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paul powell resume Executed March 18, 2010 9:09 p.m. by Electric Chair in Virginia. 11th murderer executed in general essays, U.S. in 2010. 1199th murderer executed in U.S. since 1976. 1st murderer executed in better citizen, Virginia in 2010. 106th murderer executed in Virginia since 1976. (Race/Sex/Age at Murder-Execution) (Race/Sex/Age at Murder) Powell described how he went to gce a general essays the home of essay better citizen 16 year old Stacie Reed because he was angry at gce a level general paper essays, her for having a black boyfriend. He attempted to rape her and then stabbed her in the heart when she fought off his advances. Lab Reports. Afterward, Powell went downstairs, smoked a cigarette, drank some iced tea and waited for her 14 year old sister, Kristie, to come home from school.

When she arrived, he raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her and left her for dead. When police reached her, they asked who had done this to her. Kristie mouthed two words: Paul Powell. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Powell's first capital murder conviction was thrown out on appeal when the court ruled that there was insufficient evidence to general prove that he had attempted to rape Stacie.

Believing he no longer could face a death sentence, he wrote the Prosecutor an abusive letter in which he admitted he attempted to crisis essay rape Stacie and boasted about the level essays, crimes in horrific detail. Powell v. Commonwealth , 552 S.E.2d 344 (Va. 2001) (Direct Appeal-Reversed). Powell v. Crisis Essay. Commonwealth , 590 S.E.2d 537 (Va. 2004) (Direct Appeal). Powell v. General Paper. Warden of Sussex I State Prison , 634 S.E.2d 289 (Va.

2006) (State Habeas). Powell v. Kelly , 562 F.3d 656 (4th Cir. 2009) (Federal Habeas). Not released to the public. Powell executed for essay, teen’s 1999 murder in Manassas, by Frank Green. Gce A General. (March 19, 2010) JARRATT -- Paul Warner Powell died in the electric chair last night for the 1999 capital murder of a 16-yearold girl in her Manassas-area home. Powell, 31, was sentenced to death for the Jan. 29, 1999, slaying of Stacie Reed, who was stabbed to death with a survival knife. After killing her, Powell then waited for her 14-year-old sister to return home from biology, school, raped her, cut her throat, and left her for gce a level essays, dead. Kristie Reed lived and testified against him. Given a chance to make a last statement, Powell declined.

The girls' mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, and Kristie were among the witnesses to Powell's electrocution. He was pronounced dead at essay movie, 9:09 p.m., Larry Traylor, spokesman for the Virginia Department of Corrections, said outside the Greensville Correctional Center where executions are carried out. A half-dozen members of level paper essays Virginians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty held a candlelight vigil in strategies, a field near the prison. Paper Essays. They prayed for strategies for writing essay, Stacie Reed and gce a general essays, expressed their opposition to the death penalty. On Wednesday, Stacie's loved ones got to high lab reports hear Powell express something for which they had waited 11 years: He said he was sorry. Whoberry, who now lives in Cincinnati and gce a level general paper essays, was in the Richmond area on her way to titanic witness the essays, execution, revealed yesterday that she had a conference call with Powell the previous day. He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the essay movie, point several times that [the crime] was senseless, it was pointless. . . . Gce A Level Paper Essays. He couldn't really give us a reason why, she said. I think it was heartfelt. It wasn't a big to-do thing.

It was just a simplistic, 'I'm sorry,' and I accept that, Whoberry said. Powell's lawyer Jonathan P. Sheldon said immediately after the execution that the man that was executed tonight was a different person from the person who committed these crimes 10 years ago. High School Biology Lab Reports. Sheldon said Powell was extremely remorseful and knew he was the only one to general paper blame for what happened. Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul B. Ebert, a witness to the execution, said: It's a relief he won't be able to taunt any victims anymore. Whoberry's call with Powell was made in Sheldon's Fairfax County office and was attended by Kristie and other family members. Whoberry said one of her sisters, Theresa Davidson of titanic movie Texas, kind of gce a essays facilitated the conversation. The call lasted, with some interruptions, for an hour to proposals an hour and a half. As the conversation went on, he was able to gce a level general paper open up a little bit more.

He wasn't belligerent, he didn't raise his voice. It was very civil, she said. The questions that we asked, he answered to the best of high lab reports his ability. Gce A Level Paper. I did ask him at some point if he had forgiven himself, and he got emotional and he said, 'No.' And I said, 'Well, I hope your relationship with God is something that you can work through . Essay Movie. . . before tomorrow night,' and we let him know that we are praying for him and his mom, his family, Whoberry said. Sheldon said last night that he and gce a level essays, Whoberry hoped to work together to get legislation passed that would enable loved ones to visit with inmates on death row. He said that the conference call was so productive for both sides. . . . It allowed him to take responsibility and to crisis essay show remorse. However, he said, it being over the telephone took something away from gce a general, it.

Whoberry said she has forgiven Powell, for her own sake, and that she had hoped to meet with him. Authorities denied permission for magic, a meeting with Powell, who was abusive toward the family and gce a general paper, law-enforcement officials in letters after his arrest. Powell's first capital murder conviction was thrown out on appeal. For Writing A Definition Essay. The Supreme Court of Virginia ruled that even with Kristie's rape, Powell had to level have raped or attempted to rape Stacie to crisis essay be convicted of capital murder. Believing he no longer could face a death sentence, he wrote Ebert an abusive letter in which he admitted he attempted to rape Stacie and boasted about the level, crimes in horrific detail. The letter provided grounds for Powell to be tried again for capital murder and sentenced to death.

All of his appeals were rejected, and Gov. Bob McDonnell turned down his clemency request last week. Powell boasted about the crimes in his letter to Ebert. It was heart-wrenching to teacher the maker of a citizen read that letter. To know a lot of the gce a level general, details that we couldn't prove or didn't know in the first trial, Whoberry said earlier yesterday at a news conference in a definition, Henrico County. It was horrible, but I also knew he had signed his own death warrant, she said. The news conference also was attended by Kristie, Whoberry's husband, her mother and two sisters, all of whom were slated to witness the execution. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. This is the day we've been waiting for, for titanic movie, 11 years, Whoberry said yesterday afternoon. There really aren't any words to level general express how I feel right now. . . . I know that for myself, it's been a long road. Hopefully, when this is done and it is final, we can look back and find the positive things that came out of this that we strived so hard to make happen. My thoughts and phd research, prayers go out to his family.

This is gce a paper essays, going to essay close a chapter in this journey that we've been on, she said. Level General Paper. I can't imagine what he is feeling, she said around 4 p.m. Phd Research. But, again, it was his decision to do what he did, not mine. I know that justice will be served according to whatever God has in mind for level, him. Powell chose to die in the electric chair instead of by injection. Virginia death row inmates were given the choice starting in 1995. If an inmate refuses to choose, injection becomes the default method. Two cycles of electricity are used in teacher of a better citizen, executions, each lasting 90 seconds with a slight pause between them. Gce A General. Since the choice was made available, 76 inmates have died by injections and now six by electrocution. Powell's execution was the 106th in Virginia since the U.S.

Supreme Court allowed the death penalty to resume in 1976. His death leaves 12 men and one woman sentenced to crisis essay death in gce a general paper essays, the state. Traylor said Powell spent his last day meeting with his immediate family members and lawyers. Yeats Magic. He said Powell has spiritual advisers, but as of early yesterday afternoon he had not met with them. Before the execution yesterday, Ebert said the gce a level general paper essays, process has been difficult for Stacie Reed's family. He said that after the execution, I'm hopeful they will have some solace and magic, some closure and gce a level general, will go on about their lives.

Man who bragged about crime executed, by Dena Potter. High School. (Associated Press March 19, 2010) JARRATT - A man who killed a teen girl and then bragged about it to prosecutors once he thought he could not face the death penalty was executed Thursday. Paul Warner Powell, 31, died by gce a paper essays, electrocution at 9:09 p.m. at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He chose electrocution rather than lethal injection. Powell appeared emotionless as guards strapped him to of a better citizen the oak chair and attached metal clamps to gce a paper his right calf and head. When asked if he had any last words, he remained silent and stared at the ceiling. Powell was convicted in the maker citizen, 2000 and sentenced to death for fatally stabbing 16-year-old Stacie Reed of Manassas. He also raped and attempted to kill her 14-year-old sister. The Virginia Supreme Court overturned that verdict, and Powell wrote a taunting letter to prosecutors detailing the crime. He was convicted again in paper essays, 2003. In his four-page, profanity-laced letter to Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul Ebert, Powell described how he went to Stacie's house because he was angry at her for having a black boyfriend.

He wrote that he attempted to rape her and then stabbed her in the heart when she fought off his advances. Afterward, Powell went downstairs, smoked a cigarette, drank some iced tea and waited for her younger sister, Kristie, to come home from school. Strategies For Writing. He raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her and gce a level, left her for dead. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. The Associated Press usually does not identify victims of a definition essay sexual assault, but Kristie, now 25, gave permission for her name to gce a general paper be used.

Kristie and the girls' mother, Lorraine Whoberry, witnessed the execution with Ebert, who said he believed they got some solace from the execution. Being able to witness him leave the earth was an emotional experience for them, but an crisis essay experience that gave them a lot of relief, he said. Earlier Thursday, Whoberry remembered Stacie as a friendly, headstrong girl who decided as a freshman in high school she wanted to be the first female Navy SEAL and a week later shaved off all her hair. During an afternoon news conference, Whoberry said she hoped the execution would close a chapter in the journey we've been on. Gce A General Essays. Kristie declined to make a statement. Later, the family told the high school biology lab reports, Richmond Times Dispatch that they talked with Powell by phone for more than an gce a level general paper hour on Wednesday.

He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that (the crime) was senseless, it was pointless . he couldn't really give us a reason why, Whoberry told the magic, newspaper. It was just a simplistic, 'I'm sorry,' and gce a essays, I accept that. Whoberry said Powell told her he had not forgiven himself and she told him she hoped he could reconcile with God before the execution. We let him know that we are praying for crisis essay, him and his mom, his family, she said. Powell's attorney, Jonathan Sheldon, said Powell was extremely remorseful for his crime. When asked why Powell did not make a final statement, Sheldon said, He made a last minute decision and said, 'You know, the people who need to level paper hear from me heard from me.' Powell was the crisis essay, second consecutive Virginia inmate to choose electrocution over gce a level general lethal injection. Larry Bill Elliott was electrocuted in November. Sheldon said many inmates fear that the strategies essay, three-drug lethal cocktail used in injections won't be administered correctly and general paper essays, that they'll suffocate. If not done properly, an inmate could be paralyzed by one of the three drugs used and yet conscious while another of the drugs kills, Sheldon said. Of the 35 death penalty states, seven Southern states still offer electrocution.

Powell was the 106th Virginia inmate executed since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstated capital punishment in 1976. Only Texas, with 451, has executed more inmates. Virginia executes man in 1999 murder of woman, rape of her sister, by Josh White. (March 19, 2010) Kristie Reed was on for writing a definition, the basement floor, her throat and wrists slashed. Her older sister, Stacie, was upstairs, dead from a stab wound to gce a paper essays the heart.

When police reached Kristie, who was then 14 years old, an strategies for writing essay officer leaned in and asked who had done this to her. Kristie mouthed two words: Paul Powell. On Thursday night, more than 11 years later, Paul Warner Powell, 31, was executed in Virginia's electric chair. He was declared dead at 9:09 p.m. The Jan. 29, 1999, murder of one sister and the rape and near-slaying of the other in Manassas were among the most notorious crimes in the region's recent history. Besides the savage attacks, the case was known for Powell's boastful jailhouse letter to Prince William County's chief prosecutor, which provided the crucial evidence that resulted in Thursday's execution. But it was Kristie Reed's eyewitness account that led to Powell's arrest and admission just hours after the slaying. She is left with decade-old memories of her sister and a neck laced with what she calls battle scars.

Formerly against the death penalty, Kristie eagerly awaited Powell's execution. I need to know that he's gone, that we don't have to deal with this anymore, said Kristie Reed, now 25 and an advocate for rape victims. I was totally against the death penalty before this happened, and I didn't know why people would want to do it. But those people haven't been through what we've been through. Gce A Paper Essays. Now I'm totally for it.

He definitely deserves to die. He needs to die for crisis essay, what he did to Stacie. In the end, Powell was silent. The man who was defiant throughout the legal proceedings decided to say nothing after guards strapped him into gce a general paper, the oak electric chair in the Greensville Correctional Center. He stared ahead when asked whether he wanted to say anything. Stacie's and Kristie's mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, said that the high school, family spoke with Powell by phone Wednesday and that he expressed remorse in his own way.

Powell acknowledged that the crime was a senseless and pointless thing and said he was sorry, she said. The family witnessed Powell's execution, and Whoberry said she was glad she did because now she knows he is gce a general paper, gone. Justice was served, and this chapter has closed, she said. It has been a long decade for Kristie Reed and Whoberry, who have suffered through nearly unbelievable twists and turns. Powell had taunted them with vulgar letters from jail that included threats to crisis essay kill them. And the legal case was emotional and difficult. After Kristie Reed took the stand to testify against gce a general paper essays, Powell in 2000 -- she never looked him in the eye -- prosecutors secured the movie, first conviction and death sentence. At the hearing in which the judge imposed the jury's sentence, the forewoman testified on Powell's behalf, saying that she loved him and had made the wrong decision. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court threw out Powell's death sentence, ruling that the gce a level paper, murder of one girl and the rape of another could not be considered the same crime -- a factor necessary for for writing a definition essay, the death penalty. After the ruling, Powell wrote an insulting letter to gce a level paper prosecutors.

But in it, he admitted that he had tried to rape Stacie Reed, too. Lab Reports. That admission tied Stacie's attempted rape to her slaying and led prosecutors to re-indict him. He was convicted and sentenced to death a second time after another full trial in 2003. Through it all, Powell egged on Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul B. Ebert, who has now sent 10 people to Virginia's death chamber, nearly 10 percent of all people executed in the state since capital punishment was reinstated in 1982. Usually unflappable, this case has brought Ebert to tears at times and has made him so close to the Reeds that they consider him part of their family. Post reporter recounts Paul Powell's execution, by Josh White. Level Paper Essays. (March 19, 2010; 8:00 AM) I was on the scene in strategies for writing, Manassas on level, Jan. 29, 1999, shortly after 16-year-old Stacie Reed was murdered and her younger sister was raped and nearly killed in their home. It was the first major crime I covered for The Post.

The crime itself was shocking: Two young girls brutally attacked in their own home by a man not. much younger than I was. It began an crisis essay 11-year journey that included nearly unbelievable twists at paper essays, almost every stage of the essay titanic, case against Paul Warner Powell, who was executed in Virginia on Thursday night. The trial is the only time I’ve ever seen a member of the jury testify on behalf of the defendant. It is the level paper, only case I’ve covered during which the defendant sent vulgar and intimidating letters to the family of his victims. And it is the only case I’ve ever heard of titanic movie that involved a defendant beating his death sentence -- only to turn around and admit additional elements of the crime to a prosecutor, which then led to another death sentence. It was also one of those rare cases in which there was no question who the assailant was -- Kristie. Reed survived the attack and identified Powell -- and that he did, in gce a level essays, fact, commit the essay magic, crime. There was overwhelming physical evidence, and he fully confessed shortly after he was caught. The case came to level general a conclusion with Powell’s execution in Virginia’s death chamber at the Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He was 31 years old.

I have previously described an electrocution in Virginia’s electric chair, as I witnessed Larry Bill Elliott’s execution in November. This one was quite similar. Powell was moved from titanic movie, death row at nearby Sussex I prison in southern Virginia a few days before the execution and put in one of three cells that directly adjoin the death chamber in Greensville’s “L Unit.” There, leading up to his death, he was able to meet with with his mother and brother and his lawyers. On Wednesday, Powell spoke to essays Kristie Reed and her mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, in high school biology lab reports, a meeting that Powell’s lawyer, Jon Sheldon, arranged. The family went to gce a general paper essays Sheldon’s office in Fairfax and proposals, was able to speak with Powell by gce a paper essays, phone. Whoberry said Powell was remorseful “in his own way,” stumbling through an apology during which he said the crime was “senseless and pointless.” But the man who had sent Whoberry a naked photograph of a woman and compared her to her dead daughter, and who sent obscenity-laced letters to prosecutors, was this week taking responsibility and saying he was sorry. Sheldon said the phone call was “very, very powerful” and yeats essay, showed Powell’s understanding that what he did was horrifying and shameful. But the phone call produced no answer to why the attack happened. “There is no why,” Sheldon said. Level Paper. “He was rejected by everyone in his life, he had no real friends and no family support. Crisis Essay. There isn’t a satisfying answer and it’s extremely frustrating. Stacie rejected Paul, and for very good reason.

He just couldn’t take another rejection.” Powell spent Thursday preparing to die. His head was shaved, as was his right leg, where sponge-lined contacts are placed to complete an electrical circuit. Sheldon said Powell barely ate, and his last meal request was not released to the public. Media witnesses entered the level essays, death chamber at 8:40 p.m. We were led into a small room inside the chamber. The room is lined with reinforced glass and has 20 hard plastic chairs in four tiered rows that face the electric chair. At 8:53 p.m., Powell, handcuffed, entered the room with four guards through a door to essay teacher the maker of a the right of the room.

He wore the same light blue shirt and dark blue pants that all condemned inmates in Virginia wear. The right pants leg was cut off above the knee. He wore flip-flops. Powell looked gaunt and pale. He had a stern look and gce a paper essays, held his chin high. He was placed in essay teacher citizen, the chair and a total of six guards affixed eight straps around his ankles, wrists, upper arms, waist and chest. A clamp was attached to his right leg below the knee, and a metal skullcap was placed on his head with a chin strap. Powell swallowed hard and his eyes darted around the room. At 8:58 p.m., an official switched on a microphone in gce a level paper essays, the room and Powell was asked if he had anything to say. He just stared straight ahead and said nothing.

A minute later, a face mask was put in place, covering him from crisis essay, forehead to chin with just his nose exposed. Level Essays. A guard wiped his face and leg with a white towel. Proposals. After a key was turned in the far right rear of the room, activating the system, a man concealed in an adjoining room hit the “execute” button on a machine that was described as being about the paper essays, size of a top-loading clothes washer. It was precisely 9 p.m. There was a thump as Powell’s body jerked back into the chair. His hands clenched into tight fists and veins swelled as his arms turned red. Crisis Essay. Smoke rose from his leg. Officials said 1800 volts at 7.5 amps -- about 13,500 watts, or enough to power 135 100-watt lightbulbs -- flowed through his body for 30 seconds. That was followed by 240 volts at 1 amp for 60 seconds. The cycle repeated. With the level paper essays, second major jolt, smoke and sparks emitted from Powell’s right leg.

His knee appeared to swell and turn purple. His knuckles went white. At 9:03, the electricity stopped. Everyone waited in silence for five minutes. Essay. At 9:08, a guard walked up to Powell and opened his shirt. A doctor emerged from a door on the left side of the room and placed a stethoscope on Powell’s chest in search of a heartbeat. There was none. He was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m., and a curtain was drawn. Whoberry and Reed watched the execution from behind one-way glass. They were joined by Commonwealth’s Attorney Paul B. Ebert, who has sent 10 criminals to death in level paper essays, Virginia, nearly 10 percent of all the people executed since Virginia restarted executions in 1982.

Ebert witnessed his first execution in November, when sniper John Allen Muhammad was executed by lethal injection. Three more people Ebert has prosecuted are on Virginia’s death row, and essay, another committed suicide before he was executed. Paper Essays. Ebert said that to him, lethal injection was an anticlimax, as it appeared Muhammad simply went to sleep. Essay. Electrocution, Ebert said, appeared to have more finality to gce a level general paper it. “It was a little more vivid,” Ebert said afterward. “It felt more meaningful and impressive. But it was still a much more gentle death than Stacie’s.” Richard Leonard, who as a Prince William County police detective interrogated Powell and elicited his confession in 1999, also witnessed the execution and said that it put to rest an 11-year saga and one of the worst cases he’s seen in a career that spans more than three decades. “It involved kids. It was horrible,” Leonard said. “It was such a senseless, terrible thing that happened to a nice family. It changed all of their lives. … All of these cases are bad, but everyone has one case that haunts them for a long period of time. This is that case.”

Paul Powell dies in electric chair, by Amanda Stewart. (March 18, 2010) JARRATT, Va.—Paul Warner Powell, who killed a 16-year-old Yorkshire girl and bragged about it in a letter to crisis essay prosecutors, was put to death in Virginia’s electric chair Thursday. Powell, 31, was pronounced dead at gce a general essays, 9:09 p.m. at the Greensville Correctional Center in high school, Jarratt. Gce A Level Paper. He did not make statement. Powell spent his last hours meeting with his immediate family and yeats essay magic, attorneys, Virginia Department of Corrections spokesman Larry Traylor said. Traylor said Powell made a last meal request, but asked that it not be made public. Powell was sentenced to die for killing and attempting to rape 16-year-old Stacie Reed. On Jan. 29, 1999, Powell entered the Reeds’ Yorkshire home and confronted Stacie, who was home alone after school, stabbed her and general essays, stomped on her throat until she died.

Powell said he was angry that Stacie had a black boyfriend. Powell then waited in the house, drinking iced tea and smoking a cigarette, until 14-year-old Kristie came home from school. He tied her up, raped her and stabbed her and high, left her to die in the basement. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Now 25, Kristie witnessed Powell’s execution, alongside her mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry. On Wednesday, a day before Powell was set to die, Whoberry said she and general essays, her family were ready for the execution to happen and to “close a chapter” in their lives. “We’re all kind of anxious, not knowing what to expect,“ Whoberry said. For Writing A Definition Essay. “I’m trying not to go with any expectations. I’m just hoping I can get through this and gce a paper, be strong for Kristie.“ Whoberry, who started the S.T.A.C.I.E.

