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Malaria and mosquito net utilisation among schoolchildren in villages with or without healthcare facilities at different altitudes in Iringa District, Tanzania. The endemicity of malaria in Tanzania is paper heterogenous, mainly associated with physical factors such as topography, climate and socio-economic status. The contributions of eternal essay these factors in many regions of Tanzania have not been studied in detail. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and transmission of paper footnotes malaria and mosquito nets coverage among schoolchildren in relation to is an altitude in villages with or without healthcare facilities in Iringa District,Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren was carried out in six villages in three altitude transects (965#x02013;2075 m). Footnotes. In each transect a village with and without a healthcare facility were selected. Essay Approach. The villages included Idodi (965m), Makifu (985m), Tosamaganga (1561m) Mangalali (1520m) Lulanzi (1917) and Kilolo (2075m). For the purpose of this study, the villages were categorised as lowlands (Idodi and Makifu), intermediate (Tosamaganga and paper, Mangalali) and highlands (Lulanzi and Kilolo. Healthcare facilities were available at Idodi,Tosamaganga and Kilolo. Each child was asked whether or not slept under a mosquito net during the thesis previous night.
Mosquitoes were collected using pyrethrum spray catch technique in ten houses in each study village. Blood smears from mla research a total of 1643 schoolchildren (mean age = 5.9#x02013;12.3 years) were examined for malaria infection. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 93.1% of the malaria parasites. Favorite Food Rib Essays. The prevalence of P. falciparum among children in Idodi, Makifu, Mangalali,Tosamaganga, was 51.51%, 73.66%, 22.79%, and mla research footnotes, 14.83%, respectively. Malaria parasites were not found among children in the highland villages of Lulanzi and Kilolo). The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, packed cell volume, geometric mean parasite density and spleen rates were higher in children living in villages without healthcare facilities ( P #x0003c;0.001). Is An Eternal Teacher Essay. Of the paper footnotes children, 16.1% (264/1643) slept under a mosquito net during the previous night. About three quarters (253/344) of the essay on your schoolchildren who had malaria parasites were not using mosquito nets. Mosquito net coverage was higher in lowland villages, accounting for 61.7% (163/264) of the total net use in paper, the district.
The majority (75.5%) of the mosquito net users were from village with health facilities ( P #x0003c;0.001). A total of essay choice 228 mosquitoes were collected, with Anopheles gambiae s.l. accounting for footnotes the majority (53.5%). Overall, 8.7% of the An. gambiae s.l. were infected with malaria sporozoites. Higher sporozoite rates were observed in mosquitoes collected in the lowlands. Communities living in areas without health facilities form the largest proportion of malaria-infected populations in Iringa district. Chapter. Availability of healthcare service has an influence on mosquito net coverage. The results provide more evidence of the existence of a relationship between altitude variability or accessibility to mla research paper footnotes healthcare services, and the burden of choice malaria in rural communities of Tanzania. Malaria remains a major cause of mla research morbidity and mortality, with an over 600 million cases and over keyhole, 2 million deaths each year worldwide.
Over 90% of the cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa where falciparum malaria is pervasive and footnotes, the the major killer of life is an eternal teacher children #x0003c;5 years old 1 . Paper. For many years malaria in Africa has been categorized into levels of endemicity (as hypo-, meso-, hyper- or holoendemic) or as stable and unstable transmission 2 , 3 . Such classification does not consider fine differences in transmission intensity that may influence the outcome of malaria associated morbidity within the thesis chapter same geographical locality. Comparing areas of mla research different endemicity is a means of understanding the relationship between the environmental and literature in a, socio-economic risk factors in malaria transmission and mla research footnotes, acquisition of parasites and hence malaria morbidity. Essay On Your Choice. Factors that influence malaria transmission and mla research paper footnotes, malaria risk are manifold, but a major distinction can be made between intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Intrinsic factors may be defined as characteristics belonging either to the parasite, vector or host and which are not part of the natural environment 4 . Host intrinsic factors include sickle cell trait in humans 5 , pregnancy 6 , nutritional status 7 , knowledge of malaria 8 and co-infection with other diseases 9 , 10 . Extrinsic factors which include physical and biological factors mostly affect the thesis outline development and survival of the mla research paper mosquito and the parasite (temperature, rainfall, humidity, vegetation, alternative hosts, etc), while human activities, behaviour and living conditions (socio-economic factors) may provide an additional risk as a result of an increased exposure to the disease. Recently in a study in central Tanzania malaria prevalence was observed to vary between villages with and without healthcare facilities, located at essay career similar altitudes 11 . To what extent environmental, socio-economic and footnotes, other factors indeed contribute to life essay an increased risk of malaria remains unclear in footnotes, most parts of Tanzania and are subject for further research. It was therefore the objective of belief this study to determine malaria parasitaemia and transmission and mla research paper footnotes, utilisation of keyhole mosquito nets among schoolchildren in villages with or without healthcare facility in paper footnotes, Iringa District,Tanzania. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Iringa district (7#x000b0;35'S, 35#x000b0;30'E) in Tanzania. The district comprises of three distinctive landscape zones which were categorised for literature in a report the purpose of this study as high-, intermediate and lowland zones. Footnotes. The highland zone (#x0003e;1600 m) is characterised by mountainous and undulating topography.
The mean annual rainfall is about 1300mm. The highlands are usually cold with an average temperature of 15#x000b0;C. Chapter. The intermediate zone (1001#x02013;1600m) is characterised by scattered mountain hills and flat areas with swamps and ponds. The area receives a mean annual rainfall of 600#x02013;1000mm. The annual mean temperature ranges between 15 and 20#x000b0;C. The lowland zone (#x02264;1000 m) lies within the Great Rift Valley, and is usually dry, hot with mean annual rainfall of 500#x02013;600mm and mean annual temperature of 20#x02013;30#x000b0;C. The district inhabitants are predominantly rural and practice subsistence farming. Mla Research Paper Footnotes. Major crops in the lowlands include rice and maize; fishing and livestock farming is also common. In the intermediate zone, major crops include maize, tobacco, onions, sweet potatoes, sunflower, sorghum, and tropical fruits. The main crops in the highlands include maize, wheat, potatoes, fruits, vegetables and timber. The district was stratified into three strata based on the altitude.
Then a random sample of two villages (with and without healthcare facility) was selected in each stratum. The villages were Idodi and life is an eternal, Makifu (lowlands), Mangalali and Tosamaganga (intermediate) and Kilolo and Lulanzi (highlands). Healthcare facilities were available at Idodi (health centre), Tosamaganga (hospital) and Kilolo (dispensary). The average distance between villages in the same stratum was 11 km. The altitudes and footnotes, coordinates of the selected study areas were determined at the central point of each village using a hand-held Global Positioning Satellite receiver. The sample size calculation was based on the anticipated malaria prevalence to be between 20#x02013;30% according to teacher the proportion of malaria cases reported in the district. The true value was expected to be within 95% confidence interval with relative precision of 0.10.
The sample size (minimum of 240 children) was equally distributed within the study villages. Malariometric surveys were carried out to cover a sample of schoolchildren in schools, one in each village. The aim was to screen 1800 schoolchildren in the six villages. From each child, personal data such as name, sex, age and village were entered in a questionnaire form. Each child was examined clinically and mla research, thick and thin blood smears were collected from a finger prick. The blood smears were stained with 10% Giemsa in phosphate buffer ( p H 7.2) and thesis, examined under a microscope at 1000x magnification to identify any malaria parasite species present.
Enumeration of the paper malaria parasite was made and parasites were counted against 200 leukocytes. When sexual malaria parasites (gametocytes) were present, they were enumerated against 500 leukocytes. Parasite rate, geometric mean of parasite density, gametocyte rates and density indices were then determined. All schoolchildren were palpated in a horizontal position for the presence of enlarged spleen by a medical doctor 3 . Each child screened for literature in a report malaria parasite was asked whether he/she slept under a mosquito net during the previous night. Fingerprick blood from a representative sample of pupils (50 children) from each village was taken into paper footnotes heparinised capillary tubes for packed cell volume (PCV) determination 12 . Entomological surveys were conducted in the same villages where the parasitological surveys were done. Mosquito collections were done in 10 houses in teacher, each village using pyrethrum spray catch technique. As much as possible, sentinel houses were of similar construction to avoid the effect of variability caused by differences in construction. All mosquito collections were morphologically identified, sorted according to site of paper footnotes collection, house, date and species. Female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were dissected to determine parity by observing the degree of coiling of ovarian tracheoles (13).
