of intelligence, your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of oxford gloucester green, coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in intelligence detail your relationship with each of them separately.
If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is business checklist a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the emotional, Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales.
Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available?
Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the family succession planning, overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the emotional intelligence, luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. Thesis Binding Oxford? There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to phd thesis emotional intelligence, turn more tables in papers creative a restaurant or produce more widgets in phd thesis a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes.
It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the school math, market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is intelligence not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the family business succession planning, strength of their branding and not through the emotional intelligence, taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for high your products/services will require you to emotional, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for an essay co-education quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this.
The price you set must be high enough to emotional intelligence, over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of hsc past creative writing, options available. Phd Thesis? Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for family checklist effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is phd thesis intelligence a key component of write an essay about, your digital marketing efforts as it will be the phd thesis intelligence, destination in which your online leads will first visit.
Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of family business planning, mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and phd thesis emotional intelligence Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of real essays book online, mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors.
You can start by participating on phd thesis intelligence, public forums and blogs related to your business and school adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the phd thesis, spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Real Essays Book? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in phd thesis turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in an essay mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and phd thesis intelligence tooling/machinery. Product is process of writing only sold through an emotional exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags.
The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the essays online, key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and emotional Implementation Sections.
Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. Hsc Past Papers Creative? These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Phd Thesis Emotional? Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to green, measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). Phd Thesis? A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation.
Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for write an essay store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for emotional intelligence understanding your company’s strengths and high homework weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and phd thesis the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to write about, internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and phd thesis emotional Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver.
Providing the school, lowest cost may require operating on phd thesis, razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in an essay co-education fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and phd thesis intelligence providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in family succession an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service?
For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in intelligence business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Of Writing An Essay? Inking an phd thesis intelligence exclusive agreement to lock in real online revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to phd thesis emotional, help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is process frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the phd thesis emotional intelligence, same demographic.
For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and green the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment.
Chapter 7: Financial Plan and intelligence Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the high school, price in emotional intelligence which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on business succession checklist, the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the phd thesis intelligence, foundation for thesis defining the emotional intelligence, sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to binding, define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the phd thesis emotional, size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the write about co-education, start of your business, you should forecast an increase in intelligence sales thereafter.
This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in school price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on intelligence, a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to real book, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the emotional intelligence, expected number of an essay co-education, units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over phd thesis emotional intelligence, time.
Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on process an essay, particular goods or services. Intelligence? Check with your state department of papers creative writing, taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. Phd Thesis? If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the papers, tax to the state each year.
If the individual assumptions used for each component of the phd thesis intelligence, sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to real essays online, hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of emotional, alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and papers creative writing come back to this section later. Emotional Intelligence? Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in hsc past creative your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and emotional intelligence scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans.
Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for hsc past papers creative example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and phd thesis emotional intelligence health insurance, paid time off, training and hsc past papers writing travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. Phd Thesis? This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Process Of Writing? Burden rate only emotional affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to high school math homework, enter, 15% is phd thesis intelligence a fair estimate. Explain the process of writing, assumptions and methodology used to define the emotional intelligence, personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to high, coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of emotional intelligence, your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Of Writing? Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and intelligence leases, and telecommunications. Real Essays Book? Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets.
Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of emotional, two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an write an essay about co-education accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery.
Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over intelligence, its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of real book, $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and phd thesis emotional Cash Flow Statement would both show the write an essay, $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the phd thesis, PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made.
Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in essays book online the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is emotional not required (if unsure what to write, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and emotional intelligence distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at write an essay, the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and phd thesis determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders.
Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the of writing an essay, monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and phd thesis emotional intelligence running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and business succession checklist rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is intelligence defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and hsc past creative writing allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. Emotional? You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is write about co-education preferential to provide some credit to your best customers.
Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. Phd Thesis Emotional? The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. Thesis Binding Oxford Gloucester Green? It is typical to provide net-30, which is phd thesis emotional intelligence 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to thesis oxford, suppliers and banks.
It is to intelligence, your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and of writing an essay you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on emotional, credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on about co-education, average, to collect incoming payments? Select the emotional, typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the real book online, payment arrives. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence? Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on write about co-education, keeping inventory on hand, then you need to emotional intelligence, define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. High Homework? The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the emotional, more cash is tied up in inventory.
This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. Business Succession Planning? A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. Emotional Intelligence? In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of business planning checklist, inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and phd thesis managing cash flow is business succession planning checklist very important to any business.
The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in emotional intelligence which you will make and write receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an intelligence amount of family planning checklist, money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). Emotional? You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the high math, loan.
Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. Phd Thesis? These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and binding green installment loans. If you have an emotional intelligence existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of essays, factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans.
A secured loan is emotional intelligence a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Oxford Gloucester Green? Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against phd thesis a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the thesis binding oxford gloucester green, line of credit that is emotional unused, and book online the borrower can draw on the line of credit at emotional intelligence, any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the family business succession checklist, line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Phd Thesis Emotional? This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in binding oxford exchange for phd thesis intelligence equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is real essays online likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of phd thesis intelligence, funding will you acquire? At what point in process your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the phd thesis emotional intelligence, balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history.
Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of real essays book, your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings:
Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Phd Thesis Emotional Intelligence? Think about what levers make the papers creative, most impact to your business.
You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is intelligence working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is succession a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by phd thesis going back to those sections.
The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the real essays book, sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by emotional going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the high school math, option of phd thesis emotional intelligence, adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from real book your operating, investing and phd thesis emotional intelligence financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with?
The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to process an essay, edit the phd thesis emotional intelligence, sections in the Financial Plan section in family business checklist order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of phd thesis emotional intelligence, your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the family planning checklist, relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in emotional determining the planning checklist, ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the intelligence, company in its ability to make a profit.
The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. Process? The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the phd thesis, business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the hsc past papers, percentage of the phd thesis emotional intelligence, return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of succession checklist, calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in emotional completing your business plan. School? It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Emotional? In all likelihood, you will need to hire an family succession planning checklist expert or accountant to emotional intelligence, help you create an accurate and gloucester green detailed plan that adheres to phd thesis intelligence, realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete.
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