Foundation to tell her family’s story in seminars to law enforcement agencies around the country, said she has forgiven Powell, but felt the execution was necessary for justice to be served. Whoberry told the Richmond Times Dispatch that they talked with Powell by phone for more than an hour on for writing, Wednesday. Level General. “He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that (the crime) was senseless, it was pointless . he couldn’t really give us a reason why,“ Stacie’s mother, Lorraine Whoberry, told the newspaper. “It was just a simplistic, ‘I’m sorry,‘ and I accept that.“ Whoberry said Powell told her he had not forgiven himself and she told him she hoped he could reconcile with God before the execution. “We let him know that we are praying for him and his mom, his family,“ she said. Whoberry and her family, who now live in Ohio, also traveled to the area last July to attend Powell’s execution. That time, the United States Supreme Court issued a stay until they could decide whether to hear Powell’s case. Titanic Movie. In January, the high court decided it would not intervene. Last week, Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell also said he would not stay the execution.

It was the first capital case to come before the new governor. Powell was first convicted of capital murder in 2000, but the Virginia Supreme Court overturned that conviction. Then, thinking he could no longer face the death penalty, Powell wrote a taunting letter to Prince William Commonwealth’s Attorney Paul Ebert, giving him new evidence by describing how he attempted to rape Stacie. Ebert again indicted Powell for capital murder and in 2003, Powell was convicted and sentenced to die. Ebert—who has put more men on gce a level general essays, death row than any other prosecutor in the state—also witnessed Powell’s execution. After the execution, Powell’s attorney, John Sheldon said Powell was “remorseful” in the hours and days leading up to his death. “The man that we executed tonight was a different person than the person who committed those crimes ten years ago,“ Sheldon said. “He was very remorseful and very aware that he brought this on himself.“ Ebert witnessed Powell’s execution Thursday, alongside Kristie Reed and her mother. “I can’t speak for essay the maker of a citizen, the family, but my sense is gce a general, this will give them solace and closure,“ Ebert said.“They can go on with their lives.“ Powell was the 106th Virginia inmate executed since capital punishment was reinstated in the United States in 1976.

Now there are 13 inmates on death row including two, Justin Wolfe and Joshua Andrews, both 28, who were convicted in Prince William County. In January 1999, Robert Culver and his fiance, Lorraine Reed, lived together in a small brick home on high school lab reports, McLean Street in gce a, Manassas, Virginia, with Reed's two daughters, Stacey Lynn Reed and Kristie Erin Reed. On January 29, 1999, Paul Warner Powell, then 20, went to visit the phd research proposals, Reeds' home. Powell was carrying two knives and a 9 mm handgun. Stacey, then 16 years old, left home to go to work, and Powell remained there alone with Kristie, who was 14. That afternoon, Kristie called her mother by telephone and informed her that Powell refused to leave the home. Kristie's mother told Kristie to gce a general essays order Powell to leave. Kristie was concerned because Powell kept walking back and forth down the hallway looking in the rooms. On the afternoon of January 29, 1999, Kristie arrived home from school and was startled to find Powell in her house.

She asked Powell where Stacey was. He replied, she was in her room. Titanic Movie. Kristie walked to Stacey's room, but Stacey was not there. Then, Kristie turned to paper essays enter her own room and saw Stacey's body lying on the floor. Essay Magic. Powell, who had followed Kristie to the bedroom ordered Kristie to go downstairs to gce a level the basement. High School Biology. Kristie knew that Powell customarily armed himself with a knife. General. She had previously observed Powell with a butterfly knife and another long knife that was in crisis essay, a brown pouch type thing.

Powell forced Kristie to accompany him to the basement, where he ordered her to remove her clothes. She took her clothes off because she didn't want to die. Gce A Paper Essays. Powell told Kristie to lay on the floor, and then he raped her. After Powell raped Kristie, he dressed himself, and yeats, he used shoelaces taken from Kristie's shoes to tie her feet together. He also used shoelaces to gce a level paper tie her arms behind her back. Crisis Essay. Someone knocked on the door to the house, and gce a level general, Powell went upstairs, leaving Kristie naked and bound on the basement floor. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie was able to free her hands, and she tried to titanic scoot across the floor and hide beneath the basement steps. Powell returned to the basement, removed Kristie's eyeglasses, and strangled her until she was unconscious.

Powell stabbed Kristie in the stomach, and the knife stopped within a centimeter of her aorta. He slashed her in gce a general, her neck numerous times, and the repair of the knife wounds required 61 sutures. She had multiple stab wounds to her neck and abdomen. A Definition. She also had wounds on her wrists. Robert Culver arrived at the home at 4:15 p.m. on January 29, 1999. Level General Essays. He could not locate Kristie or Stacey. He went to strategies for writing a definition the girls' bedrooms and general paper essays, saw that Stacey's room was in disarray. Yeats Magic. He entered Kristie's room, turned on the lights, and found Stacey's body on the floor.

He observed blood on her body and saw that she was not breathing. When Culver went to the basement in search of a telephone, he discovered Kristie lying naked and bound on the floor, bleeding from gce a level, her neck and essay teacher the maker citizen, stomach. He saw that she had been stabbed in the stomach and her throat was slit pretty severely, many times. Culver found a telephone, dialed 911, and level essays, spoke to emergency response personnel. In a recent interview, Robert Culver said the worst part for him are the crisis essay, regrets of general that day. He says he had a cold and that his boss told him he could leave early on that day. He almost took him up on the offer, but didn't want the girls to think he came home early because he didn't trust them to be alone. Little things like that, he said. I should have been home.

Although Kristie was experiencing life-threatening injuries, she was able to tell police officers and high lab reports, paramedics that Paul Powell was her assailant. Stacey's death was caused by gce a level general, a stab wound to her chest. The wound pattern indicated that the blade of the knife pierced her heart and was twisted upon withdrawal. The blade of high biology lab reports Powell's knife was consistent with the stab wounds. There were numerous bruises on Stacey's head, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. She suffered stab wounds in her back and arm. She also had abrasions on her left hand and wrist that were characterized as defensive wounds. Stacey's body contained bruises on her lower neck that were consistent with someone stepping or stomping on her face and neck. Police officers arrested Powell on January 30, 1999 at the home of a friend.

The police officers also located a blue sports bag that belonged to Powell. A nine-millimeter semiautomatic pistol with a full magazine containing 10 Winchester nine- millimeter cartridges was in the bag. The bag also contained a survival knife with a five and one-half inch blade inside a black sheath and a butterfly knife with a five inch blade. The survival knife sheath contained a dark reddish-brown stain. The DNA profile obtained from the stain on general essays, the sheath was consistent with the DNA profile of Stacey Reed and different from the DNA profile of essay teacher the maker of a better citizen Kristie Reed and Paul Powell. Gce A Paper Essays. The probability of selecting an unrelated individual with a matching DNA profile is approximately one in titanic movie, 1.1 billion in the Caucasian population.

After his arrest, Powell consented to several interviews with police officers. During one interview, he stated that he had been at gce a level general paper essays, the Reeds' home on January 29, 1999 and that Stacey was dead because she was stupid. Powell told the police officers that he and Stacey had an argument because she had a black boyfriend, and Powell didn't agree with interracial dating. Powell claimed that during the argument, Stacey attacked him and proposals, scratched his face, and then he pushed her to the floor. He claimed that Stacey attacked him again, and essays, that she got stuck on his knife. Powell also initially denied raping Kristie. In a second statement to strategies for writing police officers, Powell admitted that he raped Kristie. The detective who interviewed Powell testified that Powell stated that he had to kill Kristie because she was the only witness and general essays, he would have to school go to jail. Powell was sentenced to death in gce a essays, August, 2000. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court overturned his death sentence, saying that prosecutors had failed to for writing a definition essay prove that Powell had raped Stacey which was part of the reason for defining the case as a capital murder. A murder that is committed in conjunction with another felony is one of the requirements for a death sentence and the appeals court felt that the rape of level Stacey's sister Kristie was a separate act.

Under the erroneous assumption that this meant he could no longer face the death penalty, Powell wrote two letters to crisis essay the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County, Paul Ebert. Below is the gce a, content of a letter that Powell wrote, dated October 21, 2001. Mr. Ebert, Since I have already been indicted on first degree murder and the Va. Supreme Court said that I can't be charged with capital murder again, I figured I would tell you the high school lab reports, rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all of y'all mother f*ckers are. Y'all should have known that there is level, more to biology the story than what I told by what I said. You had it in writing that I planned to kill the whole family.

Since I planned to kill the whole family, why would I have fought with Stacie before killing her? She had no idea I was planning to kill everybody and talked and carried on like usual, so I could've stabbed her up at any time because she was unsuspecting. Level Paper Essays. I had other plans for magic, her before she died. You know I came back to the house after Bobby's lunch break was over and he had went back to work. Gce A Essays. When I got back, she was on the phone so I went inside and crisis essay, I laid down on the couch. When the cab came to bring me my pager, I ran out of the house and she jumped and got off the gce a paper, phone and came off the porch to see why I ran out of the house like I did. When the magic, cab left we went in gce a paper essays, the house.

I laid on the couch again and crisis essay, she went to level general paper essays her room and got her clothes and essay titanic, went downstairs to do her laundry. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. When she went downstairs, I got up and shut and yeats essay, locked the back door and went downstairs. We talked while she put her clothes in paper, the wash. We continued talking when she had everything in the wash and I reached over crisis essay and touched her ti+ and gce a general paper, asked if she wanted to f*ck. Crisis Essay. She said no, because she had a boyfriend. I started arguing with her because she had never turned anybody down because of having a boyfriend. We started walking upstairs, arguing the whole time.

When we got upstairs we went to her room and she turned the radio off. After she turned the level general paper, radio off I pushed her onto her bed and grabbed her wrists and pinned her hands down by her head and sat on top of her. I told her that all I wanted to do was f*ck her and then I would leave and that we could do it the easy way or the hard way. Phd Research. She said she would f*ck me so I got up. After I got up, she got up and started fighting with me and clawed me face.

We wrestled around a little and then I slammed her to the floor. When she hit the floor I sat on paper, top of essay titanic her and pinned her hands down again. She said she would f*ck me and I told her that if she tried fighting with me again, I would kill her. When I got up she stood up and kept asking me why I was doing this and all I kept saying is take your clothes off. Finally she undid her pants and pulled them down to level general paper essays her ankles.

She was getting ready to take them the proposals, rest of the way off and the phone rang. When she heard the level paper essays, phone she pulled her pants back up and said she had to answer the phone. I pushed her back and said no. She said that she wouldn't say anything about me being there and I told her no and to take her clothes off. She tried to get out of the room again and I pushed her back and crisis essay, pulled out my knife. I guess she thought I was just trying to scare her and essays, that I wouldn't really stab her because she tried to leave again. When she got to me and tried to squeeze between me and the door jam I stabbed her.

When I stabbed her, she fell back against the door jam and phd research, just looked at me with a shocked look on her face. When I pulled the knife out she stumbled a couple steps and fell in gce a level essays, her sister's room. I walked over and looked at her. I saw that she was still breathing so I stepped over her body and into the bedroom. Then I put my foot on her throat and stepped up so she couldn't breathe. Then I stepped down and started stomping on her throat. Then I stepped back onto her throat and moved up and lab reports, down putting more pressure to make it harder to breathe. When I didn't see her breathing anymore, I left the general paper, room and got some iced tea and crisis essay, sat on the couch and gce a level general essays, smoked a cigarette. You know the rest of what happened after that point.

I would like to thank you for saving my life. I know you're probably wondering how you saved my life, so I'll tell you. You saved my life by f*cking up. There were 2 main f*ck-ups you made that saved me. The first was the way you worded my capital murder indictment. The second was the comment you made in your closing argument when you said we won't know because he won't tell us. One more time, thank you! Now y'all know everything that happened in that house at 8023 McLean St. on Jan.

29, 1999. I guess I forgot to mention these events when I was being questioned. Phd Research. Ha Ha! Sike! I knew what y'all would be able to level general paper prove in court, so I told you what you already knew. Stacey was dead and no one else was in the house so I knew ya'll would never know everything she went through unless she came back to life. Since the Supreme Court said I can't be charged with capital murder again, I can tell you what I just told you because I no longer have to worry about the death penalty. And y'all are supposed to be so goddamn smart.

I can't believe that y'all thought I told you everything. Well, it's too late now. Nothing you can do about it now so f*ck you you fat, c*cksucking, c*m guzzling, gutter slu+. I guess I'll see your bi+ch a$$ on Dec. 18 at trial because I'm not pleading to shi+. Tell the family to be ready to testify and relive it all again because if I have to yeats suffer for the next 50 or 60 years or however long then they can suffer the torment of gce a level paper essays reliving what happened for a couple of days. I'm gone. F*ck you and anyone like you or that associates with people like you.

I almost forgot, f*ck your god, too. Jesus knows how to yeats magic suck a d*ck real good. Did you teach him? Well, die a slow, painful, miserable death. See ya punk. Do you just hate yourself for being so stupid and for f*ckin' up and saving me? Sincerely, Paul Powell. In a statement to a police officer on level, November 2, 2001, Powell gave the proposals, following description of gce a level general paper essays Stacey's murder: She walked over to and uh I pushed her back. And then she walked over to me again I think and then I pulled my knife out and you know, and she looked at teacher the maker citizen, me you know. I guess she thought I wouldn't stab her or whatever. So she tried to leave and gce a general, go to answer the phone.

That's that. Titanic. . . . . After she got stabbed, she just looked at me for a minute you know and then you know, she . Gce A General Paper. . A Definition Essay. .she was surprised and them um, I pulled the knife out, you know she stumbled a few steps, fell down in level, Christy's doorway. I just walked over and looked at her. Teacher The Maker Of A. And I stepped over top of her and stepped on her throat and then stood on her throat and then stomped on her throat . . . then I stood on her throat until I didn't see her breathing no more. . . . .What I'm saying I was stepping on her. I'm saying I put all my weight on her. I'm saying that I put my foot there you know and then I lifted myself up to where I was standing on top of her. Started stomping on her throat. And then man, I just stood on her throat again until I didn't see her breathe no more. Before he raped Kristie, Powell knew that he intended to kill her. In response to gce a level paper essays a police officer's question: Before you raped Kristie, you knew you were going to essay movie kill her; didn't you?, Powell responded: I really didn't have a choice; did I? While incarcerated in jail awaiting his capital murder trial, Powell sent a letter to general paper Lorraine Reed, the mother of essay Stacey and Kristie.

Powell enclosed a photograph of a partially nude woman. Powell wrote: Lorraine, I was wondering if you might be able to help me think of something. I found this picture in a magazine and level paper, it kinda looks like someone I know or used to yeats essay magic know, but I can't think of the general, persons name. I think you know the person too, so I was wondering if you could tell me the name of the person this picture resembles so I can quit racking my brain trying to think of it? I would appreciate it. Crisis Essay. If you don't know the person I'm talking about, ask Kristie or Kelly Welch because I know they know who I'm thinking of. If you talk to the person I'm talking about, please give her my address and tell her to write me. The partially nude woman shown in the photograph resembled Lorraine Reed's daughter, Stacey. Powell wrote a letter to a friend while he was incarcerated. Level Paper Essays. He stated: About when you asked me why I wouldn't do to you what I did to Stacie, I couldn't ever hurt you because you mean to much to me.

See Stacie didn't mean anything to me. She was a ni**er lover and some of her wannabe skin head friends were supposed to kill me. That's part of the reason why she died. Essay. Almost everything that happened in that house was planned. The only thing that wasn't planned was trying to level paper essays f*ck Kristie. What was supposed to happen was, Stacie was supposed to die, and did, Kristie was supposed to die and then I was going to wait for their mom and stepdad to get home and I was going to kill them and then I was going to take their moms truck and then I was gonna go to North Carolina and knock this dude off that stole all of my clothes and everything else I owned. I had been thinking about doing it for along time but I could never bring myself to do it. Crisis Essay. I don't know what happened to make me finally do it.

I feel bad for doing it. Stacie was a good kid. Powell wrote, in another letter: Hey babe, what's happening? Not too much here. I writing you to see if you could get one of your guy friends to do me a favor. You know that Kristie is telling the cops things and level general essays, that she is going to testify against me in court. I was wondering if you could get somebody to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her she better tell the cops that she lied to them and tell her she better not testify against me or she's gonna die. Powell sent the following letter to phd research the Commonwealth's Attorney of paper Prince William County: Fat Ebert, What's up you fat head f*cker? I'm just writing to tell you, since you want to kill me so Goddamn bad for killing your ni**er loving whore, set up a court date closer than Oct. 25 so I can go ahead and get this bullshi+ over with and plead guilty so you can kill me and get it over with, unless you want to let me out so I can kill the rest of the teacher of a better citizen, ni**er lovers and general paper, all the ni**ers, Jews, Sp*cs and a definition, everybody else in gce a general essays, this f*cked up country that's not white. That includes you because you are a ni**er loving Jewish f*cking fa**ot.

I will see you in hell bi+ch. your buddy, Paul Powell - P.S. For Writing Essay. Watch your back! The jury viewed writings and drawings taken from Powell's jail cell that demonstrated his hatred of people who were not Caucasian. Paper Essays. Additionally, the jury heard evidence that Powell told police officers that he was a racist and described his violent racial views. He stated, everybody that ain't white shouldn't – he needs to titanic die. Powell had told a police officer that he wanted to level general paper essays purchase a gun to kill somebody. Kill a lot of yeats essay magic somebodies . General Paper. . . just for something to do.

The jury was aware of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for high biology lab reports, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and three felony convictions for abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie. In supporting the jury's finding that Powell's conduct was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . . . depravity of mind and. . . aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to level general essays accomplish the act of murder, the criminal appeals court in Virginia commented, The day before Powell committed these gruesome crimes, he went to the victims' home and surveyed the interior of the house. He returned the next day and biology, tried to level general essays rape Stacey, who struggled with him. He stabbed her in the heart, twisted the knife, and reinserted the knife in her heart. He stomped upon her throat and he placed the entire weight of his body on her throat until she died. Next, he drank a glass of iced tea, smoked a cigarette, and waited for Stacey's younger 14-year-old sister to return home. When Kristie arrived, Powell directed her to her sister's body, forced her downstairs into the basement, and raped her on the floor. For Writing A Definition. He then tied her hands and feet while she was naked, choked her until she was unconscious, stabbed her in the stomach, and slashed her neck numerous times in an attempt to kill her. Gce A General. After the vicious attacks, Powell had snuck out the back door, leaving Kristie for dead.

He drove with a friend to crisis essay Washington and bought some drugs, then returned to gce a level general paper essays the friend's girlfriend's house where he drank beer and ordered a pizza. They were still waiting for titanic, it to level general paper essays be delivered when police knocked on the door. Powell did not know his younger victim had survived and identified her attacker. Paul Warner Powell. Date of titanic Birth: April 13, 1978. Entered the Row: September 15, 2000. District: Prince William County.

Conviction: Capital murder. Virginia DOC Inmate Number: 285713. On May 5, 2000, a jury in the Circuit Court of gce a level general paper Prince William County convicted Paul Warner Powell of capital murder, attempted capital murder, abduction, rape, and grand larceny. Powell was 20-years old when he committed the crimes. On January 29, 1999, Powell entered the home of Stacie Reed, a 16-year old acquaintance. Powell was angry because she was dating a black youth and confronted her. After a scuffle, Powell stabbed Reed three times with a survival knife, twice in the heart. Powell remained at the residence until Reed’s 14-year old sister arrived home.

Powell then raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her in the abdomen and left her for dead. Reed’s sister survived and teacher of a, later testified against Powell. The jury recommended the death penalty and three life sentences for the convictions. Powell refused to level essays allow his defense to present mitigation evidence during the trial’s penalty phase. Prince William Circuit Judge Herman Whisenant upheld the jury’s recommendation and strategies a definition, sentenced Powell to level general die.

Whisenant rejected a defense motion to overrule the jury because the sentence had not been unanimous. The jury forewoman, Jennifer Melanie Day, testified that had she known life in biology lab reports, prison was an level general paper essays option, she would have never voted for a death sentence. Essay. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court reversed Powell’s death sentence, saying that prosecutors had failed to gce a essays prove that Powell had raped Reed, part of the essay movie, reason for defining the murder as a capital case. In October of gce a general 2001, Powell wrote letters to Prince William County Commonwealth Attorney Paul Ebert and the victim’s family detailing his crimes. The letters served as new evidence, even if the underlying crime was the same. Powell was retried in 2003 that Powell be sentenced to death. The sentence was upheld by the Virginia Supreme Court in January 2004. Powell has been on essay, death row since September 15, 2000. Powell v. Commonwealth , 552 S.E.2d 344 (Va. 2001) (Direct Appeal-Reversed). Defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder and related offenses and was sentenced to general paper essays death.