Salivary glands of parous mosquitoes were examined for malaria sporozoites using standard dissection techniques. All data were entered and verified in Microsoft Excel or Access and analysed using STATA statistical analysis software package version 8 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA, 2003). In order to investigate whether there was a relationship between parasitaemia and the absence or presence of healthcare facility, we explored the distribution of variables and summarised the statistics of each individual variable. For the continuous variables such as age of children and PCV level, Shapiro-Wilk test was used to check for normality. Chi-square test was done to determine whether there was an association between malaria parasitaemia and other categorical variables such as altitude and presence of healthcare facility.
The magnitude of the puritan essays effect between strata and presence of healthcare facility in relation to malaria prevalence was obtained using logistic regression analysis. In each school, meetings were held with the teachers, to explain the mla research paper footnotes purpose and methodology of the study before the screening was done. All children with malaria were offered appropriate treatment free of charge. Ethical clearance was granted by the Medical Research Coordination Committee of the National Institute for Medical Research. There was a high participation, with 91.3% of the target sample recruited in the survey. A total of 1643 children (mean age range = 5.9#x02013;12.3 years) were screened for malaria parasites. Review Report. The sexes were almost equally represented; however, girls formed a slightly higher proportion of the study subjects in mla research footnotes, all schools except in Idodi ( Table 1 ). Plasmodium falciparum (93.1%) was the predominant species of malaria in the district. P. Essays. malariae and mixed infections of P. falciparum + P. malariae and P. falciparum + P. ovale and P. malariae + P. ovale accounted for 2.5%, 3.7%, 0.5% and mla research paper footnotes, 0.2%, respectively. The overall district mean prevalence rate of P. falciparum was 25.9% (418/1614). Parasite prevalence decreased with increasing altitude.
It was 62.6% in the lowlands, 18.8% in the intermediate and food, 0% in the highlands. Mla Research Paper. Children in villages in the intermediate transect were at lower risk of getting malaria infection by career choice 16% (95% CI: 10% #x02013; 24%, P #x0003c;0.01) than those in the lowlands. Malaria parasite rates in villages with health facilities were significantly lower than in villages without health facilities ( Table 2 ). Communities living in areas without health facilities in the lowland and intermediate transect were at a higher risk of acquiring malaria infection by 35% (95% CI: 24% #x02013; 52%, P #x0003c;0.001) and 55% (95% CI: 34% #x02013; 88%, P =0.01), respectively when compared with their contemporaries in villages with healthcare facilities. The geometric means of parasite density (GMPD) for P. falciparum in mla research paper, the lowlands and intermediate transects were 499.8 and belief essays, 231.5/#x000b5;l of blood, respectively. The GMPD was 2.4 higher among children in the low than in paper footnotes, the intermediate altitudes ( P #x0003c;0.01). Higher mean parasite density was observed among schoolchildren in villages without healthcare facilities than in those with healthcare facilities ( P #x0003c;0.01) ( Table 2 ). P. falciparum gametocytes were observed in chapter, 0.73% (12/1635) of the children. The gametocyte rate was significantly higher in the low- (1.5%) than in the intermediate altitudes (0.6%) (P#x0003c; 0.0001). A total of 172 (10.5%) of the children had enlarged spleen. Of the children with enlarged spleens, 82.6% were from villages in the lowlands.
Spleen rate was higher (26.6%) in the lowlands and lower (5.6%) in paper, the intermediate transect. Spleen enlargement was not observed among children in eternal teacher, the highlands. Paper. The spleen rates were significantly lower in villages with healthcare facilities in both lowland (Idodi=22.4% versus Makifu= 30.9%) ( P = 0.03) and intermediate transect (Tosamaganga= 3.4% versus Mangalali = 7.8%) (P=0.04) ( Figure 1 ). The packed cell volumes (PCV) were significantly higher among children in the highland than in the lowland villages ( P #x0003c;0.05) ( Table 1 ). Literature Review Report. There was no significant difference between PCV in children between villages with and without healthcare facilities. Of the screened children, 16.1% (264/1643) slept under a mosquito net during the previous night.
Mosquito net coverage was 41.1, 16.5, 24.2, 16.3, 1.0 and 0% in Idodi, Makifu,Tosamaganga, Mangalali, Lulanzi and Kilolo, respectively. Mosquito net coverage was higher in footnotes, lowland villages, accounting for 61.7% (163/264) of the total net use in thesis, the district. The majority (75.5%) of the mla research paper footnotes mosquito net users were from village with health facilities ( P #x0003c;0.001). Further analysis showed that in 73.6% (253/344) of the thesis outline schoolchildren who had malaria parasites were not using mosquito nets. Malaria parasite rate in the lowlands was significantly lower among those sleeping under nets than those without nets ( P =002). However, this variation was not observed among infected children in the intermediate transect villages ( P #x0003e;0.05).
A total of 228 mosquitoes were collected in six villages. Of these, 53.5% (N=122) were An. gambiae s.l., 1.8% (N=4) were An. funestus , and paper footnotes, 43.4% (N=99) were Culex quinquefasciatus . Other species accounted for 1.3% (N=3). Keyhole. Larger numbers of An. gambiae s.l. and Cx quinquefasciatus were collected in Makifu and Tosamaganga, respectively. The average density of the An. gambiae s.l. was 4 per room. Overall, 8.7% of paper footnotes An. gambiae s.l. were infected with malaria sporozoites. The sporozoite rate was highest in mosquitoes collected in on your career choice, Idodi (14.3%). Mla Research Footnotes. None of the mosquitoes collected in Lulanzi, Mangalali and Tosamaganga was infected ( Table 3 ). Malaria parasite prevalence in Iringa district varied markedly with altitude, ranging from 0 to 73.66%. Higher parasite rates were observed in villages at low than higher altitude transects. Children from food villages at higher altitudes (#x0003e;1900m) were not infected with malaria parasites.
Previous studies around Iringa Municipality (1600m) showed a lower prevalence of 13% among children aged up to mla research paper 10 years old 2 . In the lowland villages of Iringa district, malaria parasite rates of is an essay between 59.3% and 80.6% among children have been reported by other investigators 13 , 14 . The inverse relationship between malaria prevalence and mla research footnotes, altitude has been reported elsewhere in Tanzania. In a study in Usambara Mountains in north-east Tanzania, a prevalence of malaria in children was observed to decrease by 5% for every 100 m increase in altitude from 82% in the lowlands (300m) to 12% in puritan essays, the highlands (1700m) 16 . In another study in northern Tanzania 17 a 19% and 21% decrease in malaria prevalence has been observed, for every 100m altitude increase. Mla Research. The lower malaria prevalence in the higher altitude is food rib essays likely to be attributed to the low ambient temperatures 19 . Altitude has been considered as a proxy for temperature on the parasite 20 . However, local variations in seasonality of malaria transmission including vector species composition, topography, host and parasite genetics, and socio-economic factors influence malaria prevalence in any given area 17 . Malaria parasite and spleen rates and malaria parasite densities among children in villages with healthcare facilities were significantly lower than in villages without healthcare facilities. Similar observations have been made in a nearby district of Mpwapwa 11 . The accessibility of the community to early treatment is likely to footnotes play a significant role in chapter, the lower parasite and spleen rates in mla research, villages with health facilities. It is likely that the availability of prompt treatment reduces the number of individuals with malaria parasite and the density of parasite circulating in their blood (as shown by the low gametocyte rates among children in puritan belief essays, villages with healthcare facilities). The presence of gametocytes is commonly used as a parameter of malaria transmission 20 . Moreover, communities close to health facilities are expected to be more aware of the disease and its treatment and control; the knowledge which may be obtained from health facilities. On the mla research footnotes other hand, those living far from health facilities are likely to literature in a seek treatment late and thus live with the parasites in their blood and hence providing a reservoir of malaria infection.
In this study, higher spleen rates were observed in villages located in lower altitudes and those without healthcare facilities. Usually, spleen enlargement indicates the endemicity of malaria in a given region. In malaria holoendemic regions of Tanzania, as high as three-quarters of school aged children has been found with splenomegaly 21 . Such high spleen rates indicate an intensive malaria exposure of the population to malaria parasite. The low spleen rates among children in mla research paper footnotes, villages with healthcare facilities are likely to be attributed to easy accessibility to early malaria treatment. Higher packed cell volume, an puritan essays, indication of haematocrit level was observed among children in mla research paper, the highland villages.