He appealed. School Lab Reports. The Supreme Court, Lawrence L. Koontz, Jr., J., held that: (1) it was reversible error to allow pretrial amendment of indictment to charge two new gradation crimes that were not considered by the grand jury; (2) error was harmless, at guilt phase, in prosecutor's commenting on defendant's failure to testify; (3) evidence was insufficient to level essays support conviction; and (4) sentencing verdict form should have allowed the jury the option to impose a sentence of life imprisonment and a fine of up to $100,000. Affirmed in part, reversed in part, and crisis essay, remanded. G. Essays. Sufficiency of the Evidence. Powell assigns error to the trial court's failure to strike the evidence as to phd research proposals the abduction of Kristie on the ground that the evidence was insufficient to support a jury finding that the restraint used exceeded that necessary to accomplish the crime of rape. We disagree. A defendant may be convicted of abduction in addition to “another crime involving restraint of the victim, both growing out of gce a level general essays a continuing course of conduct, . only when the crisis essay, detention committed in the act of abduction is gce a general paper essays, separate and crisis essay, apart from, and gce a paper essays, not merely incidental to, the restraint employed in the commission of the other crime.” Brown v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 310, 314, 337 S.E.2d 711, 713-14 (1985). The Maker Of A Better Citizen. Here, there is sufficient evidence to support the finding of the jury that Powell used greater restraint than was necessary to essays commit rape.FN11 First, Powell ordered Kristie to go to a more secluded part of the home prior to the rape. Crisis Essay. See, e.g., Wilson v. Commonwealth, 249 Va. 95, 103, 452 S.E.2d 669, 675, cert. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. denied, 516 U.S.

841, 116 S.Ct. 127, 133 L.Ed.2d 76 (1995). Phd Research. Although Powell did not display a weapon to her at paper, that time, it is clear under the movie, circumstances that Kristie was in reasonable fear for her life having just discovered her sister's lifeless body and being aware that Powell was usually armed. Moreover, after the rape was complete, Powell bound Kristie and left her for some time before returning to attempt to kill her. This restraint clearly exceeded that necessary to accomplish the rape. See Hoke v. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. Commonwealth, 237 Va. 303, 311, 377 S.E.2d 595, 600, cert. denied, 491 U.S. 910, 109 S.Ct. 3201, 105 L.Ed.2d 709 (1989). School Biology. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in failing to strike the evidence as to general paper the charge of abduction.

Within the same assignment of error, Powell also asserts that the evidence was insufficient to support his conviction for the capital murder of Stacey “during the commission of or subsequent to” the rape of Kristie. There is simply no evidence upon which the phd research, jury could have found that Powell committed the general essays, rape of Kristie before or during the murder of Stacey. Indeed, it is undisputed that the phd research, rape occurred after the gce a general essays, murder was completed. Yeats Magic. Accordingly, the level paper, evidence was insufficient to support Powell's conviction for capital murder as charged in the amended indictment. FN12. For the reasons previously stated in this opinion, Powell's conviction for high biology, that crime will be reversed, and he will not be subject to retrial for that offense. Accordingly, we need not address the error assigned to the trial court's failure to gce a level general paper poll the jury with respect to whether the rape occurred before, during, or after the murder. Having already determined that Powell's conviction for essay titanic, capital murder will be reversed, we now further determine that there is level paper, no basis upon which Powell can be retried for capital murder on remand. The poll of the jury establishes that Powell was acquitted of the essay magic, charge of capital murder in the commission of robbery or attempted robbery.

It is equally clear that there is simply no evidence upon which the jury could have relied to paper find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of essay her sister. Accordingly, under the gce a level paper, circumstances of this case, the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder. For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for proposals, capital murder, affirm his convictions for abduction, rape, attempted capital murder, and grand larceny, and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for gce a level, the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Powell v. Commonwealth , 590 S.E.2d 537 (Va. 2004) (Direct Appeal). Background: Defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder and related offenses and strategies, was sentenced to death. He appealed. The Supreme Court, 261 Va. 512, 552 S.E.2d 344, affirmed in part, reversed in part, and remanded.

On remand, defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder in the commission or attempted commission of sexual assault. Defendant appealed. On consolidation of the general essays, automatic review of defendant's death sentence with his appeal, Holdings: the Supreme Court, Lawrence L. Koontz, Jr., J., held that: (1) fact that Commonwealth's attorney had read defendant's correspondence, stating “how stupid all y'all are,” was insufficient to disqualify attorney from prosecuting defendant's second murder trial; (2) neither law of the case doctrine nor double jeopardy barred retrying defendant for proposals, capital murder; (3) probative value of evidence that defendant raped and attempted to murder victim's sister was not outweighed by gce a level paper, its prejudicial effect; (4) evidence sufficiently corroborated defendant's letter confessing to having attempted to essay titanic movie rape the murder victim; and (5) defendant's death sentence was not excessive nor disproportionate to similar cases. Gce A Level Paper Essays. Affirmed. OPINION BY Justice LAWRENCE L. KOONTZ, JR. In this appeal, we review the essay teacher of a citizen, capital murder conviction and essays, sentence of movie death imposed upon essays Paul Warner Powell for the murder of Stacey Lynn Reed in the commission of, or subsequent to, attempted rape. Code § 18.2-31(5).

A. Powell's First Trial and Appeal. Powell was originally convicted of the capital murder of Stacey Lynn Reed in 2000 and sentenced to death. See Powell v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 512, 530, 552 S.E.2d 344, 354 (2001). Essay. In the gce a level essays, same trial, Powell was convicted of the abduction, rape, and essay teacher the maker of a better citizen, attempted capital murder of Stacey's younger sister, Kristie Erin Reed, and was sentenced to three terms of life imprisonment and fines totaling $200,000 for those crimes.

FN1 The abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder convictions, as well as a conviction for grand larceny, were affirmed in the prior appeal and are not at issue in this appeal. Powell had also been tried for robbery and attempted robbery, Code § 18.2-58, and three counts of use of a firearm, Code § 18.2-53.1. Gce A General Paper Essays. He was acquitted of those crimes. Upon review of the lab reports, capital murder conviction and the death sentence imposed upon Powell, this Court reversed the conviction on various grounds including a finding that the indictment charging Powell with capital murder in the commission of robbery and/or attempted robbery had been improperly amended to essays include a charge of capital murder “during the commission of or subsequent to rape and/or attempted rape and/or sodomy and/or attempted sodomy.” FN2 Id. at 532, 552 S.E.2d at 355-56. High Biology. Upon review of the record, we further held that the wording of the indictment limited the Commonwealth to proving that the “gradation crime was a rape occurring before or during the level essays, killing,” id. at essay the maker better, 538-39, 552 S.E.2d at 359, and essays, there was “no evidence upon which the crisis essay, jury could have found that Powell committed the rape of Kristie before or during the murder of Stacey.” Id. at 541, 535 S.E.2d at 361. FN2. Following the presentation of the Commonwealth's case-in-chief in Powell's first trial, the Commonwealth had conceded that there was no evidence of forcible sodomy or attempted forcible sodomy against Kristie. Powell, 261 Va. at 525, 552 S.E.2d at 351. Thus, that aspect of the amended indictment for capital murder from Powell's first trial is level essays, not relevant to any issue raised in this appeal. We summarized the consequence of these holdings in crisis essay, the conclusion of the opinion, stating: there is gce a general, simply no evidence upon which the crisis essay, jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister. Accordingly, under the circumstances of this case, the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder.

For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for capital murder . and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Id. at 545-46, 552 S.E.2d at 363. The mandate from this Court to the trial court tracked the language of the opinion, and gce a level general, directed that “the case is remanded . for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised.” B. School. Events and Proceedings Following Remand. On October 21, 2001, Powell wrote an obscenity-laced letter to level essays the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell in crisis essay, his first trial. Gce A Level. FN3 Powell stated in the letter that, because he believed he could not be retried for capital murder, “I figured I would tell you the biology lab reports, rest of what happened on gce a level paper essays, Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all y'all . are.” Admitting that he “planned to kill the whole family” on that day, Powell further stated that “I had other plans for [Stacey] before she died.” Powell described how he had attempted to initiate consensual sexual intercourse with Stacey, which he had previously admitted.

Powell then revealed that when Stacey resisted his advances, he pushed her onto movie, her bed and, while sitting on level paper essays, top of her, told Stacey “that we could do it the easy way or the hard way.” FN3. Powell had previously written to the Commonwealth's Attorney on essay movie, July 4, 2001, proposing a plea agreement for a first degree murder charge for the killing of Stacey Reed. Powell then described how Stacey had “started fighting with me and clawed me [sic] face.” Powell stated that he “slammed her to the floor . sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again.” Powell claimed that Stacey relented “and I told her if she tried fighting with me again I would kill her.” Continuing, Powell stated that, at his direction, Stacey began to disrobe, but stopped when the telephone rang. Stacey put her clothes back on so that she could answer the telephone. Powell refused to allow Stacey to gce a paper answer the essay teacher the maker, telephone and ordered her to resume disrobing. General Essays. When she refused, Powell “pushed her back and pulled out [his] knife.” When Stacey attempted to leave the bedroom, Powell stabbed her.

Stacey fell back and Powell removed the knife. Stacey then stumbled to essay the maker better another bedroom and collapsed. Powell “saw that she was still breathing” and “started stomping on level paper essays, her throat” until he “didn't see her breathing anymore.” The New Indictment Armed with this new evidence, the crisis essay, Commonwealth elected to nolle prosequi the indictment in the remanded case, under which it was limited to trying Powell for first degree murder under our mandate, and sought a new indictment against general paper essays, Powell for capital murder. Magic. On December 3, 2001, the grand jury returned an general paper essays indictment charging Powell with the essay, capital murder of “Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to the attempted rape of Stacey Lynn Reed.”

C. Essays. Powell's Second Trial. Motions to Dismiss the Indictment. On April 24, 2002, Powell filed a motion to phd research proposals dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. Level General. Powell asserted that “[w]hen the Supreme Court of Virginia issues an opinion concerning a case, this opinion becomes the law of the case” and, thus, the essay teacher, directive of the opinion and mandate from this Court in his first appeal limited his retrial to a charge no greater than first degree murder, regardless whether that trial was conducted under the original indictment or a new indictment. The Commonwealth filed a response to this motion, asserting that the judgment of this Court in Powell's first appeal was not applicable to gce a level essays the December 3, 2001 indictment because Powell had “never [previously] been charged with the capital murder of Stacey Reed in the commission or attempted commission [of] sexual assault against [Stacey Reed] because, at the time of [Powell's first] trial, no such evidence existed.” Accordingly, the Commonwealth contended that the titanic movie, December 3, 2001 indictment was “a new charge, one that has never been litigated in trial nor considered by the Virginia Supreme Court.” Following a hearing on this and other pre-trial matters, the level general, trial court overruled Powell's motion to for writing a definition essay dismiss the indictment in an order dated May 6, 2002. On May 17, 2002, Powell filed a second motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment.

The briefs filed in the trial court in support of and in opposition to this motion parallel the arguments made on appeal with respect to gce a level general paper this issue and, accordingly, we will only essay, summarize the level general paper essays, essential points of those arguments here. The import of Powell's argument was that his prior trial and the reversal of his conviction by this Court acted as an “implied” or “judicial” acquittal of the attempted rape of Stacey, thus barring his retrial for her capital murder premised on crisis essay, that gradation offense. The Commonwealth responded that the issue whether Stacey had been the victim of a sexual assault was not before the jury in his first trial because the bill of particulars provided at Powell's request indicated that only Kristie was the victim of the gce a level general essays, sexual assault gradation offenses charged in high school biology, the amended indictment. Similarly, the Commonwealth contended that our comments concerning the general paper, insufficiency of the magic, evidence to prove a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against gce a level general, Stacey were not directed toward any finding of the jury, but to better the contrary were indicative of the fact that the gce a level paper, jury did not consider whether Stacey had been the victim of such an assault or attempt. On June 5, 2002, the trial court held a hearing on Powell's second motion to dismiss the essay magic, indictment. Level Essays. After hearing argument, the trial court stated that by identifying Kristie as the victim of the rape or attempted rape in the bill of particulars, the Commonwealth had clearly identified her as the essay the maker, victim of those gradation crimes in the amended indictment for capital murder. The trial court also agreed with the Commonwealth that this Court's reference to the lack of evidence to prove any sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey was merely a comment on level general, the record, and not an assertion that this was a theory of the case presented by the Commonwealth in Powell's first trial. On July 3, 2002, the trial court entered an biology lab reports order overruling Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. Other Pre-trial Motions. On April 25, 2002, Powell filed a motion to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional on various grounds.

On appeal, Powell reasserts only some of gce a level essays these arguments and does so only in summary fashion. Accordingly, we will not summarize those arguments in detail here, but will address them within the discussion of the magic, relevant assignment of level general essays error, infra. On April 26, 2002, Powell filed a motion seeking to have the Commonwealth's Attorney's office disqualified from prosecuting his case. Of A Better Citizen. Powell contended that the Commonwealth's Attorney had a conflict of interest because he was a key “chain of gce a general essays custody witness” with respect to his receipt of Powell's October 21, 2001 letter “confession” to the attempted rape of Stacey. Powell further contended that the offensive nature of crisis essay that letter and his other conduct toward the Commonwealth's Attorney had created such a level of essays animosity that the Commonwealth's Attorney would not be able to objectively pursue justice, but would instead seek to satisfy a personal vendetta against Powell. Powell further contended that this taint of bias extended to every attorney in the Commonwealth's Attorney's office, and further asserted that these attorneys would be potential witnesses called to give testimony concerning the Commonwealth's Attorney's personal animus against Powell.FN4. FN4. Powell further contended that one of the Assistant Commonwealth's Attorneys while in private practice had represented Powell in an unrelated criminal matter and, thus, had a conflict of interest.

Powell does not reassert this issue on crisis essay, appeal. On May 1, 2002, the Commonwealth filed responses to Powell's motions to have Virginia's statutory scheme for level general paper, charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional and to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney's office. With respect to the former, the Commonwealth asserted that all the issues raised therein had previously been considered and rejected by titanic movie, this Court, and there was no cause for the trial court to revisit them. As to paper the latter, the yeats, Commonwealth asserted that there was no evidence of bias on the part of the Commonwealth's Attorney or other members of his office and denied that there was any such bias, that the manner of establishing the chain of custody of Powell's letter was not the defense's concern, and that the questions of an appearance of impropriety should be raised through a disciplinary complaint proceeding. On May 6, 2002, in the same hearing in which the trial court heard argument of Powell's first motion to dismiss the indictment, the trial court also heard argument on Powell's motions to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and gce a paper essays, imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional and to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney's office from essay movie, prosecuting the case. Following that hearing, the trial court entered an order overruling these motions without comment. On December 11, 2002, Powell filed a motion to exclude any evidence concerning his abduction, rape, and attempted murder of Kristie Reed from his trial. Powell contended that because he was charged only with the capital murder of Stacey Reed predicated on an attempted rape of her, evidence of his subsequent attack on Kristie was irrelevant or that any probative value it might have would be overborne by its unduly prejudicial effect on the jury.

The Commonwealth did not file a response to this motion, but during oral argument in level paper, a hearing held December 23, 2002, the Commonwealth asserted that evidence concerning the attack on Kristie was part of a continuing criminal enterprise and was relevant to show Powell's motive and intent in attempting the rape of Stacey. Also on December 11, 2002, Powell, alleging that the United States Supreme Court's decision in Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556 (2002) had called into question prior judgments of this Court concerning the issue, filed a motion seeking to have Code § 19.2-264.4(B) declared unconstitutional because it permits a jury to consider evidence relating to the future dangerousness and school biology, vileness aggravating factors without full protection of due process to the defendant to confront witnesses. Powell also asserted that the statutory definitions of the aggravating factors are vague and, thus, would likely result in “unreliable” jury verdicts. Level General Paper. The Commonwealth filed a brief in response to this motion, asserting that the issue of the constitutionality of essay the maker better Code § 19.2-264.4(B) is general paper, settled law.

On December 16, 2002, Powell filed a motion to movie suppress various statements he made to police during the initial investigation of the crimes. Powell alleged that after giving an initial statement following waiver of his Miranda rights, he advised police that he had nothing more to gce a general say. Thereafter, Powell contended, any statement he made to police without a readvisement and waiver of movie his Miranda rights should be suppressed. The Commonwealth responded that the suppression issue had been decided in Powell's first trial and, thus, the doctrine of res judicata barred consideration of the issue in his second trial. Gce A Level General Paper. FN5 Powell filed a supplemental motion on December 17, 2002 asserting that a statement taken by an investigator on November 2, 2001, while Powell was in prison following his first trial, should be suppressed because his counsel was not present. The Commonwealth responded that Powell had been advised of and waived his Miranda rights prior to giving this statement and that he was not entitled to counsel under the Sixth Amendment at that time because he had not yet been indicted for the offense for which he was then on crisis essay, trial, and gce a level essays, the formal proceedings on essay movie, the prior indictments had concluded. FN5. Powell did not contest the trial court's failure to gce a suppress his statements in the appeal of his first conviction. In summarizing its rulings on these motions during the December 23, 2002 hearing, the trial court stated that it found Powell had waived his Miranda rights with respect to the statement made after his first trial but prior to the bringing of the high school lab reports, second indictment and, thus, the statement was not barred by gce a level essays, either the Fifth or Sixth Amendments. The trial court also indicated that it would deny the phd research proposals, motion to suppress the statements from the initial investigation of the crimes, incorporating by reference the finding made during the first trial with respect to those statements.

The trial court further found that evidence of level general paper Powell's attack on Kristie was admissible as being part of a common scheme and to show consciousness of guilt. Movie. The trial court entered an omnibus order denying all these motions as well as the motion challenging the constitutionality of Code § 19.2-264.4(B). Powell's second trial commenced on gce a paper, January 13, 2003. Proposals. The trial court conducted voir dire of the venire in panels of five potential jurors. In questioning the first panel, the trial court inquired whether “any of level general paper you have acquired any information about the magic, alleged offense, or of the accused from the news media, or other sources in gce a level essays, this particular matter?” The five panel members indicated that they had not.

The Commonwealth further inquired whether “[i]f during the course of trial you should hear something which would jog your memory about the publicity, would you be able to set that aside and render your verdict based solely on what you hear in the courtroom?” The five panel members each indicated that they could do so. During his voir dire of the first panel, Powell's counsel attempted to ask the following question: You're going to hear in this case that the Defendant has already been tried and convicted of capital murder at teacher the maker better citizen, one point, and gce a level essays, he's serving life sentences for other crimes. You're also going to hear that the Supreme Court of Virginia overturned the- At this point, the Commonwealth objected and during a bench conference, referencing Barker v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 370, 375, 337 S.E.2d 729, 733 (1985), asserted that, as the panel had already indicated that they had not heard of the case previously, Powell's counsel's question concerning the prior trial and essay, appeal “may, in fact, taint” the members of the panel and disqualify them from serving on the jury. Powell's counsel responded that because the evidence would disclose the fact of his prior convictions and the reversal of his capital murder conviction and death sentence on appeal, the prohibition of Barker did not apply. Gce A Paper Essays. He further contended that because a jury's knowledge of a prior conviction was potentially prejudicial to the defendant, it was a “tactical decision that we've made . and strategies essay, we wish this evidence to come forward.” Thus, he contended that it was proper to explore the potential jurors' bias that would result from hearing that evidence. The trial court ruled, even though it agreed that this was a “unique case” because the evidence would establish the fact of the level paper essays, prior conviction and appellate reversal, “the Barker case is still good law.” Accordingly, the trial court concluded that “we have to start off with a jury that does not have” knowledge of the prior trial, conviction, and appeal. Accordingly, the trial court ruled that Powell could not question the jurors about their potential bias based upon such evidence being likely to be presented during the trial.

The Commonwealth then inquired, “Are we going to strike this panel or will the Court instruct the panel to disregard the question?” When the trial court indicated that it would instruct the crisis essay, panel to disregard the general paper, question, Powell's counsel objected that he was “not sure that instructing them is sufficient . if they've already been told-.” The trial court cut off the objection, stating that the members of the panel had already indicated they were unaware of the case and that “all I can do is crisis essay, tell them to disregard the question.” Guilt-Determination Phase Apart from the new evidence of level general paper Powell's October 21, 2001 letter to high school biology the Commonwealth's Attorney in which Powell confessed to the attempted rape of Stacey, the evidence presented during the gce a general essays, guilt-determination phase of Powell's second trial was not markedly different from that received during the first trial. Because we have thoroughly recounted that evidence in reviewing his first trial, see Powell, 261 Va. at 518-520, 552 S.E.2d at 347-348, and Powell does not challenge the sufficiency of the phd research, evidence except with respect to proof of the attempted rape of Stacey, we need not reiterate the full extent of the evidence, but will suffice with a summary of the essential details. Powell, who was twenty years old at the time of the crimes, had been acquainted with Stacey and gce a level general paper essays, her family for approximately two-and-a-half years. Lab Reports. Powell, a self-avowed racist and white supremacist, objected to Stacey dating Sean Wilkerson, a black classmate of Stacey's. Id. at 518, 552 S.E.2d at 347. Stacey arrived home just before noon on January 29, 1999 to find Powell waiting for her. When Powell learned that Robert Culver, a friend of the girls' mother, would be home shortly for lunch, Powell left, but returned at about 12:45 p.m., after Culver had left. When Powell returned, he was armed with a survival knife, a butterfly knife, a box cutter, and a 9-millimeter pistol. Id.

During the level, initial investigation, Powell claimed that he and Stacey had argued about for writing a definition essay, her relationship with Wilkerson and in an ensuing struggle, Powell drew the survival knife from his belt and Stacey “got stuck.” Id. Although Powell denied stabbing Stacey deliberately or otherwise injuring her, an autopsy revealed that she had suffered multiple blunt force injuries to her head, neck, and upper body not consistent with her merely having fallen during a struggle, but consistent with a deliberate stomping. The autopsy also showed that the wound to gce a paper essays Stacey's chest was consistent with the high, knife having been twisted and partially withdrawn and reinserted. Id. at 520, 552 S.E.2d at 348. Powell denied having attempted to sexually assault Stacey, but when questioned again on that point would not give the investigator “a straight answer.” Powell later told police that he “probably” raped Kristie because he “didn't get any with Stacey.” Leaving Stacey for dead, Powell smoked a cigarette and drank a glass of iced tea in the living room of the general essays, home, waiting for essay titanic movie, Kristie to return home from general paper, school. When she arrived, Powell met her at the door.

Shortly thereafter, Kristie discovered her sister's body. Powell then forced her to biology go to the basement of the home where he brutally raped her and gce a level general, attempted to kill her by strangulation and by cutting her wrists and throat. Id. at school biology, 519, 552 S.E.2d at 347. At the conclusion of the Commonwealth's case-in-chief, Powell moved to strike the paper essays, evidence on the ground that the Commonwealth had not presented sufficient evidence to corroborate Powell's confession in the October 21, 2001 letter that he had attempted to rape Stacey. The Commonwealth pointed to biology lab reports the physical circumstances, such as the disheveled condition of Stacey's bedroom, Stacey's defensive wounds, and the fact that when her body was discovered her pants' zipper was slightly undone, as corroborating Powell's confession. The trial court denied the motion to strike. Thereafter, Powell elected not to offer any evidence.

The jury was instructed, heard closing arguments, and retired to gce a level paper consider its verdict. After two hours of movie deliberation, the jury found Powell guilty of capital murder. Powell requested a poll of the gce a general paper essays, jury, which confirmed that the verdict was unanimous. Penalty Determination Phase During the penalty determination phase, the Commonwealth presented evidence of yeats essay magic Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and his convictions for the abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie. The Commonwealth further presented evidence concerning Powell's extreme racist views. Additional evidence showed that Powell had tortured cats when he was younger and that he told an investigator that he wanted to purchase a gun to gce a paper essays “ [k]ill somebody.

Kill a lot of somebodies. Phd Research. Just for something to gce a level general paper essays do.” Powell also told the investigator that he admired Charles Manson and Adolf Hitler, saying that “[t]hey were cool.” The Commonwealth also presented evidence that Powell wrote an abusive letter to Stacey's mother in which he included a pornographic picture of of a better citizen a woman who resembled Stacey. Powell presented evidence from his parents and younger brother, a social worker, a psychologist, and a probation officer. Level General Paper. This evidence dealt primarily with Powell's upbringing and transfer of custody from his mother to the Department of Youth and Family Services following his juvenile offenses. Teacher Of A Better. The psychologist described Powell's home environment as “toxic.” The psychologist further testified that, following his incarceration, Powell had received “[m]edication to gce a general help stabilize his mood,” and teacher citizen, while medicated Powell “has not had any serious disciplinary infractions.” The psychologist did not offer a specific diagnosis for Powell's “mental-health problems,” but testified that Powell's clinical history suggested an “anti-social personality disorder” and that his behavior as a child suggested Powell had “an under controlled temperament.” The psychologist further testified that the medication Powell had received in gce a general paper essays, the past was “used for manic depressive illness which is now called bi-polar disorder and for certain forms of serious depression.” After ninety minutes of deliberation, the jury returned a unanimous verdict sentencing Powell to death. The jury indicated that the sentence was predicated on both the phd research, future dangerousness and vileness aggravating factors. Sentencing On May 8, 2003, the trial court held a sentencing hearing and received a pre-sentence report and victim impact evidence from Stacey's mother. Powell's counsel argued that imposition of the death sentence was not appropriate, asserting that so long as Powell were confined and general paper, properly medicated, he did not present a continuing danger to society and that a life sentence without possibility of crisis essay parole was adequate punishment.

The Commonwealth responded that Powell had shown no remorse following his conviction in the first trial. The trial court then confirmed the jury's sentence of death. We consolidated the automatic review of Powell's death sentence with his appeal of the capital murder conviction and expedited the appeal on our docket. Code § 17.1-313(F). Powell raises twelve assignments of error, the first two of which merely restate the gce a general essays, elements of the statutory review of any death sentence mandated by Code § 17.1-313(C). We will review Powell's arguments in the order in which the trial court considered the issues below. A. Failure to Dismiss the Capital Murder Indictment In his sixth and seventh assignments of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in denying his motions to dismiss the titanic, capital murder indictment against him. This was the principal issue addressed by the parties during oral argument before this Court. The various positions under which Powell asserts that he was not subject to trial under the capital murder indictment can be generally summarized as follows: (1) The opinion and gce a level general, mandate of this Court from Powell's first trial limited his retrial for essay the maker of a better citizen, the killing of Stacey Reed to a charge no greater than first degree murder on any indictment.

(2) Even if retrial on a charge of capital murder was not barred under a new indictment, Powell had been acquitted, either actually or by implication, of the attempted rape of Stacey Reed in gce a essays, his first trial and, thus, the law of the case doctrine barred his being tried for capital murder based upon teacher the maker the attempted rape of Stacey as the gradation offense. (3) Principles of double jeopardy bar his retrial for a violation of Code § 18.2-31(5) because the indictment in his first trial did not specify the victim of the gradation offense. Effect of Prior Opinion and gce a general, Mandate. We recognize the principle of the yeats essay, “mandate rule,” stated by the Court of Appeals of Virginia in level paper essays, a different context, that: A trial judge is bound by a decision and mandate from [an appellate court], unless [the court] acted outside [its] jurisdiction. A trial court has no discretion to disregard [a] lawful mandate.

When a case is remanded to of a better citizen a trial court from an appellate court, the refusal of the essays, trial court to follow the appellate court mandate constitutes reversible error. Rowe v. Rowe, 33 Va.App. Essay. 250, 257-258, 532 S.E.2d 908, 912 (2000); see also Frank Shop, Inc. v. Gce A Level Paper. Crown Central Petroleum Corp., 264 Va. 1, 6, 564 S.E.2d 134, 137 (2002) (holding that “a trial court cannot permit what this Court . [has] said is yeats essay, unlawful” in paper essays, a mandate reversing the trial court's prior judgment and remanding the case). Relying on essay teacher of a better citizen, this principle, Powell contends that the trial court was without authority to level retry him on a new indictment charging him with the capital murder of Stacey Reed. Powell's reliance, however, is misplaced. It is self-evident that while the opinion of an essay appellate court, under the gce a general essays, doctrine of stare decisis, applies to all future cases in the trial courts, the mandate, which is the directive of the appellate court certifying a judgment in a particular case to the court from which it was appealed, speaks only to yeats essay magic that case. Moreover, the mandate is controlling only “as to matters within its compass.” Sprague v. Ticonic National Bank, 307 U.S. 161, 168, 59 S.Ct. 777, 83 L.Ed. 1184 (1939).

Thus, while the directive of this Court's mandate binds the circuit court, that court is gce a level paper essays, not thereby prohibited from acting on matters not constrained by the language of the mandate, construed in light of the phd research proposals, appellate court's opinion. The mandate rule “is merely a ‘specific application of the level general paper essays, law of the case doctrine,’ [and] in the absence of essay titanic exceptional circumstances, it compels compliance on remand with the dictates of a superior court and forecloses relitigation of issues expressly or impliedly decided by the appellate court.” United States v. Bell, 5 F.3d 64, 66 (4th Cir.1993) (quoting United States v. Gce A Level General. Bell, 988 F.2d 247, 251 (1st Cir.1993)). Undoubtedly, had the crisis essay, trial court permitted the Commonwealth to retry Powell for gce a level, capital murder on the original amended indictment invalidated by high school biology, our decision in reviewing his first conviction, this would have been violative of our mandate and reversible error. Gce A Level Paper Essays. Similarly, had the Commonwealth dismissed that indictment and sought a new indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of essay teacher Stacey Reed prior to the rape of Kristie Reed, it would have been error for the trial court to paper essays permit that indictment to stand. However, nothing in our opinion or mandate from Powell's first appeal required the Commonwealth to retry Powell on essay titanic, the original indictment, abridged to cure the defects found by this Court to general charge only first-degree murder. To the contrary, the directive of the mandate expressly stated that Powell was to be retried on that indictment based on the record that was before this Court at that time, only strategies a definition, “if the Commonwealth be so advised.” Nor did our opinion or mandate expressly preclude the gce a level paper, possibility of trying Powell on a new indictment charging capital murder premised on a different gradation offense after dismissal of the school biology, former, defective indictment. Powell's October 21, 2001 letter to general paper essays the Commonwealth's Attorney in which he revealed that he had attempted to essay magic rape Stacey before he killed her is an level paper essays exceptional circumstance that merits a narrow application of the school, mandate rule.

We recognize that, generally, serial prosecutions are not permitted where the Commonwealth deliberately refrains from bringing criminal charges arising out level, of the same act or transaction while prosecuting others in biology, order to gain the advantage of having multiple trials. Paper. See, e.g., Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436, 444, 90 S.Ct. Phd Research. 1189, 25 L.Ed.2d 469 (1970). Such was not the case here, however, given the unexpected and possibly unique circumstance of evidence of an gce a level general essays uncharged offense that was not previously known or available coming to titanic movie light after the conclusion of the first trial in the form of the defendant's voluntary confession. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court correctly ruled that the opinion and mandate of this Court from Powell's prior appeal did not bar the Commonwealth from dismissing the indictment against him and bringing a new indictment charging him with capital murder premised upon a gradation offense not previously charged by the Commonwealth and based upon evidence that was not previously known or available to gce a level essays the Commonwealth at crisis essay, the time of his first trial. Acquittal under the “Law of the Case”

Powell contends that although he was not charged in a separate indictment with the attempted rape of Stacey in his first trial, the Commonwealth nonetheless presented evidence tending to level general essays show that he attempted to rape Stacey to bolster its claim that her murder was related to a sexual assault. To support this claim, Powell relies upon essay titanic statements made by gce a general essays, the Commonwealth's Attorney during his first trial that the evidence would show that Powell “wanted something more from [Stacey] and she wasn't going to give it to him and for that she lost her life.” Powell further notes that during his first trial the Commonwealth had argued against his motion to strike the evidence on capital murder by stating, in yeats magic, part, that “we have evidence . [that Powell] was having sex or attempting to have sex with [Stacey].” Powell contends that as neither the amended indictment for capital murder nor the gce a paper essays, instructions given to the jury specified the victim of the sexual assault gradation crimes, the Commonwealth intended for the jury in magic, his first trial to consider the possibility that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. Powell notes that because the jury in his first trial sent a question to the trial court “seeking clarification whether the gce a essays, rape of Kristie could satisfy the gradation crime requirement for the capital murder of Stacey,” Powell, 261 Va. at 526, 552 S.E.2d at 352, this indicated that the jury had considered and rejected the theory that he had attempted to rape Stacey. Relying on Green v. United States, 355 U.S. 184, 189-90, 78 S.Ct. School Biology. 221, 2 L.Ed.2d 199 (1957), Powell asserts that because the jury in his first trial rejected that theory of the crime, it impliedly acquitted him of the gradation offense and, thus, he contends that the general paper essays, law of the case prohibits the Commonwealth from retrying that issue under a new indictment.FN6 Powell further points to statements in the opinion from essay teacher of a citizen, his first appeal concerning the insufficiency of the essays, evidence to prove an attempted sexual assault of Stacey as confirming that he was charged with capital murder based on that gradation offense.

FN6. Titanic Movie. On brief, Powell also used the term “res judicata” in describing the effect of his alleged “acquittal” of the attempted rape of Stacey. During oral argument of this appeal, he conceded that he was relying only on the “law of the gce a level essays, case” doctrine in asserting the essay the maker better, preclusive effect of his prior trial and appeal. The Commonwealth contends that by identifying Kristie as the victim of the rape or attempted rape in gce a level general paper, responding to yeats magic Powell's motion for a bill of level general paper particulars, it had clearly indicated that Powell was not charged or on trial for the capital murder of the maker citizen Stacey in the commission of the level general paper essays, attempted rape of Stacey. Proposals. Therefore, the Commonwealth asserts that Powell was never placed in jeopardy for the commission of that crime and, thus, cannot have been “acquitted” of that crime or of its gradation offense.

Powell contends that “the bill of level paper particulars is irrelevant to the issue of movie whether the [Supreme] Court previously decided that Powell was charged with capital murder in the commission of the gce a paper essays, attempted rape of Stacey Reed in phd research proposals, his first trial.” Powell bases this contention on level general paper essays, the statements in the opinion reversing his first conviction for capital murder that “[t]he record as a whole is devoid of essay titanic movie any evidence that Powell attempted to rape . Stacey,” Powell, 261 Va. at 534, 552 S.E.2d at 357, and that “there is simply no evidence upon which the jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against gce a general essays, Stacey,” id. at 545, 552 S.E.2d at 363. Powell contends that by these statements we indicated that the proposals, question whether he had raped or attempted to rape Stacey had been at issue in his first trial. We disagree. The question, simply put, is whether the jury in Powell's first trial considered whether Powell attempted to rape Stacey Reed and concluded that he did not. Our guide in resolving that question is Ashe, supra, wherein the United States Supreme Court held that an gce a general essays issue will be precluded from being retried in a subsequent criminal prosecution by movie, the law of the case doctrine if, in light of the entire record, the previous jury necessarily decided that issue against the prosecution. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. But if “a rational jury could have grounded its verdict upon an issue other than that which the defendant seeks to foreclose from phd research proposals, consideration,” the prior judgment will not be taken as deciding that particular issue. Ashe, 397 U.S. at 444, 90 S.Ct. 1189. “The inquiry ‘must be set in gce a, a practical frame and strategies essay, viewed with an eye to all the circumstances of the gce a level paper, proceedings.’ ” Id. Movie. (quoting Sealfon v. United States, 332 U.S.

575, 579, 68 S.Ct. 237, 92 L.Ed. 180 (1948)). Powell's view of the record of his first trial, and of this Court's observation that the evidence therein was insufficient for gce a general essays, the jury to essay magic have found that he attempted to rape Stacey, as showing that the previous jury necessarily decided that issue against gce a level general paper, the prosecution fails to take into account the effect of the bill of particulars. Essay Titanic. “It is true the bill of particulars is not for the purpose of charging the offense. The indictment must do that.” Livingston v. Commonwealth, 184 Va. Paper. 830, 837, 36 S.E.2d 561, 565 (1946). “However, the bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together. The function of the bill of particulars is to supply additional information concerning an essay teacher of a better citizen accusation.” Id. A bill of particulars not only informs the accused of the charges against him with sufficient precision to enable him to prepare his defense and avoid surprise, it also enables him to plead his acquittal or conviction in bar of any further prosecution for level paper essays, the same offense. See Wade v. Commonwealth, 9 Va.App. 359, 363, 388 S.E.2d 277, 279 (1990); see also United States v. Davidoff, 845 F.2d 1151, 1154 (2d Cir.1988).

The bill of particulars in Powell's first trial clearly limited the prosecution of the capital murder of Stacey under Code § 18.2-31(5) to proof of the rape or attempted rape of Kristie. Nevertheless, Powell asserts that the crisis essay, various statements of the gce a general, Commonwealth during his first trial with respect to Powell's effort to initiate consensual intercourse with Stacey, and his frustration at being rebuffed by her, suggested a motive for his subsequent attack on her sister and attempted to influence the jury into believing that Stacey was also the victim of an attempted sexual assault. The fact remains that Powell was not charged with having attempted to rape Stacey, either as a separate offense or as the gradation offense of the capital murder charge. Thus, it is not possible to conclude that the jury necessarily decided that issue against the prosecution. Powell is also mistaken in his interpretation of our statements regarding his first trial that the record contained insufficient evidence for the jury to have found that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. The Maker Of A Better Citizen. A careful reading of our opinion shows that these statements were not intended to convey that this issue was before the gce a paper essays, jury.

To the contrary, these statements were observations made to phd research proposals clarify that the level essays, amended indictment must have been intended to charge Powell with the capital murder of Stacey premised upon the gradation offense of the rape of Kristie, but was insufficient to do so because of a drafting error. FN7. FN7. Essay Magic. We also held that the level general paper essays, amendment of the indictment, even if properly drafted, would not have been permitted because the grand jury “was never called upon to consider [the rape of Kristie] as the gradation crime for the capital murder of Stacey.” Powell, 261 Va. at 534, 552 S.E.2d at 357. Powell also contends that even if the jury had not impliedly acquitted him of the capital murder of Stacey premised on the gradation offense of her rape or attempted rape, the effect of strategies a definition essay this Court's decision in the appeal of his first conviction nonetheless was to general essays expressly acquit him of that crime because we found the evidence in high school biology, that trial insufficient to support a finding of rape or attempted rape of Stacey. Relying on paper essays, Burks v. United States, 437 U.S. 1, 5-6, 98 S.Ct. 2141, 57 L.Ed.2d 1 (1978), Powell asserts that, because we held that the evidence at his first trial at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder, the trial court was bound by that determination in phd research, any subsequent retrial. Powell contends that Burks stands for level essays, the proposition that the crisis essay, determination of an gce a general appellate court that the trial court erred in school, permitting the jury to general paper consider a charge not supported by the evidence acts as an acquittal on yeats, that charge and that a retrial for the same offense is barred by the prohibition against gce a general paper essays, double jeopardy.

Our conclusion that, lacking evidence of a sexual assault on Stacey or the yeats magic, attempt to gce a general essays commit one, Powell could be retried only for yeats essay magic, first degree murder was based upon “the circumstances of this case.” Powell, 261 Va. at 545-46, 552 S.E.2d at 363. Gce A Level General Essays. Nothing in that statement implies that Powell had been acquitted of capital murder premised on any possible gradation offense, nor, as we have already demonstrated, did it preclude the strategies for writing essay, Commonwealth from seeking to indict Powell for the capital murder of paper essays Stacey with the attempted rape of a definition essay Stacey as the gradation offense under the exceptional circumstances occasioned by Powell's voluntary confession. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in paper, denying Powell's motions to dismiss the indictment for capital murder on the ground that the essay the maker of a better citizen, Commonwealth was prohibited from proving Powell attempted to rape Stacey by the law of the case of gce a general his former trial and appeal. Double Jeopardy Powell also contends that the trial court should have dismissed the crisis essay, indictment against gce a level general paper, him because his prosecution under that indictment violated the guarantee of the essay teacher better citizen, Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States against being twice placed in jeopardy for the same offense. Specifically, he asserts that having been indicted once for level paper essays, a violation of Code § 18.2-31(5) for the murder of crisis essay Stacey Reed, his constitutional guarantee of protection against being placed in double jeopardy prohibited the Commonwealth from indicting him a second time for that murder under the same subsection of the capital murder statute. During oral argument of this appeal, Powell acknowledged that the Commonwealth may indict and level, convict an crisis essay accused for multiple counts of capital murder of a single victim under different subsections of Code § 18.2-31 without violating the constitutional protection against double jeopardy. Gce A Level General Essays. See Bailey v. Commonwealth, 259 Va. 723, 747, 529 S.E.2d 570, 584, cert. denied, 531 U.S. 995, 121 S.Ct. 488, 148 L.Ed.2d 460 (2000) (a single indictment may charge two counts of capital murder of the same victim under Code §§ 18.2-31(7) and 18.2-31(12)).

Moreover, we have held that where a particular subsection of crisis essay Code § 18.2-31 lists multiple gradation offenses, the Commonwealth may indict the accused for separate offenses of general paper essays capital murder of a single victim premised on each specific gradation offense. Payne v. Commonwealth, 257 Va. 216, 228, 509 S.E.2d 293, 301 (1999) (indictments properly charged separate violations of Code § 18.2-31(5) premised on rape and object sexual penetration of the same victim). In Payne, we said that “it is clear, as well as logical, that the General Assembly intended for proposals, each statutory offense [in Code § 18.2-31] to be punished separately ‘as a Class 1 felony.’ ” Id. By statutory definition, capital murder is limited to the “willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing of any person” under specific circumstances or in the commission or attempted commission of certain crimes enumerated in Code § 18.2-31. We have frequently referred to these crimes as gradation offenses because, when committed as part of the same transaction as a murder, they elevate what would otherwise constitute murder of the first degree pursuant to Code § 18.2-32 to capital murder. Pertinent to the present case, Code § 18.2-31(5) specifies gradation offenses of “rape or attempted rape, forcible sodomy or attempted forcible sodomy or object sexual penetration.” In Payne, we concluded that the rape and object sexual penetration of the same victim are separate and distinct gradation offenses and, therefore, support two capital murder convictions consistent with double jeopardy protections. Id.

While Payne is instructive insofar as it establishes that separate and distinct gradation offenses are enumerated in Code § 18.2-31(5), it does not resolve Powell's case. Powell's contention that he was charged with the same crime rather than with two separate crimes under the amended indictment and the 2001 indictment is principally premised upon the fact that the gce a paper essays, former failed to identify the victim of the rape or attempted rape. Because the amended indictment in his first trial, while identifying Stacey as the victim of the murder, did not specify a victim of the gradation offenses of rape or attempted rape, Powell contends that proof of the high school, identity of the victim was not an element of those offenses. Thus, he argues that he was placed in jeopardy regardless of whether Stacey or Kristie were proven to be the gce a general paper, victim of the proposals, gradation offenses of rape or attempted rape, and gce a level general essays, the subsequent indictment that expressly identified Stacey as the victim of essay teacher the maker of a better attempted rape violated his constitutional guarantee against double jeopardy. We agree with Powell that when an indictment does not specify the identity of the gce a essays, victim of a gradation offense to strategies for writing a definition the crime of capital murder, the essays, identity of the victim of the gradation offense is not an element of the essay movie, crime. Powell, however, has again overlooked the significance of the gce a general, bill of particulars provided by the Commonwealth in crisis essay, his first trial. As we have already explained, the Commonwealth expressly identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offenses for the capital murder of Stacey under Code § 18.2-31(5). The bill of particulars was filed well in advance of the trial and before jeopardy had attached. See Commonwealth v. Washington, 263 Va.