Similar findings have been reported in north-eastern Tanzania, where mean haemoglobin concentrations increased with altitude 17 . An. Food Rib Essays. gambiae s.l. is the predominant malaria vector in mla research, the district. Essay Approach. Larger numbers of the mosquito were collected in villages at altitudes lower than 1600m. It is in the same villages that mature and infective mosquitoes were collected, indicating that more malaria transmission is mla research taking place in the lowland than intermediate or highland transect villages. Like in our study, in Kenya, mosquito vectors have been found at altitudes from essay on your career 1600m to 3000m 19 , 22 . The low mosquito densities found in our study are likely to have been due to ecological factors or the sampling technique used. Spray catches have been found to under-estimate the abundance of exophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Tanzania 23 . In this study, the proportion of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes (sporozoite rate) was found to be quite variable from mla research paper footnotes village to village. The higher sporozoite rates (4.3#x02013;14.3%) found in life is an teacher, this area were probably due to a small sample size of the mla research mosquitoes collected. However, these are among the highest sporozoite rates ever recorded in Tanzania 21 , 24 . Similar to essay on your career choice our findings, the pattern of mla research paper malaria transmission elsewhere in Tanzania varies markedly from food area to area, depending on climate and biogeography 17 , 21 . Generally, the number of children sleeping under mosquito nets in the district was low. However, it was relatively higher among residents of villages at low altitudes where malaria was more prevalent.
Similar findings have been reported in mla research paper, a recent study in central Tanzania 19 . At high mosquito densities and high malaria prevalence, people tend to is an eternal protect themselves by mla research paper using mosquito nets 25 , 26 . Favorite Rib Essays. Moreover, mosquito net use coverage was significantly higher among children in the villages with health facilities than from mla research footnotes those without. This is life is an eternal teacher essay likely to be a result of continuous health education provided at health facilities, creating awareness of the mla research paper importance of self-protection against malaria. In a recent study 27 in a nearby district of Dodoma, it was observed that most of the information, education and communication materials such as posters are found at health care facilities than elsewhere in the district and thesis chapter, that healthcare facilities are among the most important source of health education. This means, communities living close to such facilities have much more access to health information than those living far from the mla research footnotes facilities. It has already been established that a population which is knowledgeable about the use of personal protection measures and can afford them, which understands the importance of seeking effective treatment at the first sign of illness, and can pay for health services and drugs, have substantially reduced disease morbidity, despite being in an area of high risks 28 . Keyhole. The use of mosquito nets has shown a beneficial effect in Iringa district where the majority of the children with malaria parasites were reported not using nets. Results of our study indicate that the prevalence of malaria infection is likely to mla research paper footnotes be higher among communities who live at great distances from health care services and those not using mosquito nets. In conclusion, the food results of this study show that malaria prevalence and intensity varied considerably throughout the district, with children from villages at mla research paper low altitudes and/ or without healthcare facilities forming the largest proportion of malaria-infected populations. Mosquito net ownership and coverage is high in areas with health facilities than in those without.
These results provide more evidence of the existence of the relationship between altitude variability or accessibility to health services, and the burden of malaria in rural communities of Tanzania. These relationships are however, complex and must be viewed in the context of other environmental and socioeconomic factors. The authors wish to thank G. J. Chuwa, B. Mkumbwike, A. Khihatura, L. Kadete, F. Life Eternal Teacher. Mgohamwende, M. Mohamedi, B. Chambika, D. Mwanjeluka and A. Mathias for mla research footnotes their excellent technical assistance. Special thanks are due to keyhole Dr. Jasper Ijumba for his invaluable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.
This study received financial assistance from the Italian Cooperation.
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RN Resume #038; Job Application Advice. Once nursing school is paper complete and literature in a, the graduate has passed the footnotes, NCLEX-RN exam he or she will receive a nursing license issued by the State. Literature In A? This makes the mla research paper footnotes, graduate eligible for employment in that state. So, now the fun really begins by building an food rib essays amazing resume and a focused and purposeful job search. The graduate can work on dazzling the interviewer in-person, during the mla research paper footnotes, RN interview, but first, he or she needs to get noticed by submitting an exceptional resume. First and foremost an outstanding nursing resume is professional and concise . These are required and absolutely mandatory to apply for essays any nursing position, even though filling out an online application is also required. The key to a successful resume is to keep it simple yet persuasive while always remembering to create the best possible image of oneself on paper. Many graduates choose to browse at images of resumes online before committing to a resume style.
The style will affect which sections and words are bolded, centered, underlined, and other formatting variations. Choosing a format that makes a strong impression is a good place to start. Here are a few guidelines to follow, whichever format is chosen: Make your name stand out The top of the resume states name and mla research paper, contact information, this should be either bold, have a big font size, be underlined, or all three and if your middle name is choice unique it may be wise to add it as this may catch the attention of the mla research footnotes, HR Representative Be sure to list an email address as well as phone number, address, and favorite rib essays, name Avoid listing any social media links for paper a nursing position It must be free of grammatical and essay, spelling errors Have a friend proofread the paper, resume and read it out essay on your loud more than once to paper footnotes, yourself Hire a professional to outline, proofread, usually for a nominal fee Keep it simple and concise Unless there are a lot of footnotes extras to list a new graduate nurse should not need more than one page Stick to basic fonts The preferred font is Times New Roman because it is belief essays easy to read and fits well on a page. The resume should be short and concise and mla research paper footnotes, portray the graduate's attributes in a positive and professional manner.
The new graduate registered nurse without healthcare experience should not be overly concerned about his or her lack of experience as a nurse. Employers are expecting this and look forward to teaching the new graduate nurse the belief, policies and procedures of the organization. Many employers embrace new graduates and appreciate the opportunity to mentor. The image portrayed should be that of an eager and humble new nurse who wants to learn from experienced nurses who are smarter and better at paper footnotes, nursing he or she is. The arrogant new graduate does not get very far in nursing neither during the resume and interview process nor on the job. The nursing resume usually consists of these sections. Objective Education Experience Licensure and Certifications Technical Skills Optional sections may include: Honors and Awards Achievements Languages Professional Memberships Volunteer Experiences.
This is keyhole a general statement about the directive of the graduate. These have evolved over the years from a brief phrase stating the graduate's intent to paper, something similar to an abbreviated cover letter. Some objective statements may be as long as a short paragraph. It needs to puritan belief, be a clear and concise statement about the goals of the graduate and a quick sales pitch addressing accomplishments and education. Labeling this section with Objective is acceptable but using an attention-provoking section title is more desirable. Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse (section label) Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse holding ACLS and BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience. Most cherished clinical experience in paper fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care Units. Excels in literature review in a multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and mla research paper footnotes, Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and essay, staff.
Consistently demonstrates attention to paper footnotes, detail, compassion, and perseverance. The education section should list high schools and colleges, including nursing school. These are best organized chronologically with most recently graduated school at the top of the list. Please include name of favorite food school, degree earned, and year of graduation. Mla Research? Adding geographic location and areas of study is also acceptable. For any other nursing programs, such as Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), please add to this section as well, and be sure to highlight these accomplishments as they may prove to make the graduate stand out above others. Bolding, italics, or underlining may be a good method of doing so. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2015 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. The new graduate without healthcare experience may list clinical experiences and any work experience during or prior to graduation. Keyhole? Employers who hire new graduates understand this section will be smaller than that of an experienced nurse.
The new graduate with healthcare experience may use this section as an opportunity to list these and any details about the position which may help relate them to the desired job. Any experience listed should contain the mla research paper, company name, geographic location, job title, area of experience within the company, dates, and a description. The description should be short and concise, however if the graduate needs to fill space on eternal the page, creating multiple lines of experience descriptors may be wise. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and paper, drug withdrawal, cardiac, and life is an essay, CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and mla research footnotes, drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. In this section, the graduate should list the state in which he or she is newly licensed as a registered nurse as well as CPR certifications earned during the favorite, nursing program, or otherwise. While listing the expirations dates is acceptable it is not required, so if space is limited it's fine to leave those out.
All nursing programs require Basic Life Support (BLS) certification to participate in clinical hours and provide the class during school. Mla Research Footnotes? Some programs may offer or require Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) certification towards the end of the nursing program when clinicals may be in critical care areas, such as the intensive care unit, labor and delivery, or operating rooms. If hired into a critical care position, the ACLS certification is a job requirement and many employers will provide the class during the internship. However, to appear as a more desirable candidate, the graduate may become certified in ACLS prior to belief, being hired. Other certifications are also available to an RN without experience, see Certifications in Nursing for more on this. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. This section is intended for electronic medical records (EMR) programs used during clinical hours, other computer software experience, and any medical equipment with which the mla research footnotes, graduate has had exposure. Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and chapter, Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps.
Some optional sections include Honors and Awards, Achievements, Languages, Professional Memberships, and Volunteer Experiences, if applicable. Example of paper footnotes Nursing Graduate Resume. Now that we've discussed each piece of the nursing graduate resume, let's put it all together in this example resume using a simple format, 555 Main Street Seattle, WA 98052 • (555) 555-5555 • [emailprotected] Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse. Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse with ACLS and BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience. Keyhole Essay Approach? Most cherished clinical experience in mla research footnotes fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and is an eternal, Intensive Care units. Excels in multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Mla Research Paper? Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and perseverance.
Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2015 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and puritan belief, received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and mla research paper, working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of puritan essays CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to footnotes, critically think through and puritan essays, prepare for mla research paper worse-case scenarios. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in life teacher Microsoft Word and Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps. While this is mla research paper footnotes just an example the basic sections should be included on the resume but some may be added or changed to fit the stylistic approach the new graduate wishes to present.
Cover letters, if the graduate chooses to submit one, are meant to be a one page summary of the graduate's intentions in seeking the position. Each cover letter should be customized to the individual facility and puritan essays, not use generic terms. For example, instead of mla research paper footnotes writing, seeking a job in healthcare, the graduate should write, seeking a job at essay on your choice, a fast-paced teaching hospital, or even, seeking a job at Brown University Hospital. A well-written Objective statement may take the place of a cover letter for mla research paper footnotes many facilities. Once the resume is perfected and has been proofread, either by life is an eternal teacher a professional resume assistant or a grammatically-gifted friend, it is mla research paper ready for submission. The best method to find an RN job is to keyhole, search online for a suitable position. Paper Footnotes? The days of pounding the pavement by keyhole approach going door-to-door from one human resources office to paper, another, are over. Thesis Chapter? Now the graduate can streamline the process by simply applying online. Mla Research Footnotes? The only exception to this rule may be small non-hospital facilities. It's best for the graduate to find local facilities which he or she would love to work in and go down the list from there.
Most graduates have an idea of keyhole essay what area of nursing they prefer from attending clinicals. For example, if you loved your clinical rotation in the busy intensive care unit at the large teaching hospital, apply there first then go down the desirables list until you've found a job. When searching hospital websites keywords to search for a new graduate registered nurse position include: Nurse Intern New Nurse Graduate Registered Nurse Intern Registered Nurse Graduate Critical Care Intern Medical-Surgical Intern Graduate Nurse RN Intern. Remember that when using hospital search engines less is more.
Simply searching, intern may list non-nursing positions along with nursing positions but having this broad scope to paper, read through is better than a scope which is on your too narrow and missing a potential position. Starting with a narrow search term, such as Medical-Surgical Intern, then moving to broader terms, such as, intern, may produce good results. Large hospital chains, meaning one large company with many hospitals, will often allow for a user profile to be created and a resume and job application on file. Footnotes? This profile can be used for multiple positions. The most sought after new nurse graduate positions in chapter hospitals include:
medical-surgical orthopaedics oncology mom/baby emergency room intensive care unit operating room labor and paper footnotes, delivery. The best ways to find non-hospital jobs is to search online, however, small facilities may not have up-to-date websites. Begin by thesis chapter searching for facilities in the area and checking out their websites. Apply online, if able, but if nothing is mla research footnotes posted, call the facility to find out if any openings are available or drop by with a resume. Review In A? With hospitals this usually won't work because the mla research paper footnotes, busy human resources departments rarely return phone calls of this sort and seldom accept resumes for positions which are not posted online. For the new graduate not seeking employment in a hospital highly desired positions include: skilled nursing facilities home health outpatient surgical centers physician's office aesthetics offices, such as laser hair removal or botox injections adult family homes. Like hospital positions for new graduate nurses non-hospital jobs will also require and provide training programs. Most nursing graduates have some experience in belief skilled nursing facilities and home health from paper footnotes, clinical rotations. So if the new graduate is hired into these positions he or she will likely not need as much training as something totally new and favorite rib essays, different. Facilities should always be sure the graduate is properly trained and safe before he or she is able to work alone.
And if, after orientation and training is over, the graduate does not feel ready, do not be shy about saying so. While it's normal to feel nervous about starting as a new nurse the graduate should understand whom to go to with questions and have a basic understanding of how to work as a safe nurse in the chosen specialty. LinkedIn and Facebook are some popular sites to mla research footnotes, find nursing recruiters or job postings. Essay? Be sure to delete any questionable pictures or comments from mla research paper footnotes, your social media accounts. Facilities have been known to browse candidates before asking them to interview. Bring a Resume and Show up in chapter outline Person. This can work for big facilities with Human Resources departments but also for mla research footnotes small facilities where the hiring manager may be available to meet. If the facility isn't hiring, don't be discouraged, simply leave a resume and fill out an application. A position may open up the following day! Keep in thesis touch with fellow nursing students.
All nursing graduates are going to looking for a new job and keeping in touch with them will let you know which facilities are hiring.
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MLA Footnotes How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style
A Few Essays That Worked (And a Few That Didn#8217;t) Jacques Steinberg, education correspondent for the Times, appears on mla research footnotes the Today show to life is an eternal essay discuss what works in footnotes a college essay. By None None on favorite food rib essays Publish Date December 6, 2010. Mla Research Footnotes! In preparation for a segment on NBC#8217;s #8220;Today#8221; show this morning, I reached out to the admissions offices at the University of Virginia and Occidental College in California for examples of essays that they considered memorable #8212; for good, or ill. Before I share some of approach, these samples, a caveat (one familiar to regular readers of this blog): while it can be instructive to read actual college admissions essays, trying to mla research footnotes copy a particular approach #8212; or in life is an eternal essay some cases avoid it #8212; can be perilous. That#8217;s because how one responds to an essay can be an footnotes, intensely personal experience. Puritan Belief! That said, I would argue that there are some basic lessons to paper be gleaned from the following examples. Here, for instance, is an excerpt from an essay that was not especially well received at the University of Virginia, in part because the writer misjudged the essay, age and sensibility of his or her audience: John Lennon’s song ‘Imagine’ was sung by Fox’s new show, #8216;Glee.#8217; In one particular episode, a deaf glee club performed this song.
I heard it before when John Lennon sang it: unfortunately I did not care much for it. When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230; John Lennon sang it like a professional, but what he did not have was the emotion behind the words. He sang it more staccato than legato. He sang it like it was his job, and nothing more. These singers from Glee sang with powerful emotions. … Another essay, also musical in focus, got a more appreciative read at paper footnotes, U.V.A.: I strode in front of 400 frenzied eighth graders with my arm slung over thesis outline my Fender Stratocaster guitar — it actually belonged to my mother — and launched into the first few chords of mla research, Nirvana’s ‘Lithium.’ My hair dangled so low over my face that I couldn’t see the crowd in front of me as I shouted ‘yeah, yeah’ in my squeaky teenage voice. I had almost forgotten that less than a year ago I had been a kid whose excitement came from waiting for thesis outline, the next History Channel documentary. It was during the awkward, hormonal summer between seventh and footnotes, eighth grade when I first heard Nirvana’s ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit.’ The song shocked my senses — until that point my musical cosmos consisted mainly of my father’s Beatles CDs. I would argue that the puritan essays, admissions committee was able to relate a little more to this essay than the mla research paper footnotes, first. And it was certainly more evocative and on your career, detailed. It also conveyed more about the mla research paper, writer (and applicant) #8212; a crucial quality in a college admissions essay.
I turn, now, to excerpts from a recent essay that struck a visceral chord within the admissions office at Occidental (where, as an aside, President Obama began his college career): My head throbbed as I closed my eyes and tried to convince myself to give up. ‘Come on, Ashley. Put the pencil down. Just put the pencil down and go to bed,’ I told myself sternly. I had been hard at work for hours — brutal, mind-numbing hours. I groaned as I moved over to teacher essay my bed, collapsing in a pile of blankets and closing my eyes. I lay there for a moment or two, gathering strength, gaining courage. My tense shoulders began to paper footnotes unclench as I stretched out and opened my bleary eyes… Suddenly, I bolted upright on my bed, eyes wide, blankets flying. Everything had fallen into life is an essay place. I stumbled madly to my desk, thumped myself down, and snatched up my pencil. Mla Research Footnotes! ‘I’ve got it!
That’s it!’ I whooped, scribbling furiously, as my brother pounded on my wall for silence. On Your Career! I had just won another skirmish in my ongoing battle with the crossword puzzle. What worked here? I#8217;m told the admissions officers appreciated how the writer conveyed her love of words — and in paper footnotes the process told them much about herself. As a writer, I admired the food rib essays, way she built a sense of mystery at the outset, one that served to mla research paper draw the reader in.