298, 307, 559 S.E.2d 636, 641 (2002) (“The right not to be subjected to double jeopardy attaches in a criminal case when the jury is impaneled and sworn”). During oral argument of this appeal, Powell contended that the bill of particulars only level general, limits the Commonwealth's ability to argue a specific theory of the crime, does not amend the indictment, and jeopardy attaches as to the indictment as worded regardless of whether a bill of particulars has been filed. We disagree. As noted above, while “[i]t is true the bill of particulars is not for the purpose of high lab reports charging the offense . the bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together.” Livingston, 184 Va. at 837, 36 S.E.2d at 565. Thus, we hold that where, prior to gce a level general essays the attachment of jeopardy, the crisis essay, Commonwealth limits the prosecution of level general paper essays a capital murder, undifferentiated in the indictment by the identity of the victim of the gradation offense, by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in a bill of crisis essay particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of particulars. For these reasons, we further hold that the gce a level paper essays, trial court did not err in refusing to dismiss the indictment for capital murder as violative of Powell's double jeopardy protection. B. Constitutionality of Virginia's Capital Murder Statutes.

In his third and eleventh assignments of error, Powell attacks the trial court's order overruling his motions to high school have the Virginia capital murder statutes declared unconstitutional. With respect to the motion filed April 25, 2002 and overruled by the trial court on May 6, 2002, Powell has restated, in gce a level paper, summary fashion, five of his arguments advanced in yeats magic, the trial court, without citation to authority.FN8 The failure to paper essays adequately brief an assignment of error constitutes a waiver of the for writing a definition essay, argument. See, e.g., Burns v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 307, 318, 541 S.E.2d 872, 880, cert. denied, 534 U.S. 1043, 122 S.Ct. 621, 151 L.Ed.2d 542 (2001) (assignments of error not briefed are waived even where trial record contains written argument addressing same issue). FN8. At trial, Powell further contended that the expedited review of death sentence cases required by Code § 17.1-313 violated a defendant's constitutional right to gce a general equal protection. Powell contended that by eliminating an intermediate review by the Court of Appeals, a defendant is denied the opportunity to perfect the issues and arguments he wishes to make on appeal. He further contended that expediting death sentence appeals on our docket “disadvantaged death-sentence defendants by providing them with substantially less time than other criminal defendants to protect their legal rights.” Powell does not reassert these issues on appeal. Moreover, the yeats magic, arguments raised by Powell have been previously considered and rejected by this Court.

The arguments raised by Powell and recent decisions rejecting those arguments are: That the statutes fail to provide meaningful guidance with respect to the vileness and future dangerousness aggravating factors and that the jury is not provided adequate guidance with respect to the application of aggravating and mitigating factors. Rejected in Morrisette v. General. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 386, 397, 569 S.E.2d 47, 55 (2002), cert. Essay Teacher Citizen. denied, 540 U.S. 1077, 124 S.Ct. 928, 157 L.Ed.2d 750 (2003). That permitting evidence of unadjudicated criminal conduct to be used to establish the defendant's future dangerousness fails to meet the “heightened reliability requirement” of the 8th and 14th Amendments. Rejected in Bell v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 172, 203, 563 S.E.2d 695, 716 (2002), cert. denied, 537 U.S.

1123, 123 S.Ct. 860, 154 L.Ed.2d 805 (2003). That the trial court is improperly vested with discretion whether to set aside the death sentence for good cause shown and is permitted to consider hearsay evidence in the pre-sentence report. Rejected in general paper, Lenz v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 451, 459, 544 S.E.2d 299, 303-04, cert. denied, 534 U.S. 1003, 122 S.Ct. 481, 151 L.Ed.2d 395 (2001). That the mandatory proportionality review procedures employed by this Court fail to meet constitutional standards. Rejected in Lovitt v. Movie. Commonwealth, 260 Va. 497, 509, 537 S.E.2d 866, 874 (2000), cert. denied, 534 U.S.

815, 122 S.Ct. 41, 151 L.Ed.2d 14 (2001); Bailey, 259 Va. at general paper, 740-42, 529 S.E.2d at 580-81, cert. Yeats. denied, 531 U.S. 995, 121 S.Ct. 488, 148 L.Ed.2d 460 (2000). With respect to level the December 11, 2002 motion, overruled by the trial court on December 23, 2002, Powell asserts, as he did in the trial court, that the essay magic, United States Supreme Court's decision in Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. Gce A Level General. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556 (2002), requires that “many of the procedural safeguards that heretofore have only been required during the guilt/innocence phase of trial must now be extended to the sentencing phase.” Powell reasons that because Ring held that it was impermissible in a jury trial to allow the trial judge to determine whether there were aggravating factors sufficient to warrant the imposition of the death penalty, id. at phd research proposals, 609, 122 S.Ct. 2428, the aggravating factors required to be found by level general paper, Code § 19.2-264.4(B) before a sentence of death may be imposed are “to be treated as elements of the offense of a death-eligible capital murder.” Powell contends that the standards of proof and rules of evidence applicable to the determination of guilt must also be applied to the determination of essay movie sentence, and that, contrary to decisions of this Court made prior to Ring, this precludes the Commonwealth from presenting under a “relaxed evidentiary standard” evidence of paper essays unadjudicated criminal conduct or hearsay evidence when the declarant is not available for cross-examination as required by the confrontation clause. The Commonwealth responds that Ring does not alter the analysis of the constitutionality of the procedures applied during the penalty determination phase of a capital murder trial in essay the maker of a better, Virginia. Rather, the Commonwealth contends that the procedures for the admission of relevant evidence during the penalty determination phase under Code § 19.2-264.4(B) continue to be fully in accord with the Sixth Amendment due process concerns underpinning the decision in Ring.

We agree with the Commonwealth. First, we note that Powell's expansive reading of Ring is unwarranted for level general essays, the obvious reason that the statutory scheme at issue in that case, which permitted the judge in a capital murder jury trial to assume the role of the jury in determining whether aggravating factors permitting the imposition of the death penalty were present, is movie, markedly different from that of Virginia's death penalty sentencing statute. See Ring, 536 U.S. at 588. Moreover, nothing in level general paper essays, the United States Supreme Court's opinion in Ring suggests that the Court intended to revisit broader issues of due process protections afforded in the penalty determination phase of all capital murder trials. We further reject Powell's contention that there is a “relaxed evidentiary standard” applicable to the penalty determination phase of a capital murder trial in of a better citizen, Virginia. To the contrary, Code § 19.2-264.4(B) expressly provides, and we have consistently held, that the Commonwealth must prove the existence of one or both aggravating factors beyond a reasonable doubt. See, e.g., Clark v. Commonwealth, 220 Va. 201, 212, 257 S.E.2d 784, 791 (1979), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 1049, 100 S.Ct. 741, 62 L.Ed.2d 736 (1980).

Powell's contention that the introduction of evidence of unadjudicated criminal acts is level paper essays, not admissible because Ring somehow refines the need for “heightened reliability” in capital sentencing is, as the Commonwealth notes, nothing more than a reassertion of the same argument raised in his prior motion and consistently rejected by this Court. Jackson v. Phd Research Proposals. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 178, 188, 590 S.E.2d 520, 526 (2004) (today decided). Level. Powell's assertion that Code § 19.2-264.4(B) permits the introduction of hearsay evidence not otherwise subject to an exception is simply wrong.FN9 See, e.g., Lovitt v. Warden, 266 Va. 216, 259, 585 S.E.2d 801, 826 (2003); Jackson, 267 Va. at 188, 590 S.E.2d at 526. For these reasons, we hold that the trial court did not err in titanic movie, overruling Powell's motion to gce a general paper essays have the Virginia capital murder statutes declared unconstitutional.

FN9. On brief, the Commonwealth suggests that Powell has confused the evidentiary standard applicable to the penalty determination phase with that applicable to the trial court's consideration of the presentence report. Powell did not respond to this assertion in yeats essay, his reply brief and does not otherwise assert that Ring has any implication to the post-verdict sentencing procedure. Accordingly, we express no opinion on gce a general, that issue. C. Failure to Disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney In his tenth assignment of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in failing to grant his motion to yeats essay disqualify the paper essays, Commonwealth's Attorney and his office from prosecuting Powell on the new indictment. Powell asserts the “grossly offensive personal attacks” on the Commonwealth's Attorney in Powell's October 21, 2001 letter, created a direct conflict of interest because the Commonwealth's Attorney “had a personal stake in the outcome of this case.” This is so, Powell contends, because the personal attacks in strategies for writing a definition, his letter “undoubtedly led [the Commonwealth's Attorney] to have feelings of animosity towards Powell.” The Commonwealth responds that the Commonwealth's Attorney represented to the trial court that he could impartially prosecute the case and that it was a matter within the trial court's discretion to general paper determine whether to yeats disqualify him. We agree with the gce a, Commonwealth. The due process rights of a criminal defendant under both the Virginia and United States Constitutions are violated when a Commonwealth's Attorney who has a conflict of interest relevant to the defendant's case prosecutes the defendant. See Cantrell v. Commonwealth, 229 Va. 387, 394, 329 S.E.2d 22, 26-27 (1985); Ganger v. Peyton, 379 F.2d 709, 714 (4th Cir.1967). However, the question whether there is a conflict of interest is strategies a definition essay, dependent upon general paper the circumstances of the phd research, individual case, and the burden is on the party seeking disqualification of the prosecutor to gce a general essays present evidence establishing the existence of disqualifying bias or prejudice.

The determination whether the biology lab reports, evidence supports a finding of gce a general paper essays a conflict of interest is a matter committed to the sound discretion of the trial court. See Lux v. Commonwealth, 24 Va.App. 561, 569, 484 S.E.2d 145, 149 (1997). The issue may arise where the prosecutor has had an titanic movie attorney-client relationship with the parties involved whereby he obtained privileged information that may be adverse to the defendant's interest in regard to the pending criminal charges. See, e.g., Commonwealth v. Kilgore, 15 Va.App. 684, 694, 426 S.E.2d 837, 842 (1993). A second situation is gce a paper essays, where the prosecutor has some direct personal interest arising from a financial interest, kinship, or close friendship such that his objectivity and titanic movie, impartiality are called into question.

See, e.g., Cantrell, 229 Va. at 391-94, 329 S.E.2d at 24-27. Neither of these circumstances applies to the present case. Beyond these categories of clear and paper essays, direct conflicts of crisis essay interest and ethical bars to a particular attorney prosecuting a particular defendant, there is the broader consideration of whether, on the facts of a particular case, the adversarial nature of the judicial process has resulted in such enmity toward the defendant on the part of the prosecutor that it will overbear his professional judgment in seeking fairly and impartially to see justice done. Essays. See Lux, 24 Va.App. at 569, 484 S.E.2d at 149. As the United States Supreme Court has observed in a related context, “ ‘[i]mpartiality is not gullibility.

Disinterestedness does not mean child-like innocence.’ ” Liteky v. United States, 510 U.S. 540, 551, 114 S.Ct. 1147, 127 L.Ed.2d 474 (1994) (quoting In re J.P. Linahan, Inc., 138 F.2d 650, 654 (2nd Cir.1943)). We are of opinion that the same can be said of the prosecutor's role. The adversarial nature of criminal prosecutions unsurprisingly tends to engender some level of friction between the prosecutor and the defendant in difficult cases, especially where, as here, the defendant seems intent on high school biology, showing his contempt and gce a level, disrespect for the prosecutor. However, merely demonstrating a history of one-sided acrimony between the defendant and the prosecutor is insufficient to establish a conflict of crisis essay interest or prosecutorial misconduct with respect to an otherwise proper prosecution. See, e.g., Phelps v. Hamilton, 59 F.3d 1058, 1067 (10th Cir.1995). If such were not the case, a defendant would have an incentive to paper deliberately incite such enmity.

The evidence must reflect that the school lab reports, prosecutor is acting not within the dictates of the law, but has strayed outside those parameters in furtherance of level general essays a personal animus against strategies, the defendant. Powell's October 21, 2001 letter undoubtedly was intended to insult, if not incense, the Commonwealth's Attorney. But, the trial court was within its discretion to level general essays accept the Commonwealth's Attorney's assurance that it had not had an effect on his professional judgment in yeats magic, seeking fairly and impartially to see justice done. Moreover, nothing in the Commonwealth's Attorney's conduct of the trial evinces any lack of such professional judgment on his part. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not abuse its discretion in overruling Powell's motion to level general paper disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney. D. Failure to Exclude Testimony of Kristie Reed. In his ninth assignment of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in high school biology lab reports, permitting the gce a general, Commonwealth to call Kristie as a witness and to give testimony concerning Powell's rape and attempted murder of her during the guilt determination phase of his trial.FN10 He asserts that evidence of the events following the murder of Stacey was not relevant to prove his culpability for that crime and that such evidence was, in any case, unduly prejudicial.FN11.

FN10. In his pre-trial motion, Powell sought to exclude all evidence of essay the maker better citizen his rape and attempted murder of Kristie. On appeal, he has limited his argument to the exclusion of gce a level general paper her testimony and the exhibits introduced in its course. FN11. Powell also asserts that Kristie's testimony was unnecessary because it was cumulative of other evidence and should more properly have been received as “victim impact testimony” during sentencing.

These arguments were not made at trial and, thus, are barred from consideration in phd research, this appeal. Rule 5:25. The Commonwealth responds that evidence of the rape and attempted murder of general paper Kristie, including her testimony and its supporting exhibits, was admissible because those acts were interrelated parts of a common criminal plan and, thus, were relevant to prove Powell's identity, motive, and intent as the perpetrator of all the magic, crimes committed in the course of carrying out that plan. In addition, the Commonwealth contends that evidence of the subsequent attack on Kristie was probative of Powell's state of mind during the entire criminal enterprise and, thus, admissible to paper show premeditation in the killing of Stacey to essay rebut Powell's claim that the killing was accidental. We agree with the Commonwealth. Generally, evidence of other offenses is inadmissible in gce a paper essays, a criminal prosecution, but it is essay, a well-established exception that such evidence is admissible to show a common criminal scheme when the various acts are naturally explained as the constituent parts of the defendant's general plan.

See Satcher v. Commonwealth, 244 Va. Paper Essays. 220, 230, 421 S.E.2d 821, 828 (1992), cert. denied, 507 U.S. 933, 113 S.Ct. 1319, 122 L.Ed.2d 705 (1993); Kirkpatrick v. Essay Titanic. Commonwealth, 211 Va. 269, 272, 176 S.E.2d 802, 805 (1970); McWhorter v. Commonwealth, 191 Va. 857, 870-71, 63 S.E.2d 20, 26 (1951). In Kirkpatrick we explained that: [e]vidence of other offenses is admitted if it shows the conduct and feeling of the accused toward his victim . or if it tends to prove any relevant element of the offense charged. General. Such evidence is permissible in cases where the motive, intent or knowledge of the accused is involved, or where the strategies for writing a definition, evidence is connected with . the offense for which the accused is on trial.

211 Va. at 272, 176 S.E.2d at 805; see also Satcher, 244 Va. at 230, 421 S.E.2d at 828. There can be no question that it was the general paper essays, Commonwealth's theory in this trial, and taking the evidence in the light favorable to the Commonwealth it is an unassailable fact, that Powell went to the Reed home with the intention of raping and killing both Stacey and Kristie. Crisis Essay. As such, the evidence of level paper Powell's rape and attempted murder of Kristie was directly probative of his motive and intent in the attempted rape and murder of crisis essay Stacey. Moreover, Kristie's eyewitness testimony placing Powell in the home when she arrived and gce a paper, identifying him as her assailant was critical to establishing Powell's identity as the crisis essay, perpetrator of the crimes that preceded the criminal acts committed against her. Powell's contention that the graphic and emotional testimony of the victim of a brutal rape and attempted murder should have been excluded because its probative value was outweighed by gce a level, the prejudice it would cause in the minds of the jury is equally without merit.

All evidence tending to prove guilt is prejudicial to an accused, but the mere fact that such evidence is strategies, powerful because it accurately depicts the gravity and atrociousness of the essays, crime or the crisis essay, callous nature of the defendant does not thereby render it inadmissible. Moreover, direct evidence, such as eyewitness testimony, is level general essays, rarely subject to exclusion on the ground that it would be unduly prejudicial. In any case, determination of the issue is high school biology lab reports, committed to level general paper the sound discretion of the trial court. Spencer v. Yeats Essay Magic. Commonwealth, 240 Va. 78, 90, 393 S.E.2d 609, 617, cert. denied, 498 U.S. 908, 111 S.Ct. 281, 112 L.Ed.2d 235, (1990). Paper Essays. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in failing to grant Powell's pre-trial motion to essay the maker of a better citizen exclude the testimony of Kristie Reed from the guilt determination phase of the gce a level general, trial.

E. Failure to Suppress Powell's Statements to Police. In his twelfth assignment of crisis essay error, Powell contends that “[t]he trial court erred in not suppressing Powell's statements to police.” Although he uses the level, plural term “statements” in titanic, the assignment of error and makes references to the ability of an accused to revoke a prior waiver of his right to remain silent, Powell does not expressly restate the contention made in the trial court that statements made during the initial investigation prior to his first trial should have been suppressed because at gce a level general, the conclusion of crisis essay his first interview he stated that he had nothing more to say. Because Powell has not expressly raised this issue on brief or during oral argument, it has been waived and level, we will not address it. Biology. Burns, 261 Va. at gce a level general paper, 318, 541 S.E.2d at for writing essay, 880. Powell does assert that the general essays, trial court erred in not suppressing the statement concerning Powell's October 21, 2001 letter that he made on November 2, 2001 while in prison to an investigator. Powell contends that because he was still represented by counsel from titanic movie, his first trial, the investigator should not have questioned him without his counsel being present. The Commonwealth responds that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel had not attached with respect to the crime for level general, which the investigator was gathering evidence and for which Powell would be indicted as a result of the evidence in his October 21, 2001 letter. Moreover, as Powell executed a waiver of his Fifth Amendment rights immediately prior to giving the phd research proposals, November 2, 2001 statement, the general paper essays, Commonwealth contends that the statement was properly admitted. We agree with the Commonwealth. The Sixth Amendment right to counsel “arises from the fact that the suspect has been formally charged with a particular crime and thus is phd research, facing a state apparatus that has been geared up to prosecute him.” Arizona v. Roberson, 486 U.S. 675, 685, 108 S.Ct.

2093, 100 L.Ed.2d 704 (1988); see also Alston v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 433, 437, 570 S.E.2d 801, 803 (2002). Paper. We have already determined that the crime for which Powell was tried and convicted in the present case was a separate offense from those for which he had been previously convicted. Strategies For Writing. Powell had not been formally charged with that offense when he was interviewed on November 2, 2001 and, thus, he was not entitled to have his counsel from his prior trial present during that interview. Eaton v. Commonwealth, 240 Va.

236, 252, 397 S.E.2d 385, 394 (1990), cert. Gce A General Essays. denied, 502 U.S. 824, 112 S.Ct. 88, 116 L.Ed.2d 60 (1991). As Powell does not dispute that he freely and knowingly waived his Fifth Amendment right to counsel at the time of the interview, we hold that the essay the maker of a, trial court did not err in failing to suppress Powell's statement. F. Limiting Voir Dire and Failure to Strike Jury Panel.

In his fourth assignment of paper essays error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in essay magic, not permitting him to question prospective jurors about whether knowledge of Powell's prior conviction for gce a general paper essays, capital murder and yeats essay magic, its subsequent reversal on appeal would influence their opinion as to his guilt. Powell concedes that a prospective juror with knowledge of a defendant's prior conviction is subject to disqualification on that ground. Level General Essays. Barker, 230 Va. at 375, 337 S.E.2d at crisis essay, 733. But see Patton v. Yount, 467 U.S. 1025, 1035, 104 S.Ct. Gce A Level General Essays. 2885, 81 L.Ed.2d 847 (1984) (refusing to grant a new trial where several jurors had pretrial knowledge of the defendant's prior conviction for the same crime). Powell contends, however, that in strategies, his case the jury would ultimately learn of his prior conviction during the trial and, thus, asserts that he should have been able to question jurors on the effect this evidence would have on them. The purpose of voir dire is “to ascertain whether [a prospective juror] is related to gce a level paper essays either party, or has any interest in the cause, or has expressed or formed any opinion, or is sensible of any bias or prejudice therein.” Code § 8.01-358. To that end, prospective jurors may be asked any question relevant to determine whether they may be subject to being removed from the venire for cause.

The test of relevancy is whether the questions relate to any of the four criteria set forth in the statute. If an answer to the question would necessarily disclose, or clearly lead to the disclosure of the statutory factors of relationship, interest, opinion, or prejudice, it must be permitted. LeVasseur v. Commonwealth, 225 Va. 564, 581, 304 S.E.2d 644, 653 (1983), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 1063, 104 S.Ct.

744, 79 L.Ed.2d 202 (1984) The question that Powell attempted to essay titanic movie ask the first panel of the venire was not one that “would necessarily disclose, or clearly lead to the disclosure of the statutory factors of relationship, interest, opinion, or prejudice” of the prospective jurors. Level General Paper. The panel had already indicted that they had no prior knowledge of the case and magic, had not formed an opinion as to Powell's guilt or innocence. Powell's question would not have revealed any preexisting opinion or bias with respect to gce a level general essays his case, but would instead have served to test the jurors' potential response to proposals the evidence that he expected the general essays, Commonwealth to present. Whether to permit a party to ask a question that goes beyond what is permissible under Code § 8.01-358 is a matter entirely within the trial court's discretion. Id. We hold that the trial court did not err in refusing to permit Powell to test the potential response of the jurors to the evidence that would be adduced at trial concerning his prior conviction. In his eighth assignment of error, Powell contends that, having denied him the opportunity to question the potential jurors on this point, the trial court should have disqualified for cause the five members of the first panel because his attempt to question them provided them with knowledge that he had been previously convicted for the capital murder of Stacey Reed.

Thus, he contends that these jurors were subject to automatic exclusion under Barker. Even if we were to agree that Powell's curtailed question provided the five prospective jurors with sufficient information to raise the teacher citizen, concern for potential prejudice that the jurors' full knowledge of the defendant's prior conviction raised in Barker, that circumstance arose here through Powell's own conduct during the voir dire. The record demonstrates that Powell's counsel was fully aware that advising the prospective jurors that Powell had been previously convicted of capital murder carried with it the potential for creating bias against his client, but apparently deemed this risk acceptable in order to general paper seek the strategic advantage of being able to test the essay teacher of a citizen, jurors' potential response to the evidence concerning that conviction during the trial. Counsel further recognized the risk that the trial court would not permit him to pursue that line of questioning, and, as we have just determined, was within its discretion to gce a level do so. Under the “invited error” doctrine Powell may not benefit from his counsel's voluntary, strategic choice to place Powell at a potential disadvantage in the hope, unproductive though it was, of gaining some advantage.

See, e.g., Moore v. Yeats Essay. Hinkle, 259 Va. 479, 491, 527 S.E.2d 419, 426 (2000); Saunders v. Level General Paper. Commonwealth, 211 Va. 399, 400, 177 S.E.2d 637, 638 (1970); Clark v. Commonwealth, 202 Va. 787, 791, 120 S.E.2d 270, 273 (1961). “No litigant, even a defendant in a criminal case, will be permitted to approbate and reprobate-to invite error . and then to take advantage of the high school, situation created by his own wrong.” Fisher v. Commonwealth, 236 Va. 403, 417, 374 S.E.2d 46, 54 (1988), cert. denied, 490 U.S. 1028, 109 S.Ct. 1766, 104 L.Ed.2d 201 (1989). Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in refusing to strike the members of the first voir dire panel for cause under the particular circumstances created by Powell in this case.

G. Failure to Strike the Evidence. In his fifth assignment of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in failing to strike the evidence as to capital murder on the ground that the Commonwealth had not adequately corroborated his confession in gce a level general paper, the October 21, 2001 letter of having attempted to crisis essay rape Stacey. Thus, Powell contends that the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder. We disagree. Although the Commonwealth may not establish an essential element of a crime by gce a general paper essays, the uncorroborated confession of the accused alone, “ ‘only slight corroborative evidence’ ” is necessary to show the veracity of the confession. Williams v. Commonwealth, 234 Va. 168, 175, 360 S.E.2d 361, 366 (1987) (quoting Clozza v. Commonwealth, 228 Va. 124, 133, 321 S.E.2d 273, 279 (1984), cert. denied, 469 U.S.

1230, 105 S.Ct. Phd Research Proposals. 1233, 84 L.Ed.2d 370 (1985)), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 1020, 108 S.Ct. 733, 98 L.Ed.2d 681 (1988). What is more, if “[t]his corroborating evidence is consistent with a reasonable inference” that the accused committed the crime to which he has confessed, the Commonwealth need not establish through direct evidence those elements of the crime that are proven by the confession. See Jackson v. Commonwealth, 255 Va. 625, 646, 499 S.E.2d 538, 551 (1998), cert. denied, 525 U.S. 1067, 119 S.Ct.

796, 142 L.Ed.2d 658 (1999). Contrary to gce a essays Powell's contention that there is not even “slight” corroborative evidence to support the reliability of his confession, the forensic evidence and direct testimony are consistent with and substantiate Powell's version of “the rest of crisis essay what happened” in every relevant respect. Powell's going to the home armed when he knew Stacey would be there alone, Stacey's defensive wounds, the evidence that her pants' zipper was slightly undone, the subsequent rape of Kristie, and Powell's later concession that he raped Kristie because he “didn't get any with Stacey” all corroborate his confession to gce a general essays the attempted rape of Stacey in the October 21, 2001 letter. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in overruling Powell's motion to school biology lab reports strike the evidence as to level general essays capital murder premised on the attempted rape of Stacey. H. Mandatory Sentence Review In his first and second assignments of error, Powell contends that the jury imposed the sentence of death under the essay movie, influence of passion, prejudice, or some other arbitrary factor and that the general paper essays, sentence of high school lab reports death is gce a general paper essays, disproportionate to proposals the penalty imposed in other cases considering both the crime and the defendant. Level General. As noted above, these two assignments of error parallel the mandatory review of every death sentence this Court conducts pursuant to Code § 17.1-313(C).

Accordingly, we will combine the mandatory review of Powell's death sentence with our discussion of the issues raised by Powell in his assignments of error. Powell contends that “[t]he sensational nature of [Kristie Reed's] testimony virtually assured [Powell] would receive a sentence of death.” This is so, he asserts, because “the graphic and irrelevant evidence about the attack on Kristie” would have enraged the jury and rendered it unable to reach an impartial verdict. We have already determined that evidence of the rape and attempted murder of Kristie was relevant and admissible during the guilt determination phase of the trial. Similarly, Powell's rape and attempted murder of Kristie was relevant for the jury's consideration of his future dangerousness during the penalty determination phase of the lab reports, trial. Accordingly, Powell's assertion that the essays, jury was influenced by “irrelevant” evidence is without merit. However, while graphic evidence of school biology lab reports a violent crime is admissible in the guilt determination phase of a capital murder trial, we will also consider the potential impact such evidence may have had on the jury's decision to impose the death sentence during the penalty determination phase. The brutal rape and attempted murder of a thirteen-year-old child are undoubtedly among the most abhorrent crimes that can be placed in evidence before a jury contemplating whether to impose a sentence of death upon a defendant.

Nonetheless, the mere fact that the level paper essays, jury is presented with such evidence does not raise a presumption that the jury will be unable to set aside its natural emotions and fairly consider all the magic, evidence. See Bailey, 259 Va. at 751, 529 S.E.2d at 586 (evidence of infanticide and level paper, uxoricide, though abhorrent crimes, did not preclude jury from making a rational sentencing determination in a capital murder trial). Powell further contends that the trial court erred in submitting to the jury a verdict form that permitted it to magic impose a sentence of level general essays life imprisonment and phd research, a fine but which did not expressly parallel the trial court's sentencing instructions by stating that this form was to be used if the jury found that neither aggravating factor had been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. Gce A Level. He asserts that this alleged error requires that this Court set aside the death sentence. Powell concedes that he did not raise this issue at for writing a definition essay, trial, but nonetheless contends that it is proper for level, this Court to consider his argument as part of the mandatory review of his sentence, apparently contending that an erroneous verdict form would constitute an “arbitrary factor” that would influence the jury's sentencing decision. Our review of the record in this case does not disclose that the jury failed to give fair consideration to all the evidence both in magic, favor and in mitigation of the death sentence. Moreover, the jury was properly instructed upon the sentences available and the basis for imposing them and gce a level general paper, the record supports the jury's determination to essay titanic movie impose a sentence of death upon a finding that both aggravating factors were proven beyond a reasonable doubt. We find nothing to suggest that the level general, jury, or the trial court in reviewing the verdict, imposed the death sentence under the influence of passion, prejudice, or other arbitrary factors.

Accordingly, we hold that the sentence of death was not imposed under passion, prejudice, or any arbitrary factor. In a separate section of high lab reports his brief, ostensibly related to the assignment of paper error paralleling the passion, prejudice and arbitrary factor aspect of our mandatory review, Powell asserts that the alleged error in the wording of the life sentence verdict form should result in the reversal of his death sentence and a remand for a new sentencing proceeding. Strategies A Definition. While we consider the entire record of a capital murder trial to determine whether the sentence of death should be set aside because of gce a level general paper essays improper influence on the jury, we have previously rejected the contention that the “arbitrary factor” language of Code § 17.1-313(C)(1) permits a defendant to raise as a separate issue on appeal an issue barred by essay, the failure to level general paper essays make a proper objection in essay titanic movie, the trial court by contending that the error influenced the jury's sentencing decision. Gce A General Paper. See Quintana v. Essay Titanic. Commonwealth, 224 Va. 127, 148 n. 6, 152 n. 7, 295 S.E.2d 643, 653 n. 6, 656 n. 7 (1982) (rejecting assertion in dissenting opinion that mandatory review permitted challenge to form of jury verdict to be raised for the first time on appeal). Accordingly, while Powell is not precluded from arguing that the level general, alleged error in the life sentence verdict form improperly influenced the jury's sentencing decision as a basis for phd research, commuting the death sentence, we will not consider his separate argument under the same assignment of error as a basis for reversing that sentence and ordering a new sentencing proceeding.FN12. FN12. Powell also contends that the gce a level paper essays, “ends of justice” exception of Rule 5:25 would permit us to consider the alleged error in essay teacher of a, the life sentence verdict form as a basis for reversing his death sentence and gce a level general essays, ordering a new sentencing proceeding. However, as Powell cannot argue for reversal of his death sentence under the assignment of error paralleling the mandatory review of that sentence and failed to make this issue the subject of a separate assignment of error, the essay magic, issue is not properly before us.

Rule 5:17. Accordingly, we will not address this issue as a basis for gce a level general paper, reversing the sentence of death and remanding for a new sentencing proceeding. Powell contends that the death sentenced imposed upon him is excessive or disproportionate when compared to similar cases considering both the crime and the defendant. Powell's sole contention is that his history of mental health problems and his failure to teacher receive adequate treatment when in level general paper essays, state custody as a juvenile militates against the appropriateness of the death penalty in his case. Proposals. We disagree. Code § 19.2-264.4(B) lists as a mitigating factor the general essays, fact that “the capacity of the crisis essay, defendant to appreciate the criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law was significantly impaired.” The psychologist called by Powell did not offer a specific diagnosis of gce a level essays Powell's mental health problems, merely classifying them generally as suggesting an anti-social personality disorder and “a mood disorder, primarily depressive in nature . characterized by strategies, irritability, short temper and so forth.” The psychologist did not testify that Powell lacked the gce a general paper, ability to appreciate the criminality of his conduct or that his condition significantly impaired his ability to essay titanic movie conform his conduct to the requirements of the law. The jury heard this testimony concerning Powell's mental health problems, and we must assume that the jury followed the trial court's instruction to consider evidence presented in mitigation. Level General Paper. The jury clearly concluded that Powell's history of high biology lab reports mental health problems did not mitigate his offense. Level Paper Essays. See Swann v. Commonwealth, 247 Va. 222, 238-39, 441 S.E.2d 195, 206-07, cert. denied, 513 U.S. Essay. 889, 115 S.Ct.

234, 130 L.Ed.2d 158 (1994) (death sentence imposed despite “history of mental health hospitalization and treatment”); Hoke v. Commonwealth, 237 Va. General Essays. 303, 313, 377 S.E.2d 595, 601, cert. denied, 491 U.S. 910, 109 S.Ct. 3201, 105 L.Ed.2d 709 (1989) (death sentence imposed despite evidence of defendant's prior confinement in nine or ten mental hospitals); Giarratano v. Commonwealth, 220 Va. 1064, 1076-79, 266 S.E.2d 94, 101-103 (1980) (death sentence imposed despite mitigating evidence of defendant's “schizoid personality disturbance” and “extreme mental and emotional disturbance”). Apart from Powell's contention that his history of mental health problems should preclude the imposition of a death sentence in his case, we are required by Code § 17.1-313(C)(2) to conduct a comparative review of the death sentence imposed in yeats essay, this case with other capital murder cases, including those where a life sentence was imposed. “The purpose of our comparative review is to reach a reasoned judgment regarding what cases justify the imposition of the general paper, death penalty.” Orbe v. Essay The Maker Of A. Commonwealth, 258 Va. 390, 405, 519 S.E.2d 808, 817 (1999), cert. denied, 529 U.S. 1113, 120 S.Ct.

1970, 146 L.Ed.2d 800 (2000). In conducting this statutorily mandated review in this case, we have focused on cases in which the victim was murdered during the commission of rape or attempted rape, and in level general, which the sentence of death was imposed based on findings of the maker both future dangerousness and vileness. See, e.g., Patterson v. Commonwealth, 262 Va. 301, 551 S.E.2d 332 (2001); Swisher v. Commonwealth, 256 Va. 471, 506 S.E.2d 763 (1998), cert. denied, 528 U.S. 812, 120 S.Ct. 46, 145 L.Ed.2d 41 (1999); Pruett v. Commonwealth, 232 Va. Gce A Level Paper. 266, 351 S.E.2d 1 (1986), cert. denied, 482 U.S.

931, 107 S.Ct. Strategies For Writing Essay. 3220, 96 L.Ed.2d 706 (1987); Coleman v. Level General. Commonwealth, 226 Va. 31, 307 S.E.2d 864 (1983), cert. denied, 465 U.S. 1109, 104 S.Ct. 1617, 80 L.Ed.2d 145 (1984); Mason v. Titanic Movie. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 1091, 254 S.E.2d 116, cert. denied, 444 U.S.

919, 100 S.Ct. Gce A Level. 239, 62 L.Ed.2d 176 (1979); Smith v. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 455, 248 S.E.2d 135 (1978), cert. Teacher Of A. denied, 441 U.S. 967, 99 S.Ct. 2419, 60 L.Ed.2d 1074 (1979).

We have also considered cases in which defendants received life sentences, rather than the death penalty, for gce a general essays, capital murder during the commission of rape or attempted rape. See, e.g., Horne v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 512, 339 S.E.2d 186 (1986); Keil v. Commonwealth, 222 Va. 99, 278 S.E.2d 826 (1981). Considering all the factors revealed by the record, both those favoring imposition of the death sentence and those in mitigation against it, we hold that the sentence is neither excessive nor disproportionate to the penalties imposed by other sentencing bodies in the Commonwealth for comparable crimes. Having found no error below and perceiving no other reason to commute or set aside the sentence of lab reports death, we will affirm the level essays, judgment of the trial court. Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison , 634 S.E.2d 289 (Va. 2006) (State Habeas). Background: Following affirmance of magic his conviction of capital murder and sentence of death, 267 Va.

107, 590 S.E.2d 537, defendant filed petition for writ of habeas corpus. The Supreme Court entered order rejecting all of defendant's habeas corpus claims. Gce A Level Essays. Defendant filed a petition for rehearing. Holding: On grant of petition for rehearing, the Supreme Court, Leroy R. Hassell, Sr., J., held that trial counsel's failure to high school biology object during penalty phase to admission of general paper essays a form that contained an incorrect entry that defendant had a prior conviction for capital murder did not prejudice defendant, and thus did not constitute ineffective assistance. Petition dismissed. OPINION BY Chief Justice LEROY R. HASSELL, SR. In this habeas corpus proceeding, we consider whether petitioner, who was convicted of capital murder for the killing of essay Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to an attempted rape in violation of Code § 18.2-31(5), suffered prejudice within the essays, meaning of essay of a better citizen Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984) because his trial counsel failed to object to the admission in evidence of a form that contained an inaccuracy regarding petitioner's criminal history. In September 2000, Paul Warner Powell was sentenced to death for gce a general paper essays, the capital murder of Stacey Lynn Reed.

On direct appeal, this Court reversed the phd research, conviction and remanded the case to the circuit court for a new trial on a charge no greater than first-degree murder for essays, the killing of Stacey Reed, if the crisis essay, Commonwealth be so advised. Powell v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 512, 552 S.E.2d 344 (2001). After the proceeding was remanded, Powell wrote a letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell during the gce a, first trial. Powell described, in detail, the murder and attempted rape of Stacey Reed, and he provided facts that were previously unknown to the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth then nolle prossed the indictment in the remanded case. A grand jury for Prince William County subsequently indicted Powell for the capital murder of Stacey Reed during the commission of or subsequent to an attempted rape. Powell was tried by a jury that convicted him of capital murder and crisis essay, fixed his punishment at death. General. The circuit court entered a judgment confirming the phd research, jury's verdict and we affirmed that judgment. Powell v. Level. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537 (2004).

Subsequently, Powell filed a petition for habeas corpus in this Court alleging numerous claims, including ineffective assistance of counsel. During the sentencing hearing, the yeats essay, Commonwealth introduced in evidence, without objection, Exhibit 51 that is attached to this opinion. Exhibit 51, captioned Powell's “Virginia Criminal Record,” consists of general paper essays five pages and was generated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Crime Information Center. Powell asserts, among other things, that trial counsel were ineffective, and he was prejudiced by their failure to object to yeats magic this document and the inaccuracy contained therein. We entered an order rejecting all Powell's habeas corpus claims. Gce A General Paper Essays. Powell v. Warden of the Sussex I State Prison, Record No. Phd Research Proposals. 042716, 2005 WL 2980756 (Nov. Level General Paper. 8, 2005). Powell filed a petition for teacher the maker of a better, rehearing and requested that this Court reconsider its order dismissing his habeas claims, including his claim that he was denied effective assistance of counsel because of counsel's failure to object to an erroneous entry on page three of Exhibit 51. This Court granted Powell a rehearing limited to gce a level essays that one claim, and we placed this matter on essay magic, our argument docket.

III. The following facts were presented to the jury that found Powell guilty of capital murder and gce a general paper essays, fixed his punishment at death. School Biology Lab Reports. In January 1999, Robert Culver and his fiance, Lorraine Reed, lived together in Manassas, Virginia, with Reed's two daughters, Stacey Lynn Reed and level paper, Kristie Erin Reed. On January 28, 1999, Powell went to the Reeds' home. Stacey, then 16 years old, left home to go to work, and Powell remained there alone with Kristie, who was 14. That afternoon, Kristie called her mother by telephone and informed her that Powell refused to leave the home. Kristie's mother told Kristie to order Powell to leave.

Kristie was concerned because Powell “kept walking back and forth down the hallway looking in the rooms.” On the yeats essay, afternoon of January 29, 1999, Kristie arrived home from school and was startled to find Powell in her house. She asked Powell “where Stacey was.” He replied, “she was in her room.” Kristie walked to Stacey's room, but Stacey was not there. Then, Kristie turned to enter her own room and saw Stacey's body lying on the floor. Powell, who had followed Kristie to the bedroom, ordered Kristie to go downstairs to the basement.

Kristie knew that Powell customarily armed himself with a knife. She had previously observed Powell with a butterfly knife and “another long knife that was in a brown pouch type thing.” Powell forced Kristie to accompany him to the basement, where he ordered her to remove her clothes. She took her clothes off because she “didn't want to die.” Powell told Kristie to lay on the floor, and then he raped her. After Powell raped Kristie, he dressed himself, and he used shoelaces taken from general, Kristie's shoes to tie her feet together. He also used shoelaces to tie her arms behind her back. Someone knocked on crisis essay, the door to the house, and Powell went upstairs, leaving Kristie naked and bound on the basement floor. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie was able to free her hands, and she tried to “scoot” across the floor and hide beneath the basement steps.

Powell returned to the basement, removed Kristie's eyeglasses, and strangled her until she was unconscious. Gce A Paper Essays. Powell stabbed Kristie in essay titanic movie, the stomach, and the knife stopped within a centimeter of her aorta. He slashed her in her neck numerous times, and general, the repair of the knife wounds required 61 sutures. Crisis Essay. She had multiple stab wounds to her neck and abdomen. She also had wounds on her wrists. Robert Culver arrived at the home at paper, 4:15 p.m. on essay titanic, January 29, 1999. He could not locate Kristie or Stacey. He went to the girls' bedrooms and saw that Stacey's room was in disarray. He entered Kristie's room, turned on the lights, and found Stacey's body on the floor.

He observed blood on her body and saw that she was not breathing. When Culver went to the basement in search of gce a essays a telephone, he discovered Kristie lying naked and bound on the floor, bleeding from high school biology lab reports, her neck and stomach. He saw that she had been stabbed in the stomach and her “throat was slit pretty severely, many times.” Culver found a telephone, dialed 911, and spoke to emergency response personnel. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. Although Kristie was experiencing life-threatening injuries, she was able to tell police officers and paramedics that Paul Powell was her assailant. Stacey's death was caused by high school biology lab reports, a stab wound to her chest. The wound pattern indicated that the blade of the knife pierced her heart and gce a level general paper essays, was twisted upon withdrawal. Crisis Essay. The blade of gce a general paper essays Powell's knife was consistent with the stab wounds. There were numerous bruises on Stacey's head, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. School Biology. She suffered stab wounds in her back and arm.

She also had abrasions on her left hand and wrist that were characterized as defensive wounds. Stacey's body contained bruises on her lower neck that were consistent with someone stepping or stomping on her face and neck. Police officers arrested Powell on January 30, 1999 at the home of a friend. Gce A Level General Essays. The police officers also located a blue sports bag that belonged to Powell. A nine-millimeter semiautomatic pistol with a full magazine containing 10 Winchester nine-millimeter cartridges was in the bag. The bag also contained a survival knife with a five and school, one-half inch blade inside a black sheath and paper essays, a butterfly knife with a five-inch blade. The survival knife sheath contained a dark reddish-brown stain. The DNA profile obtained from the stain on the sheath was consistent with the DNA profile of Stacey Reed and phd research, different from the DNA profile of gce a level general paper Kristie Reed and crisis essay, Paul Powell. Level General. The probability of yeats essay selecting an unrelated individual with a matching DNA profile at the Powerplex loci as contained on general paper, the sheath is approximately one in 1.1 billion in the Caucasian population.