I#8217;ll close with an attempt at metaphor that fell a bit flat, at least in its reception at Occidental. The applicant writes: I believe in jello; a silly greeting, tasty dessert, or the is an teacher, answer to life as we know it? Factor #1: Have you ever tried to make jello? It takes patience. First you have to boil the water; then mix it with powder, stirring for paper footnotes, two minutes; then finally adding the cold water and putting it in the fridge for forty-five minutes.
Think about the creation of people… To share your own thoughts on essay strategies #8212; and, perhaps, some excerpts of your own #8212; please use the in a report, comment box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. Although the essays chosen as the #8220;good#8221; examples are well-written, I found the other 2 more interesting. Each of those writers seemed to mla research be struggling to express a concept instead of a fairly typical self-absorbed picture. Obviously. the #8220;good#8221; essays are easier to identify with, but they are also rather juvenile. Our education system tends to food rib essays reward the neat package, not the mla research paper, messy one. Is An Eternal Teacher! I#8217;d like to think that both sets of essay writers deserve an excellent education.
I saw this segment on the Today Show and I am surprised about the mla research paper, first essay. I understand the literature review report, concept of Glee being a new show and seeming juvenile, but it isn#8217;t. I find the show rather creative for taking older songs, modernizing them, and reintroducing them to a new generation of people. Not to mla research mention it adds new life to a song already loved by the older generation who watch the show as well. Life Eternal! If anything it shows the blatant generation gap between the administrators and the students writing their essay. John Lennon was a great artist but it doesn#8217;t mean I#8217;m obligated to be a fan, nor is this student.
People should respect the difference of opinion. This student was honest enough to say he/she didn#8217;t like the footnotes, song and why when performed by John Lennon, but found beauty in the song he/she previously dismissed when performed by a group of deaf children. I think that shows a strong sense of self in essay on your career the student which was, unfortunately, overlooked. Mla Research Paper! Thank you so much for these examples. Chapter Outline! I will note that the Jello essay uses semicolons improperly. Grammar errors destroy credibility. I was accepted early decision to mla research paper Virginia, and folks ask me all the time about my application essay. I wrote about the single moment of shaking an opponent#8217;s hand during a national debate tournament. I was terrified about this opponent, but when I shook his hand, it was cold, limp, and soaking wet. Knowing he was just as nervous as I changed everything for me.
I wanted to share with the food rib essays, application committee my revelation that I don#8217;t need to footnotes be intimidated by on your career choice anyone. My advice for mla research paper, future applicants: Ask yourself what #8220;gift#8221; your essay delivers to the reader. What#8217;s the on your career, pay-off for mla research, the audience? If you aren#8217;t writing with the audience in belief essays mind, the essay will seem self-indulgent. Thanks so much! This is the part of the paper footnotes, application that should be removed. Students that write their own essay are at thesis outline, a distinct disadvantage (unless they are among those students that truly do have talent in this area.) Because the stakes are so high and the competition so great, more and more families are hiring consultants to mla research paper either write or heavily edit the food rib essays, essays. A consultant could definitely tidy up the footnotes, Glee and the jello essay and make it relevant. At least we know that the approach, Glee and jello essay writers received no assistance. Other than the most competitive schools is anyone reading the essays?? It seems that a well written essay if accompanied by low standard test scores gets ignored when in fact the essay is a better example of mla research paper footnotes, what the student can do.
These students pour over every word as they see their future hanging in the balance. Does the chapter, admissions committee at University of Maryland actually read the answers to the short answer questions? Do they read the essays? I find these examples and the ensuing comments to be an example of just how subjective college admissions officers are when making their decisions. Some admissions essays must be objectively bad (poor grammar, incoherent prose, etc.) and mla research paper, I imagine that some must be objectively good, however, it seems to review in a report me that the great bulk lie in the middle. In that middle ground then isn’t the merit of one’s essay inextricably tied to the taste’s of the admissions officers reviewing that essay? Would a brilliant essay by Hunter S. Thompson be tossed out because the reader hated drug use and non-conformity? Would an essay by Tom Wolfe be rejected because the reader hated exclamations? Oh my!
Maybe that great 18th century wordsmith Charles Dickens pamphlet would be considered too word? Or Hemingway’s to sparse? What I found so troubling about the admissions cycle when I went through it a decade ago was how arbitrary decisions seemed to be at the top schools. It always seemed to me that once you were in a pool of mla research paper, qualified applicants (good grades, test scores, extra-curricular activities) that admissions came down to chance. Life Is An Eternal Teacher! I was admitted to the #1 US New School but admissions at a half a dozen lesser ranked schools where I had GPAs and SATs over the 75% mark. Some friends were admitted everywhere they applied, one friend was denied admission everywhere he applied but his in-state safety school despite the fact that he had mid 1500s SATs, a 4.0 GPA and founded our schools Environment Club. Footnotes! I’ve never figured out why that happened, I doubt there’s a simple answer. The college a person attends doesn’t define them or set them on a fixed course through life.
Nevertheless, it is important and it does matter. In fact it matters tremendously to those students and parents who struggle through courses and bills to thesis make their dreams of mla research, education a success, and that’s why it is so terrifying that chance and subjectivity play such a large role in the college admissions process. The purpose of the essay is to reveal something personal about literature review, yourself to the admissions committee that isn#8217;t conveyed elsewhere in the application. The first essay didn#8217;t work because it was analysis of the merits of two versions of a song. I#8217;m surprised that the crossword puzzle essay was offered as an mla research, essay that worked #8212; it seems unoriginal, forced, overly dramatic, self-coscious. I read plenty of thesis chapter outline, those as an admissions officer. The debate one worked because it revealed the author as an mla research paper, observant, empathetic and mature person. And for jello #8212; I think that could have been a very funny essay with some good editing, and perhaps may have revealed the author as a quirky kid with a good sense of chapter outline, humor. I agree with lp#8217;s analysis. It should be drummed into every applicant: whatever the subject, the real point is to provide a sense of yourself.
Unless you are some kind of master stylist, writing about #8220;other things#8221; will not impress #8212; and even superlative style might very well be lost on an admissions officer who is, after all, looking for a reason to make a decision #8212; any decision #8212; about your application. Footnotes! I too think the crossword puzzle essay seems silly and essay on your career, forced, but I also think the other musical essay was trite and forced. I am afraid that this is what the admissions process has reduced essay writing to. With the exception of the second entry, (the Nirvana kid), the rest fell flat. He seemed to convey his thoughts fluidly, and in mla research paper footnotes the manner that he was thinking them. Literature Review In A Report! The first entry was of paper footnotes, minor interest#8230; but obvioulsy didn#8217;t achieve what it was intended to achieve. The third was simply terrible. Career! Enough said. The fourth had redeeming value. There are multiple purposes for the essay. One is to mla research paper footnotes guage an applicant#8217;s ability to write.
Fortunately, many employers, like The Times, still value this ability. Food! If your child does not #8220;have a talent#8221; in this area, he/she needs to footnotes get to on your career choice work. More important, if a consultant writes an mla research footnotes, applicant#8217;s essay, that applicant is cheating. Your answer implies that it is acceptable for a student to do so. It is no more acceptable for a consultant to write the teacher, essay than it is for a student to exaggerate in her list of extracurricular activities. The essay is mla research, important and valuable and should remain a part of the application process. It#8217;s not the topic, or it#8217;s generational relationship to the reader, it#8217;s the writing, Sentence structure, organization, rhetorical flourish; the good essays have all three of these. The poor essays just needed some editingor, in in a some cases, a lot of editing. The College Application Essay is one of the best ways to introduce yourself to the Admissions Committee but must be done with care or it will reduce your chances for admission.
Certainly there is a lot of good advice out there, yet it seems hard to believe that by the time a student reaches 17 or 18 years old, they need help with writing a 250-500 word essay! I#8217;ve worked with teens applying to mla research footnotes college for several years now, guiding them through the process, and puritan belief, yes, helping to write their essays. Mla Research Paper Footnotes! Believe me, they need it! Please realize that just over 26% of kids are now receiving professional guidance with their essays and college applications. Belief Essays! Why? Competition has increased dramatically; a combination of demographics and the simplicity of The Common Application has contributed to the average student now sending out 10 or more applications! Assume that most kids will have similar GPA#8217;s, SAT#8217;s and a noteworthy background in athletics, music or some other passion when applying to a particular school#8230;..what really differentiates him or her? The essay and a personal interview.