After his arrest, Powell consented to crisis essay several interviews with police officers. During one interview, he stated that he had been at the Reeds' home on January 29, 1999 and that Stacey was dead because “she was stupid.” Powell told the police officers that he and Stacey had an argument because she had a black boyfriend, and Powell “didn't agree with interracial dating.” Powell claimed that during the argument, Stacey attacked him and scratched his face, and then he pushed her to the floor. He claimed that Stacey attacked him again, and that she “got stuck” on his knife. Paper. Powell also initially denied raping Kristie. In a second statement to police officers, Powell admitted that he raped Kristie. The detective who interviewed Powell testified that Powell stated that he had to kill Kristie because “she was the only witness and he would have to go to jail.” The jury was also informed that after this Court's decision in Powell's first appeal, Powell wrote two letters to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County, Paul Ebert.

Below is the content of a letter that Powell wrote, dated October 21, 2001. “Since I have already been indicted on first degree murder and the Va. Supreme Court said that I can't be charged with capital murder again, I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all of lab reports y'all mother fuckers are. “Y'all should have known that there is gce a level paper, more to the story than what I told by what I said. You had it in writing that I planned to kill the whole family.

Since I planned to kill the whole family, why would I have fought with Stacie before killing her? She had no idea I was planning to school biology kill everybody and talked and carried on like usual, so I could've stabbed her up at any time because she was unsuspecting. “I had other plans for her before she died. You know I came back to the house after Bobby's lunch break was over and he had went back to work. When I got back, she was on the phone so I went inside and I laid down on the couch. When the cab came to bring me my pager, I ran out of the house and she jumped and got off the gce a level essays, phone and came off the porch to see why I ran out of the house like I did. “When the cab left we went in crisis essay, the house. I laid on the couch again and she went to general paper her room and got her clothes and went downstairs to do her laundry. When she went downstairs, I got up and shut and locked the back door and went downstairs. High School Biology. We talked while she put her clothes in the wash.

We continued talking when she had everything in the wash and general paper essays, I reached over and touched her tit and asked if she wanted to crisis essay fuck. She said no, because she had a boyfriend. “I started arguing with her because she had never turned anybody down because of having a boyfriend. “We started walking upstairs, arguing the whole time. Gce A Level General Paper. When we got upstairs we went to her room and she turned the radio off. After she turned the radio off I pushed her onto her bed and grabbed her wrists and pinned her hands down by her head and sat on top of her. I told her that all I wanted to essay teacher the maker of a citizen do was fuck her and then I would leave and that we could do it the easy way or the hard way.

“She said she would fuck me so I got up. After I got up, she got up and started fighting with me and clawed me face. We wrestled around a little and general paper essays, then I slammed her to the floor. When she hit the floor I sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again. She said she would fuck me and I told her that if she tried fighting with me again, I would kill her. “When I got up she stood up and kept asking me why I was doing this and all I kept saying is take your clothes off. Finally she undid her pants and pulled them down to her ankles. Essay Teacher Citizen. She was getting ready to take them the rest of the level general paper essays, way off and the phone rang. When she heard the phone she pulled her pants back up and said she had to answer the phone. I pushed her back and said no.

She said that she wouldn't say anything about me being there and I told her no and to take her clothes off. “She tried to get out of the room again and yeats essay magic, I pushed her back and pulled out my knife. I guess she thought I was just trying to scare her and that I wouldn't really stab her because she tried to leave again. “When she got to me and tried to squeeze between me and the door jam I stabbed her. When I stabbed her, she fell back against the door jam and gce a level general essays, just looked at me with a shocked look on her face. “When I pulled the knife out she stumbled a couple steps and fell in high school lab reports, her sister's room. I walked over and looked at her. I saw that she was still breathing so I stepped over her body and into the bedroom. Then I put my foot on her throat and stepped up so she couldn't breath. Then I stepped down and gce a paper, started stomping on her throat. Then I stepped back onto her throat and moved up and down putting more pressure to make it harder to breathe.

“When I didn't see her breathing anymore, I left the room and got some iced tea and sat on the couch and proposals, smoked a cigarette. Level General Paper Essays. You know the strategies for writing essay, rest of what happened after that point. “I would like to general essays thank you for saving my life. I know you're probably wondering how you saved my life, so I'll tell you. “You saved my life by fucking up. There were 2 main fuck-ups you made that saved me. The first was the way you worded my capital murder indictment. The second was the comment you made in your closing argument when you said we won't know because he won't tell us.

“One more time, thank you! Now y'all know everything that happened in that house at 8023 McLean St. on Jan. Titanic. 29, 1999. “I guess I forgot to mention these events when I was being questioned. Ha Ha!

Sike! “I knew what y'all would be able to prove in court, so I told you what you already knew. Stacey was dead and gce a paper, no one else was in the house so I knew ya'll would never know everything she went through unless she came back to life. “Since the Supreme Court said I can't be charged with capital murder again, I can tell you what I just told you because I no longer have to worry about the death penalty. And y'all are supposed to be so goddamn smart. I can't believe that y'all thought I told you everything. “Well, it's too late now. Nothing you can do about it now so fuck you you fat, cocksucking, cum guzzling, gutter slut.

I guess I'll see your bitch ass on Dec. 18 at trial because I'm not pleading to shit. Tell the family to be ready to yeats magic testify and relive it all again because if I have to suffer for paper, the next 50 or 60 years or however long then they can suffer the torment of reliving what happened for a couple of days. “I'm gone. Fuck you and essay, anyone like you or that associates with people like you. I almost forgot, fuck your god, too. Jesus knows how to suck a dick real good. Did you teach him? “Well, die a slow, painful, miserable death. See ya punk. “Do you just hate yourself for being so stupid and for gce a general paper, fuckin' up and saving me?

In a statement to a police officer on November 2, 2001, Powell gave the following description of Stacey's murder: “She walked over to citizen and uh I pushed her back. And then she walked over to me again I think and then I pulled my knife out and you know, and she looked at gce a general paper essays, me you know. I guess she thought I wouldn't stab her or whatever. So she tried to leave and go to answer the phone. That's that. . “[After she got stabbed,] [s] he just looked at me for a minute you know and then you know, she . she was surprised and them um, I pulled the knife out, you know she stumbled a few steps, fell down in Christy's doorway. I just walked over and looked at for writing a definition essay, her. And I stepped over top of her and stepped on general essays, her throat and then stood on her throat and then stomped on her throat . then I stood on her throat until I didn't see her breathing no more. A Definition Essay. “What I'm saying I was stepping on her. I'm saying I put all my weight on her.

I'm saying that I put my foot there you know and then I lifted myself up to where I was standing on top of gce a level general essays her. Started stomping on her throat. And then man, I just stood on her throat again until I didn't see her breathe no more.”Before he raped Kristie, Powell knew that he intended to kill her. The Maker Citizen. In response to a police officer's question: “Before you raped [Kristie], you knew you were going to kill her; didn't you?”, Powell responded: “I really didn't have a choice; did I?” While incarcerated in jail awaiting his capital murder trial, Powell sent a letter to Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie. Powell enclosed a photograph of gce a general paper essays a partially nude woman. Powell wrote: “I was wondering if you might be able to help me think of something. I found this picture in better citizen, a magazine and it kinda looks like someone I know or used to gce a level general paper know, but I can't think of the persons name. I think you know the person too, so I was wondering if you could tell me the name of the high, person this picture resembles so I can quit racking my brain trying to think of it? I would appreciate it. If you don't know the person I'm talking about, ask Kristie or Kelly Welch because I know they know who I'm thinking of.

If you talk to the person I'm talking about, please give her my address and tell her to write me.” The partially nude woman shown in the photograph resembled Lorraine Reed's daughter, Stacey. Powell wrote a letter to a friend while he was incarcerated. He stated: “About when you asked me why I wouldn't do to you what I did to Stacie, I couldn't ever hurt you because you mean to much to me. See Stacie didn't mean anything to me. She was a nigger lover and some of her wannabe skin head friends were supposed to kill me.

That's part of the reason why she died. General. Almost everything that happened in that house was planned. The only thing that wasn't planned was trying to fuck Kristie. What was supposed to happen was, Stacie was supposed to die, and did, Kristie was supposed to die and then I was going to wait for their mom and stepdad to get home and I was going to essay titanic kill them and then I was going to gce a level general paper take their moms truck and then I was gonna go to North Carolina and knock this dude off that stole all of my clothes and everything else I owned. I had been thinking about doing it for strategies essay, along time but I could never bring myself to do it.

I don't know what happened to make me finally do it. I feel bad for doing it. Stacie was a good kid.” Powell wrote, in another letter: “Hey babe, what's happening? Not too much here. Level. I writing you to see if you could get one of your guy friends to do me a favor. You know that Kristie is telling the cops things and that she is phd research proposals, going to testify against gce a paper essays, me in court. I was wondering if you could get somebody to go to a pay phone and school biology, call Kristie and gce a level general essays, tell her she better tell the cops that she lied to them and tell her she better not testify against movie, me or she's gonna die.” Powell sent the following letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney of gce a paper essays Prince William County: “What's up you fat head fucker? I'm just writing to tell you, since you want to kill me so Goddamn bad for killing your nigger loving whore, set up a court date closer than Oct.

25 so I can go ahead and get this bullshit over with and proposals, plead guilty so you can kill me and get it over with, unless you want to gce a general let me out so I can kill the rest of the nigger lovers and biology, all the niggers, Jews, Spics and everybody else in this fucked up country that's not white. That includes you because you are a nigger loving Jewish fucking faggot. I will see you in hell bitch. “P.S. Watch your back!” The jury viewed writings and drawings taken from Powell's jail cell that demonstrated his hatred of people who were not Caucasian. Gce A Paper Essays. Additionally, the jury heard evidence that Powell told police officers that he was a racist and phd research proposals, described his violent racial views.

He stated, “[e]verybody that ain't white shouldn't-he needs to die.” Powell had told a police officer that he wanted to purchase a gun to “[k]ill somebody. Level General Paper Essays. Kill a lot of somebodies . [j]ust for something to do.” The jury was aware of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to phd research the delinquency of level paper essays a minor, two larceny convictions, and three felony convictions for abduction, rape, and phd research, attempted capital murder of gce a general essays Kristie. Powell argues that his trial counsel were ineffective and that he was prejudiced because they failed to for writing object to level paper essays the admission of the NCIC form that contained an incorrect entry that Powell had a prior conviction for capital murder. The United States Supreme Court, in yeats, Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984), articulated the relevant principles that we must apply in the resolution of Powell's claim. In Strickland, the gce a level paper, Supreme Court stated: “A convicted defendant's claim that counsel's assistance was so defective as to require reversal of crisis essay a conviction or death sentence has two components. First, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the ‘counsel’ guaranteed the general essays, defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the proposals, defendant must show that the deficient performance prejudiced the gce a level essays, defense.

This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable. Unless a defendant makes both showings, it cannot be said that the conviction or death sentence resulted from a breakdown in the adversary process that renders the result unreliable.” Id. at 687, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Accord Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S.

510, 534, 123 S.Ct. High Lab Reports. 2527, 156 L.Ed.2d 471 (2003); Lockhart v. Gce A. Fretwell, 506 U.S. 364, 369-70, 113 S.Ct. 838, 122 L.Ed.2d 180 (1993); Lenz v. Washington, 444 F.3d 295, 302-03 (4th Cir.2006); Hedrick v. True, 443 F.3d 342, 349 (4th Cir.2006); Vinson v. True, 436 F.3d 412, 418 (4th Cir.2005). Explaining the two-part test enunciated in Strickland, the Supreme Court noted: “An error by essay teacher the maker of a citizen, counsel, even if professionally unreasonable, does not warrant setting aside the judgment of a criminal proceeding if the gce a level paper essays, error had no effect on essay, the judgment. Gce A Level Paper. Cf. United States v. Morrison, 449 U.S. 361, 364-365 [101 S.Ct.

665, 66 L.Ed.2d 564] (1981). The purpose of the strategies essay, Sixth Amendment guarantee of counsel is to ensure that a defendant has the gce a general paper essays, assistance necessary to justify reliance on the outcome of the proceeding. Accordingly, any deficiencies in counsel's performance must be prejudicial to the defense in order to constitute ineffective assistance under the Constitution.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 691-92, 104 S.Ct. 2052. As the Supreme Court has instructed, Powell is required to establish that trial counsel's alleged error, in this instance, the strategies for writing a definition, failure to object to the admission of evidence, resulted in prejudice to him.

The Supreme Court stated in Strickland: “[A]ctual ineffectiveness claims alleging a deficiency in level paper essays, attorney performance are subject to a general requirement that the defendant affirmatively prove prejudice. Even if a defendant shows that particular errors of counsel were unreasonable, therefore, the defendant must show that they actually had an adverse effect on the defense.” Id. at essay teacher of a better, 693, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The Supreme Court has also held that “a court need not determine whether counsel's performance was deficient before examining the gce a level, prejudice suffered by the defendant as a result of the alleged deficiencies. If it is easier to movie dispose of an ineffectiveness claim on the ground of lack of sufficient prejudice, which we expect will often be so, that course should be followed.” Id. at gce a level general paper essays, 697, 104 S.Ct.

2052. The United States Supreme Court has identified three “circumstances that are so likely to prejudice the a definition, accused that the cost of litigating their effect in a particular case is unjustified.” United States v. Cronic, 466 U.S. 648, 658, 104 S.Ct. 2039, 80 L.Ed.2d 657 (1984); Bell v. Cone, 535 U.S. 685, 695-96, 122 S.Ct. 1843, 152 L.Ed.2d 914 (2002) (“[In Cronic,] we identified three situations implicating the right to counsel that involved circumstances ‘so likely to prejudice the accused that the cost of litigating their effect in a particular case is unjustified.’ [ Cronic, 466 U.S. at 658, 104 S.Ct. 2039]”). Level General Paper Essays. The United States Supreme Court held that a defect is presumptively prejudicial if (1) there has been a “complete denial of counsel” at “a critical stage” of the crisis essay, proceedings, Cronic, 466 U.S. at 659, 662, 104 S.Ct. 2039; or (2) “counsel entirely fails to general paper essays subject the prosecution's case to meaningful adversarial testing,” id. at 659, 104 S.Ct. 2039; or (3) counsel is called upon to render assistance under circumstances where competent counsel very likely could not, id. at 659-62, 104 S.Ct. 2039.

Bell, 535 U.S. at 695-96, 122 S.Ct. 1843. Strategies Essay. The admission of the erroneous NCIC entry does not fall into one of gce a paper these enumerated categories of error when prejudice is so likely to result that it will be presumed. Accordingly, this Court must apply the Strickland test to determine whether the error was prejudicial. The Supreme Court's decision in phd research, Strickland applies to paper essays cases in which a habeas petitioner has been sentenced to essay death and in Strickland, the Supreme Court discussed the gce a, standard that this Court must apply to determine whether Powell suffered prejudice: “The defendant must show that there is a reasonable probability that, but for counsel's unprofessional errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different. Essay Teacher The Maker Of A Better. A reasonable probability is a probability sufficient to undermine confidence in gce a paper, the outcome. . “When a defendant challenges a death sentence such as the one at issue in this case, the question is whether there is a reasonable probability that, absent the errors, the sentencer-including an appellate court, to the extent it independently reweighs the evidence-would have concluded that the for writing a definition, balance of aggravating and mitigating circumstances did not warrant death.“In making this determination, a court hearing an level paper essays ineffectiveness claim must consider the crisis essay, totality of the evidence before the level paper, judge or jury. Some of the factual findings will have been unaffected by the errors, and yeats essay, factual findings that were affected will have been affected in different ways. Paper Essays. Some errors will have had a pervasive effect on the inferences to crisis essay be drawn from the evidence, altering the entire evidentiary picture, and some will have had an isolated, trivial effect. Moreover, a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by essays, the record is of a better, more likely to have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support. Taking the gce a paper, unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the errors on the remaining findings, a court making the lab reports, prejudice inquiry must ask if the defendant has met the burden of showing that the decision reached would reasonably likely have been different absent the errors.”

Id. at 694-96, 104 S.Ct. 2052.The Supreme Court stated in Kimmelman v. Level Essays. Morrison, 477 U.S. 365, 382, 106 S.Ct. 2574, 91 L.Ed.2d 305 (1986): “As is essay movie, obvious, Strickland's standard, although by no means insurmountable, is gce a level essays, highly demanding.” Accord Fitzgerald v. Thompson, 943 F.2d 463, 468 (4th Cir.1991). As the Supreme Court directed in Strickland, we need not consider whether Powell's trial counsel's performance was deficient because we proceed directly to the issue whether Powell suffered prejudice “as a result of the crisis essay, alleged deficiencies.” In determining whether Powell has established that there is a reasonable probability that but for trial counsel's errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different, this Court must consider the “totality of the evidence before the . jury.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 695, 104 S.Ct.

2052. Powell complains about trial counsel's failure to object to an entry on the bottom of page three of the NCIC form. Level Paper. A review of the form, which is attached to this opinion, reveals that each entry on the form contains information about a particular criminal charge. Biology. Each entry contains the name and date of the offense charged with the gce a general essays, statutory reference, an arrest date, the jurisdiction where the offense was charged, the resulting conviction if any, a date of disposition, and various codes. Powell contends that he was prejudiced by trial counsel's failure to object to the entry on the bottom of for writing a definition page three of the form that incorrectly stated that Powell was convicted of capital murder. The erroneous entry states that even though Powell was charged with felonious assault in Prince William County on January 30, 1999, he was convicted of capital murder. This entry, which refers to Powell's attack on Kristie Reed, erroneously contains the general paper essays, phrase “capital murder” when it should have contained the phrase “attempted capital murder.” When introducing the strategies for writing a definition essay, NCIC report, the paper essays, Commonwealth's Attorney accurately recited Powell's criminal record: “Your honor, as an essay teacher citizen initial matter, the level general paper, Commonwealth would move for the introduction of the crisis essay, Certified Copy of the Defendant's prior criminal record consisting of gce a general paper two convictions in 1997 for contributing to the delinquency of a minor.

One conviction in 1999 for that same crime. A petty larceny in 1998 and a grand larceny in 2001 along with the three felony convictions that is; rape, abduction with intent to defile and crisis essay, attempted capital murder involving Kristie.” The Commonwealth's Attorney did not include the erroneous capital murder entry on the NCIC form when he summarized these crimes. Instead, he correctly related that Powell had been convicted of attempted capital murder of Kristie. No one, neither the level paper, Commonwealth's Attorney nor Powell's trial counsel, ever mentioned or suggested to the jury that Powell was convicted of a second unrelated capital murder charge. In fact, various statements made by Powell's trial counsel and the Commonwealth's Attorney informed the jury that Powell had never been convicted of an unrelated capital murder charge. For example, Powell's trial counsel told the jury that Powell had been convicted of capital murder only “one time.” None of the attorneys referenced the incorrect capital murder conviction on the NCIC report in their arguments to phd research the jury. The erroneous entry on the NCIC report indicates that Powell's attack on Kristie was originally charged as felonious assault and contains the following dates: “01/30/1999” and “01/29/1999.” The jury that sentenced Powell to death knew, however, that “01/30/1999” was the date of Powell's arrest and “01/29/1999” was the date Powell committed the crimes against Stacey and Kristie Reed.

The erroneous entry refers to “Prince William Co.” and the jury knew that Prince William County was the location of Powell's crimes against gce a level paper essays, Stacey and Kristie. High Biology. Thus, it is clear that the erroneous entry on the NCIC form referred to Powell's attempted capital murder conviction concerning Kristie. Upon our review of the totality of the evidence that the jury considered, “[t]aking the unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the gce a level general paper, effect of the errors on the remaining findings,” Strickland, 466 U.S. at for writing a definition essay, 696, 104 S.Ct. Gce A Level. 2052, we conclude that Powell has failed to demonstrate a reasonable probability that the result of the school lab reports, capital murder trial would have been different and hence he has not suffered prejudice as required by the highly demanding standard that the level general paper essays, Supreme Court established in Strickland.FN* Contrary to the Supreme Court's instructions in essay, Strickland, the dissent focuses solely upon level general paper the improperly admitted evidence and does not consider the totality of the evidence before the jury. The dissent argues that we have usurped the jury's “very broad discretion” and engaged in “speculation” by considering the weight of the yeats magic, Commonwealth's evidence against level general paper, Powell. However, in essay teacher citizen, order to perform the general essays, review mandated by magic, Strickland, we must weigh the evidence to determine whether there is a reasonable probability that the error affected the outcome of the proceedings. Wiggins, 539 U.S. at 534, 123 S.Ct. Level General. 2527; Yarbrough v. High Lab Reports. Warden, 269 Va. 184, 197-202, 609 S.E.2d 30, 38-40 (2005); Lovitt v. Warden, 266 Va. 216, 250-57, 585 S.E.2d 801, 821-26 (2003).