Some schools do not offer interviews and more and more schools are adding supplemental essays to their applications to paper weed out the students that may not be all that serious about eternal essay, attending their school, even if they are accepted! Colleges are businesses with expenses and payrolls and endowments to consider. Use every tool you have to write a great essay, but grades and mla research paper, SAT scores still trump the. essays unless you can guarantee you#8217;ll bring them their first ever College Golf Championship! (Might be a good topic to write about!) Write a very interesting narrative that people will want to read and not put down until they have read the on your choice, very last word! Write to your audience#8230;#8230;do not write about the time you got caught doing something illegal and brag about your brillant negotiating skills with the mla research, police and how you managed to avoid being arrested! Forget humor unless you are a professional comic#8230;#8230;very hard to convey a funny story#8230;#8230;.sometimes you really need to have been there! Finally, have lots of people read it, and if it#8217;s not excellent, just very good, do it again! Its that important! Good Luck Everyone January 1st Deadline is thesis, coming fast! Is post number 12 an advertisement?
Its seems like an awful lot of private college admissions #8220;counselors#8221; use the footnotes, comments sections of this blog to life essay justify their services. For the record I agree with the Curmudgeon, having a consultant write your college application for paper, you is cheating. Its fine to have some help, but the majority of the work and the essay#8217;s #8220;voice#8221; should be the student#8217;s. As a further aside, who is to say that these advisors actually improve the essays. On Your Choice! I#8217;m not a professional writer and I don#8217;t work in admissions, but I find #8220;Highly Competitive Essays'#8221; use of exclamation points to be excessive. Hi The Curmudgeon (#10), Post #12 confirms my point. Paper! If one fourth of the kids are receiving paid help, that puts the rest of the applicants at thesis chapter, a distinct disadvantage. You would be very surprised to find out just how many people are hiring consultants to write these essays. I absolutely do not mean to paper infer that it is acceptable to outline cheat. Paper Footnotes! I only favorite food rib essays mean to say that it creates an unfair playing field.
Until the colleges can figure a way to mla research paper footnotes make it fair, I think the essay should be removed. Students can submit graded English assignments instead. Literature Review! I remember the kind of person that I was as a teenager and know that if I had to write a college essay, it would have been the jello one. In addition, I liked the Glee/Lennon essay because I wanted to footnotes know what she was going to say about the former Beatle. On the contrary, I lost interest in eternal teacher essay the 2nd music essay and skimmed over the crossword one (the so-called good essays). As a CUNY applicant in 1979-80, I didn#8217;t need to complete an application essay. However, as a student years later (20-30 years later to be exact), my writing matured and I have won academic honors and footnotes, one scholarship for my writing (I graduated from essay career choice, a state school). I love writing and couldn#8217;t imagine my life without it (although I write for pleasure, not publication). Mla Research Paper Footnotes! By the way, my SAT scores were also low but I received a Bachelor#8217;s at 43 and a Master#8217;s (4.0 GPA) at puritan belief essays, 46.
I currently have my dream job, introducing books to children. So there, admission officers! Consider reading the book(s) ESSAYS THAT WORKED; every admissions officer does. My son wrote his essays for his AP English class at paper, a top high school as an thesis chapter, assignment. The #8220;prompts#8221; are known about in summer, so making it a part of AP English in fall was easy especially since many students applied to mla research paper UC and the private colleges routinely and it boasts a 95% college rate. They went through several reviews and revisions. And by the end they worked well. He got into UCLA that was his first choice. After that experience, my daughter put together her essays easily with my son#8217;s input. She ran them by her college English and History instructors (she went entirely the community college route in lieu of career, high school).
She got into Berkeley that was her first choice. I believe that students who don#8217;t have diligent and involved English instructors who are willing to make these college essays a part of their curriculum or personal time are at a significant disadvantage. Even though the essay is written by the student and in the student#8217;s voice, these professionals pointed out flaws that needed correction and paper, reinforced the rib essays, prompt questions. And in subsequent university courses, the care of these instructors is mla research paper footnotes, evident in any courses where my kids must write an essay. Essay Approach! They had a lasting impression. I would wish other student would get this guidance.
I feel that these essays were #8220;first drafts#8221; with ideas but no guidance to mla research paper footnotes refine them. Favorite Food Rib Essays! So as a means to judge students, it really only shows the mla research footnotes, schools and students who have caring instructors and follow through on favorite food their suggestions and those who may lack such resources. That comment read like an ad! But guess what. Even ads can have too many exclamation points! If I was an admissions reader, I#8217;d be exhausted by all of those bangs! Please, please, please, spare us the ads in the comments! Btw, the mla research footnotes, crossword essay was stylistically hackneyed!
This is an interesting article. These next few weeks certainly are critical for favorite, college applications! On the paper footnotes, essay side of things, I#8217;ve found the site theEssayExchange.com, really helpful in assisting my daughter with building her essay. I believe the importance of college application essays are overblown here. You cannot expect engineering students to write as eloquently as liberal arts students. The jello essay may have been written by an engineering student while the crossword puzzle essay by a liberal arts student.
I hope colleges are not just looking for good writers. This country needs great engineers too! And you are not going to be impressed by many of their college app essays. Puritan Belief Essays! I agree with seachange. Cheating is unjustifable, but we all know it happens. Besides consultants, friends, siblings and mla research, parents have been known to write students#8217; essays. Thesis! There is little chance to cheat on an SAT/ACT test or an AP/IB exam; these results, along with the transcript, should be given more weight.
Yet every autumn it is the essay that causes the most anxiety. Paper Footnotes! My son and I brainstormed for weeks before he came up with a suitable topic to write about. Then it took him another a few weeks to write and edit his essay. Chapter Outline! I would hate to see his four years of hard work and excellent grades/test results wasted because the admissions committee at his number one school was not intrigued by mla research paper footnotes his essay. Especially if someone with lower grades and test results is admitted on the basis of an essay which they did not write. We are told that admissions counselors can tell the difference between an essay, essay written by a high school student and footnotes, one by an adult. I hope they really can. Personally, I feel the essay is essay, important to give a #8220;face#8221; to mla research paper footnotes the applicant. The rest of the application is a listing of literature review in a, grades, scores and extracurriculars (which can easily be embellished) but the essay is supposed to be the student#8217;s voice.
I agree with another poster that sending in a graded English assignment is a good alternative. These examples demonstrate the importance of teaching our kids to communicate effectively, not only through the paper, written word, but also through speaking. If kids can#8217;t communicate their ideas through proper grammar techniques and through content, admissions officers have a difficult time deciding if they are an appropriate match for the school. Thesis Outline! Communication is mla research paper footnotes, key in all fields. The kids who wrote the literature in a report, lesser essays may be amazing people, but they failed to communicate it. Glenda. I am often asked how to compose memorable application essays out of “ordinary” teenage lives. Paper Footnotes! High school seniors who haven’t won international awards or lived on houseboats or in homeless shelters can feel as if their essays have little to offer. Literature Review Report! They’re terrified that they will make the same “mistakes” that are highlighted here in “The Choice” (and no wonder … even Ian admissions professional for three decadeshad a tough time differentiating between the “good” and “bad” ones!).
I always reply that, during my 15 years of reading application essays at Smith College, many of the mla research footnotes, most memorable submissions were on mundane topics. Thesis Chapter! One of my all-time favorites was about a laundry mishap at a summer school. Mla Research Paper Footnotes! The author explained how she had accidentally washed her roommate’s expensive white undergarments with her own red sweatshirt. Of course, the essay wasn’t really just about laundry … it was more about the boundaries of friendship. Other wonderful essays I recall include a hilarious one on playing in a truly terrible school band and life is an, another called “Why I Shop at Wal-Mart.” While there are lots of books out there that serve up samples of “successful” essays, there are two that I especially like that offer helpful suggestions on how to mla research paper footnotes craft your own. #8220;On Writing The College Application Essay: Secrets of a former Ivy League Admissions Officer,#8221; by Harry Bauld (which I’ve recommended for chapter, eons) and a newcomer called, #8220;Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays,#8221; by Robert Cronk, both lead students through the composition process and paper, never lose sight of the fact that 17-year-olds can rarely report triumphs—or traumas—that might help their essays stand out in literature in a a crowd. Admission officials really DO want to read about their applicants’ experiences, no matter how “typical,” and they are eager to view them through the writers’ eyes. Students shouldn’t ever worry that they have nothing cataclysmic to chronicle.
After all, what could be more #8220;ordinary#8221; than laundry? I would say that the applicant who wrote the #8220;Imagine#8221; essay didn#8217;t get due to mla research the essay#8217;s flat prose, poor organization, and outline, questionable grammar, not its subject matter. The song was not sung #8220;by the paper, show,#8221; but by the characters on the show. The sentence #8220;When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230;#8221; is just an incredible mess. He didn#8217;t watch #8220;while#8221; they were singing; it should be #8220;were joined by;#8221; and #8220;surprisingly affected me#8221; is a terribly clumsy construction.
How about: #8220;As I watched another glee club join the deaf adolescents in singing the song during this episode, I was surprised by puritan essays how much it affected me.#8221; Not all applicants will be strong writers, but all need to paper footnotes show at least a basic grasp of how to communicate a thought.
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fireftp resume The File Transfer Protocol has held up remarkably well over the years. The protocol was first standardized in mla research footnotes the early 1970's decades before most networks were protected by strict firewalls that drop incoming packets first, ask questions later. The FTP was designed for an environment where clients and servers interact with each other with a minimum of restriction. Additionally, the FTP was designed to operate over essays, communications channels where packets travel directly to their destination, and not in footnotes todays environment where there may be a transparent intermediary that is responsible for sending the packets to report, and from mla research footnotes a host on a private network. The primary problems that the FTP poses to firewalls, NAT devices, and career choice load-balancing devices (all of which will simply be referred to as routing devices and not routers since gateway machines generally aren't problematic) are: Additional TCP/IP connections are used for data transfers;
Data connections may be sent to random port numbers; Data connections may originate from the server to the client, as well as originating from the client to the server; Data connections destination addresses are negotiated on the fly between the client and server over the channel used for paper footnotes, the control connection; The control connection is idle while the data transfer takes place on the data connection. The ramifications for problem (1) are that routing devices must maintain state information for the control connection where the on your, FTP conversation between client and server takes place, and subsequent data connections. For load balancing devices especially, this means that it is imperative to send the data connections to the same internal server that the control connection associated with it is being sent. For problem (2), this means that it is impossible to for FTP to paper, work with a configuration where only a handful of literature well-known ports are allowed in and all other ports are denied.
Instead, both the FTP control port (21) and a large range of high-numbered ports must be allowed in. Mla Research Paper! But, as a consequence of problem (1), the range of food rib essays ports can be locked down for everything except use by FTP with a little work by the routing device. For problem (3), this may mean that a restrictive routing device on the client side may cause problems for FTP. For problem (4), this requires routing devices to mla research footnotes, understand the puritan belief essays, FTP and dynamically modify the contents of the control connection so that internal server addresses are rewritten to acceptable external addresses. Footnotes! This also requires that the routing device maintain state information so that packets arriving at the acceptable external address are transparently re-routed to the internal server address.
For problem (5), routing devices that time out TCP/IP connections must be aware that FTP control connections can be completely inactive for hours while the data transfer takes place on a separate data connection. The classic example of a problem with this case is the common occurrence where a lengthy download finishes and the client wishes to start another download, but the routing device has timed-out the control connection since no activity took place for literature review report, 15 minutes. Paper Footnotes! The client program then locks up waiting for the server to keyhole approach, reply to a message it never received because the routing device did not route it to the server. The FTP specifies a mechanism for a default data connection, where the server can connect back to footnotes, the client from port 20 to the same IP address and port number that the client is keyhole essay originating from on the control connection. However, it really isn't feasible because the preferred transfer mode is stream mode and would require that the default data connection be reopened with each data transfer (and TCP won't let you do that until TIME_WAIT expires on the previous default data connection that has the mla research, same connection endpoints).
Therefore, all modern FTP clients negotiate with the server on where the literature review in a report, data is sent and who initiates the connection. The client program can specify active mode by sending the PORT command to instruct that the server should connect back to a specified IP address and port number and then send the data. Or, a client program can choose passive mode by paper, using the PASV command to ask that the server tell the client an IP address and career port number that the client can connect to mla research, and receive the data. In a nutshell, PORT is used to have the server connect to essay on your, the client, and PASV is used to have the client connect to the server. Since the client connects to the server to establish the control connection, it would seem logical that the client should connect to the server to establish the data connection, which would imply that PASV would be preferred (and at the same time eliminate the single biggest problem with FTP and firewalls).
Mysteriously, the implementers chose to specify in the FTP specification that PORT should be preferred and PASV need not be implemented at all by mla research paper, FTP client programs. At this point it might be helpful to see how the client and server are communicating for each type of data transfer. Belief! The first example is an footnotes Active session that logs in anonymously and approach does a single active data transfer, a directory listing. Note that a directory listings are treated as data transfers just like uploading and downloading of files! The biggest problem caused by mla research footnotes, FTP client programs choosing to use PORT to thesis chapter outline, negotiate FTP data connections is the fact that the server must be the connecting out back to the client's IP address. For restrictive firewalls, it is mla research paper footnotes desirable to forbid all incoming connections, so using PORT would cause the puritan essays, connection incoming from the server to fail. Another big problem is mla research that when a client program is using network address translation to hide behind a routing device on an internal network, when using PORT the client tells a server on the external network to connect to an address on the client's internal network. I.e., from the example above:
Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. That almost always results in the routing device denying the connection, or the connection to fail completely if the IP address is a RFC 1918 compliant reserved address (i.e. 192.168.x.x, 172.16.x.x, 10.x.x.x). In either case, the client user will typically experience a discarded connection that is essays very frustrating since the client program will just lock up until the connection is paper footnotes considered permanently timed-out. Solution 1 : The client user should configure their FTP client program to use PASV rather than PORT. Using passive mode may not solve the literature review in a report, problem if there is a similar restrictive firewall on the server side.
Solution 2 : A better solution is for the network administrator of the client network to use high-quality network address translation software. Devices can keep track of FTP data connections, and paper when a client on a private network uses PORT with an internal network address, the device should dynamically rewrite the packet containing the PORT and outline IP address and change the address so that it refers to the external IP address of the routing device. The device would then have to route the mla research, connection incoming from the puritan, remote FTP server back to the internal network address of the client. I.e., from the example above we had: Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. When the packet containing this PORT reaches the routing device, it should be rewritten like this, assuming the external address is 126.96.36.199: Client: PORT 17,254,0,26,7,138. The remote server would then attempt to connect to 188.8.131.52:1930. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection to and from the client address at 192.168.1.2:1930. When an FTP server is footnotes behind a firewall, there can be problems when FTP clients try to use passive mode to connect to an ephemeral port number (temporary random port number) on the FTP server machine.
The most common problem is when the firewall the FTP server is behind is life essay strict, i.e. the firewall allows only paper a few well-known port numbers in and denies access to all other ports. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can configure the firewall to allow in the entire ephemeral port range. The range of on your career ephemeral ports that need to be opened up is dependent on the configuration of the server machine that is mla research paper footnotes running the FTP server software -- not the ephemeral ports on the firewall! So, find out how the FTP server machine has configured the ephemeral port range (whose default range varies with the operating system) and keyhole essay approach then open those ports on the firewall. Ideally, the firewall should be configured so that only that range of ports is accessible to the FTP server machine. Mla Research! Also double check to be sure that there aren't any other TCP services with port numbers in the ephemeral port range listening on the FTP server machine. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the firewall vendor's documentation to review, see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and ports dynamically opened when a passive FTP connection is detected. This is similar to what intelligent network address translation software can do on the client side for PORT -- the FTP control connections are monitored, and mla research paper when a packet containing PASV from an FTP session is detected, the firewall can automatically open the port. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173)
The firewall would then parse the request and find that the client will be instructed to connect to port 52397 on keyhole essay the address 172.16.3.4. The firewall would then add a temporary rule that would allow exactly one connection to port 52397 only from the same IP address that the FTP control connection is connected from. The other server-side problem that can occur is when a client is trying to access an FTP server on paper an internal network protected by a routing device. Because a server response from PASV includes an IP address and port number, if this IP address corresponds to a private network then the client will not be able to connect to that private address. From our PASV example above, we have: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) If left unaltered, the client would try to connect to port 52397 on the IP address 172.16.3.4.
If the life is an eternal teacher essay, client is not on the private internal network, the client would time-out trying to connect to that address, when in reality it should be connecting to the external IP address of the routing device. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the routing device vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and dynamically replace the IP address specification for packets containing the PASV response. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) The routing device should rewrite the mla research, packet like this, assuming the external address is 184.108.40.206: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (17,254,0,91,204,173) The remote client would then attempt to connect to the routing device at 220.127.116.11:52397. Essay On Your! The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for footnotes, this connection between the remote client and the internal FTP server at IP address 172.16.3.4.
Load-Balancing Routers can allow an administrator to expose a single IP address and delegate connections among multiple identical slave servers. This is similar to essay choice, Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), only instead of disks the array is mla research paper of TCP/IP servers. Load Balancing provides two challenges for literature, FTP. The first is that there are multiple connections associated with each FTP session, one control connection and one or more data connections. For PASV data connections to work, the paper, load balancer must be able to send the connection from the client to approach, the same slave server that is handling the control connection. The second problem, which is related to the first, is that when a slave server replies with the mla research paper footnotes, PASV response, the PASV response's IP address must be accessible to the remote client. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can give each slave server a valid externally accessible IP address.
The external IP address of the load balancer could be used as the preferred address, but having each slave server have its own external IP address would allow PASV data connections to connect directly to the slave server without requiring traffic from slaves to pass through the load balancer. It also means that the load balancer does not need to do any special automatic handling of FTP. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the load balancing router vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be handled automatically so that the PASV reply is dynamically rewritten to keyhole, contain the external IP address of the load balancer. Solution 3 : If the routing device isn't intelligent enough to take special care of paper FTP sessions, but has the ability to always forward traffic from the same remote client IP address to puritan essays, the same internal server IP address, then the network administrator of the mla research paper, server network may be able to configure the FTP server software to spoof the address it uses for keyhole essay approach, PASV replies. For example, NcFTPd Server has an option to let you specify an mla research paper footnotes IP address to use for PASV replies rather than the real IP address of the machine. You could use this option to have NcFTPd use the external IP address of the routing device and hope that packets sent to that address would be forwarded to favorite food rib essays, the internal IP address of the FTP server machine.
The good news is that load-balancing routers are relatively new, and most vendors are aware that FTP and other protocols need special handling. Mla Research Paper Footnotes! So, it is highly likely that FTP traffic can be farmed out from the load balancer with configuration of the load balancer. Cases do arise where there is a restrictive firewall on both the essays, client side and server side. Again, a restrictive firewall is one whose policy is to mla research paper, deny everything except for life is an eternal teacher essay, traffic between a few well-known ports. Mla Research Paper Footnotes! When this happens, a client user cannot use PORT because the FTP server cannot connect back to the client program listening ephemeral port number, and life eternal a client user cannot use PASV because the client program cannot connect to mla research paper, the FTP server software listening on an ephemeral port number.
Obviously, something has to life is an eternal teacher essay, give, but if possible the server-side firewall should be the one that is reconfigured. By definition, a server is providing a service , and it should make a decent effort to make itself accessible to clients. It also makes sense to fix the server side once rather than have to fix each individual client-side firewall. Someday, all devices doing network address translation will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PORT can be used, and someday all firewalls will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PASV can be used too. A growing number of routing devices have automatic special handling of mla research paper footnotes FTP sessions, but if you run an FTP server on a port other than 21 then your device is essay career choice likely to not know to paper, perform that special handling. Therefore if you must use a non-standard port number then it is imperative that you configure your routing device so that your port number is treated as an FTP service with special handling. Even if the chapter, server-side network's routing device is configured for that special handling, problems could still arise on mla research paper footnotes the client side! Some firewalls require that FTP data connections from the server originate from port 20, which is the standard port number for life is an eternal teacher, FTP data connections. If your FTP server is running on mla research footnotes non-standard port N , it is required by the FTP specification that its data connections originate from port N - 1. Literature Review In A! Client-side firewalls may deny these connections, so beware.
Routing devices have long been inappropriately deleting TCP/IP connections that they manage, mostly because they place greater restrictions on connections than does the TCP/IP protocol itself. For example, a TCP/IP connection with no outstanding acknowledgments pending is mla research footnotes allowed to on your career, be idle indefinitely, unless one or both ends of the connection agree to use TCP/IP Keep Alive probes. Paper Footnotes! If Keep Alive probes are not enabled, a TCP/IP connection is permanently open and available for essay career, sending and receiving until it is closed, or reset (for example, when one end's host machine is rebooted). Since a routing device is mla research paper often responsible for managing many internal host machines' TCP/IP connections, it needs to place reasonable limits on life is an teacher essay the number of connections it is managing. Therefore, it will try to reclaim connections when it can, and a common way to do this is to put an activity timer on the connection and delete connections when the paper footnotes, timer shows that the connection has been idle for is an eternal, a long period of time. Unfortunately, when a connection is timed-out, the routing device typically drops incoming packets for it if the connection tries to resume activity.
When that happens, the sending host's client program will then lock up until it times-out. If the routing device were kind enough to send back a reply to the sending host with an error message, rather than dropping the packets and ignoring the sending host, the paper, client program could immediately err-out rather than time-out after a considerable delay. Since the FTP protocol uses two connections, a control connection for essay on your choice, communicating with the client, and another connection to transfer data, there is twice the probability of getting timed-out by an impatient firewall. The most common instance of this problem occurs comes into play during a long file transfer. When a transfer is initiated (on the control connection), the control connection is idle until the paper footnotes, transfer (on the data connection) finishes. If the routing device does not special case for the FTP protocol and the data connection takes longer than the routing device's idle timeout, then the control connection will be timed out. This is food rib essays a significant problem since the client program may wish to continue using the FTP session, such as downloading additional files.
Even if the client program is planning on mla research paper footnotes ending the session, the belief, FTP requires that the mla research, client program send a message (QUIT) to the server indicating that the connection should be closed, and the server is then required to reply with another message indicating that the session is officially closed. The ramifications are that the client program could then lock up waiting for a reply to essay, a QUIT message that the server will not receive since the firewall timed-out the session, unbeknownst to both client and server. The solution for mla research, this specific case, which some, but not all, FTP client programs do, is to either place a very short time-out on the reply to the QUIT message, or to simply close its end of the thesis outline, FTP session (which violates the FTP protocol, but is mla research de facto behavior and is generally accepted). The general solution for puritan belief essays, this problem is footnotes that the is an teacher essay, routing device needs to special-case the mla research footnotes, FTP protocol, and when there is activity on a FTP session's data connection, it must mark the FTP session's control connection as active, in addition to life, marking the data connection as active. Unfortunately, as of this writing, this solution is not widely implemented. Another solution is to footnotes, enable the rib essays, TCP/IP Keep Alive feature on the control connection. When this is enabled by paper footnotes, an application program such as an FTP client or server program, if the connection has been idle for a preset time, the TCP/IP stack will automatically send a heartbeat message to the other end's TCP/IP stack, and if no reply is received, the connection will be properly timed-out at the TCP stack on the host machine, rather than at the firewall. The problem with this is that due to legacy behavior of the favorite food, TCP/IP protocol (which is decades old, remember!) the default time before sending the Keep Alive probes is often set to mla research paper, several hours! So, under default conditions, the connection would have to food, be idle for several hours before the TCP stack would send out its heartbeat message, which is not realistic considering the default idle timeout for routing devices is often under 15 minutes. For the Keep Alive feature to mla research paper footnotes, work under realistic conditions then, it must be configured to belief essays, start sending the probes before the routing device's idle time out kicks in.
For example, if a firewall is configured to paper footnotes, discard idle connections after 15 minutes, you would want your Keep Alive probes to be sent after 10 minutes of inactivity. If the connection is really timed out, it won't receive a reply to the heartbeat message and eternal teacher will then be properly closed by the TCP stack, and if a heartbeat reply is received, the mla research paper, firewall will (should!) mark the connection as no longer idle. As long as one side of the thesis, FTP session enables Keep Alive and has the heartbeat timer configured to a sensible value, this problem should be solved. But surprisingly, it is usually not trivial to configure the heartbeat timer, if it is configurable at all. Typically, it is footnotes required to tune the operating system's kernel or TCP stack. Application programs can only enable Keep Alive mode, but not specify when it should be triggered. Chapter Outline! Therefore, unless the mla research footnotes, operating system provides a mechanism to configure the timer and the system administrator of the machine running the application program has bothered to configure the puritan essays, timer, a program enabling Keep Alive mode is unlikely to solve the problem. We've shown that the File Transfer Protocol can be a difficult beast to tame in the presence of advanced networking hardware.
We will leave you with a brief list of guidelines, but realize that for FTP to work smoothly you will most likely need to expend considerable effort on mla research footnotes configuration or considerable cash on literature report hardware that is FTP aware. Use passive (PASV) mode from within your FTP client whenever possible. If you can login to an FTP server, but your directory listings and data transfers time-out you most likely have a firewall in the way. For best results with firewalls or connections involving private network addresses, use intelligent routing devices that know to automatically take special care of mla research FTP sessions. FTP servers require large numbers of on your career ephemeral ports that must be externally accessible by mla research footnotes, clients. Belief! Since many FTP clients (and Web browsers) still do not default to passive mode, FTP data connections will fail unless ephemeral ports on mla research the client machine are remotely accessible.
All Rights Reserved. This is revision 1.1.1 (April 18, 2005) of eternal this document.