Code § 19.2-264.2 prescribes the conditions that must be satisfied before a jury can impose the sentence of death in Virginia: “In assessing the penalty of gce a paper any person convicted of an offense for which the death penalty may be imposed, a sentence of death shall not be imposed unless the court or jury shall (1) after consideration of the past criminal record of convictions of the defendant, find that there is a probability that the defendant would commit criminal acts of violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to society or that his conduct in committing the offense for which he stands charged was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved torture, depravity of essay mind or an aggravated battery to gce a level general the victim; and (2) recommend that the penalty of death be imposed.” The jury that imposed the sentence of death upon essay magic Powell concluded: “We, the jury, on the issue joined, having found the defendant, PAUL WARNER POWEL [sic], guilty of capital murder in that he did willfully, deliberately, and level, premeditatively kill and murder one Stacey Lynn Reed, and, having found unanimously and beyond a reasonable doubt after consideration of his history and teacher the maker of a citizen, background that there is a probability that he would commit criminal acts of violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to society and having found unanimously and beyond a reasonable doubt that his conduct in committing the offense was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . [d]epravity of mind . Level. [a]ggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder [a]nd having considered all the evidence in mitigation of the offense, unanimously fixed his punishment at death.” The day before Powell committed these gruesome crimes, he went to the victims' home and surveyed the interior of the strategies a definition essay, house. He returned the next day and tried to rape Stacey, who struggled with him. Paper Essays. He stabbed her in high biology, the heart, twisted the knife, and reinserted the general paper essays, knife in her heart. He stomped upon her throat and he placed the entire weight of school his body on her throat until she died. Level General Paper. Next, he drank a glass of iced tea, smoked a cigarette, and waited for Stacey's younger 14-year-old sister to phd research proposals return home. When Kristie arrived, Powell directed her to her sister's body, forced her downstairs into the basement, and general paper, raped her on the floor.

He then tied her hands and feet while she was naked, choked her until she was unconscious, stabbed her in the stomach, and slashed her neck numerous times in an attempt to kill her. We conclude that the jury's finding that Powell's conduct was “outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in essay titanic, that it involved . [d]epravity of mind [and] . [a]ggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder” is untainted by the admission of the NCIC report and amply supported. The jury's consideration of Powell's past criminal offenses is related to the issue of future dangerousness but has nothing to do with vileness of the act which serves as the basis of the capital offense. The instruction given to the jury on this issue and the verdict form confirm that the jury was instructed to consider the level general paper essays, defendant's criminal history only with regard to future dangerousness. For example, the jury was instructed that it could fix the punishment at death if it found: “1.

That, after consideration of his history and background, there is a probability that he would commit criminal acts of violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to society; or. “2. Crisis Essay. That his conduct in committing the offense was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman, in that it involved torture, depravity of mind or aggravated battery to paper the victim beyond the strategies a definition, minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder.” Both the instruction and the verdict form were given without objection and became the law of the case. Spencer v. Commonwealth, 240 Va. General Paper Essays. 78, 89, 393 S.E.2d 609, 616 (1990). Essay Of A Better. Additionally, Powell does not challenge this language in level general, the instruction or verdict form in this habeas proceeding. We also observe that Powell's own statements provided compelling evidence of school his future dangerousness. Powell's letters and general paper essays, confessions to police demonstrate that he planned to crisis essay kill the victims' entire family and gce a, that he continued to taunt the phd research, victims' family even while he was incarcerated awaiting his capital murder trial by sending the level paper essays, victims' mother a photograph of a partially-nude woman who resembled the deceased victim.

Powell also sought to crisis essay intimidate Kristie by having another individual contact her by telephone and tell her that she would be killed if she testified against gce a general paper essays, Powell. He also bragged about his desire to kill people who are non-Caucasian. As the Supreme Court instructed in Strickland, “a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by the record is essay magic, more likely to general essays have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support.” 466 U.S. at 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052. In Powell's case, there was “overwhelming record support” for the jury's sentencing decision.

The jury's finding that Powell's crime was “outrageously or wantonly vile” was wholly unaffected by the erroneously admitted evidence. Biology. Additionally, the Commonwealth's Attorney correctly stated Powell's previous convictions, including his attempted capital murder conviction, and gce a level paper essays, never emphasized or referred to the erroneous entry. Essay. “Taking the unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the errors on the remaining findings,” we hold that Powell has not “met the burden of gce a essays showing that the decision reached would reasonably likely have been different absent the errors.” Id. Upon our review of the totality of the evidence that Powell constitutes a continuing serious threat to society and that his acts were vile in that he committed an a definition essay aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to level essays accomplish the act of murder, and phd research proposals, that he demonstrated depravity of general paper essays mind, we conclude that Powell failed to strategies for writing a definition satisfy the high standard of prejudice established by the Supreme Court's holding in Strickland. Accordingly, we will dismiss the paper, petition for habeas corpus. Dismissed.

Justice KEENAN, with whom Justice LACY and Justice KOONTZ join, dissenting. Justice KEENAN, with whom Justice LACY and Justice KOONTZ join, dissenting.I respectfully dissent and would hold that Powell is proposals, entitled to general paper essays a new sentencing hearing. My concern is based on the incorrect evidence the jury received that Powell had been convicted of an crisis essay additional capital murder committed on the same day as the present offense, when in fact he had not committed any such other offense. I cannot imagine a more prejudicial error in gce a level general, the admission of sentencing evidence. When a jury in proposals, this Commonwealth is asked to decide whether a defendant convicted of capital murder should live or die, the jury undertakes one of the most serious tasks that any citizen can be asked to perform. An essential component of paper this decision is the jury's consideration of the defendant's criminal record. Under Code § 19.2-264.2, a jury must satisfy two statutory requirements before it may recommend a sentence of death. Ultimately, the jury must find that one of the statutory aggravating factors has been proved. As an initial matter, however, the jury must consider the defendant's criminal record of convictions.

Code § 19.2-264.2 requires that the jury analyze the statutory aggravating factors only “after consideration of the past criminal record of convictions of the defendant.” Thus, a review of the defendant's criminal history is a prerequisite that applies regardless of which aggravating factor may finally be proved. Here, the sentencing proceedings conducted by the circuit court failed to comply with the first requirement of Code § 19.2-264.2, which plainly contemplates that the jury will have considered an accurate record of a defendant's criminal history before recommending that the defendant receive the death sentence. Thus, the error in teacher the maker better, this case cannot be categorized as the mere improper admission of evidence. Because of this failure in the sentencing process, the general paper, jury was unable to perform a mandatory duty assigned by statute. In my opinion, the majority's holding further suffers from extensive speculation and a failure to address the broad discretion afforded a jury in crisis essay, making a death penalty determination.

Even when a jury has determined that the Commonwealth has proved both statutory aggravating factors beyond a reasonable doubt, the jury still can recommend that the defendant serve a sentence of life imprisonment. Essays. See Code §§ 19.2-264.2, -264.4; Smith v. Essay Of A Citizen. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 455, 472, 248 S.E.2d 135, 145 (1978); see also Tuggle v. Thompson, 57 F.3d 1356, 1371 (4th Cir.), vacated on gce a paper, other grounds by strategies a definition essay, Tuggle v. Netherland, 516 U.S. 10, 116 S.Ct. 283, 133 L.Ed.2d 251 (1995); Briley v. Bass, 750 F.2d 1238, 1241 (4th Cir.1984). Level General Paper. The jury may impose a sentence of life imprisonment for any reason based on proposals, any mitigating circumstance, and is not required to weigh the evidence in mitigation against the evidence in aggravation of the crime. See Swann v. Commonwealth, 247 Va. 222, 236-37, 441 S.E.2d 195, 205 (1994); see also Tuggle, 57 F.3d at 1362. The absence of gce a any weighing requirement is a core concept of our death penalty jurisprudence, which provides the jury the broadest possible discretion in choosing to recommend a sentence of life imprisonment or a sentence of death. Thus, the phd research proposals, two main arguments on which the level general, majority relies, namely, the weight of the Commonwealth's evidence against titanic, Powell, and the jury's determination that the general, Commonwealth proved both statutory aggravating factors, are not dispositive of the issue before us. A jury's exercise of magic this very broad sentencing discretion is particularly difficult to assess under the level general paper essays, Strickland test because the phd research, jury can sentence a defendant to life imprisonment even in the face of overwhelming evidence in aggravation of a crime.

Nevertheless, as directed by Strickland, we must answer whether there is a reasonable probability that the jury would not have recommended a sentence of death if the jury had received accurate sentencing information. The Supreme Court provided guidance in level general, Strickland when it defined the term “reasonable probability.” The Court stated: “A reasonable probability is a probability sufficient to undermine confidence in the outcome.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 694, 104 S.Ct. 2052; see Lovitt v. A Definition Essay. Warden, 266 Va. 216, 250, 585 S.E.2d 801, 821 (2003); Hedrick v. Warden, 264 Va. 486, 497, 570 S.E.2d 840, 847 (2002). The Court has further elaborated that the general paper essays, reasonable probability standard is a standard lower than “more likely than not.” See Holland v. Jackson, 542 U.S. 649, 654, 124 S.Ct. Proposals. 2736, 159 L.Ed.2d 683 (2004); Woodford v. Visciotti, 537 U.S. 19, 22, 123 S.Ct.

357, 154 L.Ed.2d 279 (2002). The Supreme Court's definition of the term “reasonable probability” underscores one of my major concerns in the present case. In my view, a court cannot have confidence in general paper essays, the outcome of a death penalty determination when the essay, court's Strickland analysis relies on speculation. Yet, here, the majority resorts to speculation in assessing the potential impact of the incorrect sentencing information. The majority opines that the jury ultimately would have been able to determine that the additional capital murder conviction shown on the NCIC report was an erroneous entry.

Although the majority, as skilled members of the legal profession, can easily identify this inaccuracy, the majority simply speculates that the jurors had sufficient knowledge of the paper essays, law to reach the same conclusion. Phd Research Proposals. Based on the evidence presented, the jurors could easily have viewed the general essays, NCIC report as proof that Powell committed a separate capital offense in Prince William County on the same day, brutally murdering an additional victim. The majority also suggests that because the prosecutor did not reference the incorrect sentencing information when he summarized the contents of the NCIC report at the time of its admission into lab reports, evidence, his oral summary of gce a level general paper Powell's crimes would likely have resolved any confusion created by yeats essay magic, the erroneous written exhibit. The majority further relies on defense counsel's comments, noting that he indicated that Powell had been convicted of one capital murder offense. The majority's reasoning, however, is gce a essays, flawed because it requires an yeats essay assumption that the jury disregarded the instructions of the gce a general, circuit court. In every jury trial in this Commonwealth, the court instructs the jury that the high lab reports, statements of counsel are not evidence in the case and may not be considered as such. Level General. Yet, here, the majority's holding requires a conclusion that the jury disregarded the evidence appearing on the NCIC report in favor of the comments of counsel. Thus, the majority's rationale extends beyond simple speculation and citizen, also requires an improper conclusion that the jury rejected duly admitted evidence in essays, favor of counsels' remarks. Because a Strickland analysis cannot rest on such speculation and improper assumptions, I am required to conclude that the jury viewed the NCIC report as uncontested evidence that Powell had committed another capital murder.

This incorrect information went to the very heart of the sentencing determination, namely, whether the death penalty was appropriate based on the defendant's personal history and the crime for which he was being sentenced. I would hold that the crisis essay, jury's receipt of incorrect information of such magnitude negates any reasonable confidence in the outcome of Powell's sentencing proceeding. My concerns, however, reach far beyond the present case. In my opinion, such a serious mistake in general paper essays, a capital murder case may well cause the public to movie question whether our courts adequately ensure the fair application of our death penalty statutes. Level Essays. When a jury has determined that a defendant should die for the commission of a heinous murder, the public should be able to have confidence that this determination was made without fundamental errors having occurred in the sentencing process. A central premise in support of the death penalty is yeats magic, that society exacts this penalty only in rare instances, and only after the level general paper, penalty has been determined with full and fair adherence to constitutional, statutory, and evidentiary safeguards.

Because those safeguards failed in this case when a very able prosecutor made an unintentional error, I would grant a writ of phd research proposals habeas corpus limited to the award of level essays a new sentencing proceeding. Powell v. Kelly , 562 F.3d 656 (4th Cir. Essay Teacher The Maker Citizen. 2009) (Federal Habeas). Background: Following affirmance of conviction for capital murder and general, sentence of death, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, petition for writ of habeas corpus was filed. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Thomas Selby Ellis, III, Senior District Judge, 531 F.Supp.2d 695, dismissed the petition. Petitioner appealed.

Holdings: The Court of Appeals, Shedd, Circuit Judge, held that: (1) state court's determination that Double Jeopardy Clause did not bar petitioner's prosecution was reasonable, and proposals, (2) state court's determination that defense counsel was not ineffective was not an unreasonable application of federal law. Affirmed. Gregory, Circuit Judge, filed opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part. SHEDD, Circuit Judge: Paul Warner Powell, a Virginia capital inmate, appeals the denial of his petition for a writ of habeas corpus. Essays. We granted a certificate of appealability (“COA”) on three issues: (1) whether the imposition of a death sentence is precluded by the Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment of the essay, United States Constitution; (2) whether trial counsel rendered ineffective assistance by failing to object to the admission of an inaccurate National Crime Information Center report; and (3) whether trial counsel rendered ineffective assistance by failing to level paper essays develop and present available mitigating evidence. For the following reasons, we affirm. We begin with a summary of the facts pertaining to the underlying crimes, as articulated by yeats essay magic, the Supreme Court of Virginia in Powell's first direct appeal: “Powell was acquainted with Stacey Lynn Reed (“Stacey”) for two and a half years prior to the commission of the crimes in question. Kristie Erin Reed (“Kristie”), Stacey's younger sister, described her sister and Powell as ‘[f]riends.’ Powell, who was 20 years old at the time of the murder, had wanted to date Stacey, who was 16 years old, but recognized that she was underage and level general paper essays, he ‘could go to jail for that.’ ” “Powell, a self-avowed ‘racist and white supremacist,’ was aware that Stacey, who was white, was dating Sean Wilkerson, who is black. Wilkerson had recently moved to another locality, but he and Stacey remained in contact.

Stacey was a member of her high school's Junior Reserve Officer's Training Corps and strategies for writing, planned to attend a military ball with Wilkerson. “Just before noon on January 29, 1999, Stacey arrived home from school early, having completed her examinations that were being given that day. Essays. Powell was waiting for her at her home when she arrived. When Powell learned that Robert Culver, a friend of the girls' mother, would be home shortly for lunch, Powell left and returned at about 12:45 p.m., after Culver had left. When Powell returned, he was armed with a ‘survival’ knife, a ‘butterfly’ knife, a box cutter, and a 9-millimeter pistol. “Stacey was talking to Wilkerson on strategies for writing, the telephone. After Stacey ended the telephone conversation, Powell confronted her about general, her relationship with Wilkerson.

He demanded that Stacey end her relationship with Wilkerson. According to Powell, he and Stacey argued, and the argument grew into a struggle. Essay. Powell drew the survival knife from his belt and Stacey ‘got stuck.’ Powell denied stabbing Stacey deliberately. The struggle continued briefly until Stacey collapsed on gce a general paper, the floor in her sister's bedroom. “Although Powell did not know whether Stacey was still alive, he made no effort to essay titanic movie determine her condition or call for medical assistance. Powell ‘wandered around the gce a level general paper, house, got some iced tea, had a cigarette.’ Kristie arrived home from school shortly after 3 p.m. and phd research proposals, was met at the door of the home by Powell. Powell told her that Stacey was in her room, but moments later Kristie discovered her sister's body in Kristie's bedroom. She dropped her schoolbooks and began to cry.

“Powell ordered Kristie to go to the basement. Kristie, who knew that Powell was usually armed, complied because she ‘didn't want to die.’ In the basement, Powell ordered Kristie to remove her clothes and to lie on the floor. Powell then raped Kristie, and she ‘begg[ed] him not to kill her.’ Powell later admitted that he knew that Kristie, who was 14 years old at the time of the rape, had been a virgin.” “While Powell and Kristie were in the basement, Mark Lewis, a friend of gce a level essays Kristie, came to the house and knocked on the door. When Powell heard the knock, he tied Kristie's legs together and tied her hands behind her back with shoelaces he cut from her athletic shoes. Powell then dressed and phd research proposals, went upstairs. “While Powell was upstairs, Kristie managed to loosen the bonds on her hands and attempted to ‘scoot across the floor to hide’ under the gce a general, basement steps. Crisis Essay. Hearing Powell coming back to gce a level general essays the basement, she returned to the position on the floor where he had left her. Powell then strangled Kristie with a shoelace and she lost consciousness. While she was unconscious, Powell stabbed Kristie in essay of a citizen, the abdomen and slit her wrists and throat.” “Powell returned upstairs, searching for ‘anything worth taking.’ He fixed another glass of iced tea, which he took with him when he left the home a short time later. Powell went to a friend's house and then drove with the friend to the District of Columbia to buy crack cocaine. “Kristie regained consciousness sometime after Powell had left her home.

About 4:10 p.m., she heard Culver return home, and she called out his name. Culver discovered Kristie in gce a level, the basement, called the 911 emergency response telephone number, and began rendering first aid to her. High Biology Lab Reports. He later discovered Stacey's body upstairs. Shortly thereafter, paramedics arrived. Gce A Essays. In response to proposals a question from one of them, Kristie identified Powell as her attacker. Level Paper Essays. Powell was arrested later that day at the home of his friend's girlfriend, where he and for writing a definition essay, the friend had gone after buying drugs. “Kristie was transported by helicopter to gce a Inova Fairfax Hospital where she received treatment for her injuries. It was ultimately determined that the wounds to her throat and abdomen each came within one centimeter of phd research severing a major artery which likely would have caused her death.

“An autopsy revealed that Stacey had died from a knife wound to the heart. The medical examiner testified that there was a single entrance wound and two exit wounds indicating that the general essays, knife had been withdrawn, at least partially, and then reinserted into the heart. One wound path pierced the left ventricle and the other went through both the left and right ventricles, exiting the heart at the back of the right ventricle. “Stacey's body also exhibited a number of bruises on the head, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and phd research proposals, legs, abrasions on the face, a stab wound to the back, and a cut and scrapes on the left forearm. The autopsy further revealed that Stacey had been struck on the head with sufficient force to cause bleeding inside her scalp and in the membranes surrounding her brain prior to death. These injuries were not consistent with Stacey merely having fallen during a struggle.

“The DNA profile obtained from the blood found on Powell's survival knife was consistent with the DNA profile of Stacey's blood. The DNA profile obtained from sperm fractions from swabs taken from Kristie's vagina and perianal area was the same profile as that obtained from Powell's drawn blood sample. “While in jail, Powell wrote letters to friends in which he admitted having committed the murder, rape, and attempted murder because of Stacey's relationship with a black man. He further claimed that he had planned to kill Stacey's family and steal the family's truck. Powell also wrote to a female friend and asked her to ‘get one of gce a [her] guy friends . to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her [that] she better tell the phd research proposals, cops she lied to them and tell her [that] she better not testify against me or she's gonna die.’ “Powell told another inmate that he had become angry with Stacey when she refused to have sex with him after talking to Wilkerson. General Essays. Powell told the inmate that he stabbed Stacey twice and that when he attempted to cut Kristie's throat, his knife was too dull, ‘[s]o he started stepping on her throat trying to stomp her throat.’ To another inmate, Powell described Stacey's killing as a ‘human sacrifice’ and expressed satisfaction in having raped a virgin.” Powell v. Commonwealth, 261 Va.

512, 552 S.E.2d 344, 347-348 (2001) (“ Powell I ”). B. Yeats Essay Magic. In the original indictment, Powell was charged with a single count of capital murder in which the gradation crime was the commission, or attempted commission, of robbery.FN1 In 2000, Powell was convicted of the capital murder of Stacey and sentenced to death. Gce A Level. In addition, Powell was convicted of the abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie, and yeats, he was also convicted of general paper grand larceny. On these non-capital convictions, Powell was sentenced to three terms of life imprisonment and fines totaling $200,000. Powell was acquitted of robbery, attempted robbery, and three firearm charges. FN1. Virginia's capital murder statute includes fifteen gradation offenses, which when accompanied with the high school biology lab reports, “willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing” of a person, make the gce a level paper, defendant eligible for the death penalty.

See Va.Code § 18.2-31. In June 2001, the Supreme Court of the maker of a citizen Virginia reversed Powell's capital murder conviction, holding that the trial judge erred by gce a level general paper essays, allowing a pretrial amendment of the capital murder indictment to essay movie charge two new gradation crimes that were not considered by the grand jury. See Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 355-56. Gce A Paper. The additional gradation crimes were the teacher the maker better citizen, commission, or attempted commission, of rape and paper, the commission, or attempted commission, of sodomy. The court held that including these additional counts of capital murder expanded the phd research, nature and character of the gce a level general paper essays, charges against crisis essay, Powell in a manner not allowed by Va.Code § 19.2-231. Id. at 357.FN2. FN2. Va.Code § 19.2-231 allows the government to amend an indictment to correct a defect in gce a essays, the form of the indictment or a variance between the allegations and essay teacher of a, the evidence offered in proof thereof, so long as the gce a level general essays, amendment does not change the nature or character of the offense charged. Based on the circumstances then existing, the state supreme court also concluded that there was no basis to try Powell for capital murder on remand. Id. at 363.

In making this determination, the essay titanic, court noted that Powell had been acquitted of robbery or attempted robbery, thereby eliminating these offenses from being gradation offenses for the capital murder charge. Further, the court held that “the evidence was insufficient to support [Powell's] conviction for the capital murder of Stacey ‘during the level, commission of or subsequent to’ the lab reports, rape of Kristie” because the evidence clearly showed the gce a general essays, rape of crisis essay Kristie occurred after the murder of Stacey. Id. at 361. Finally, the level essays, court noted that there was no evidence of Powell having raped or attempted to crisis essay rape Stacey. Id. at 363.

C. While awaiting retrial and believing that he could no longer be tried for capital murder, Powell wrote the Commonwealth's Attorney and general paper essays, disclosed new evidence regarding the circumstances surrounding Stacey's death. Yeats. In Powell's second direct appeal, the Supreme Court of Virginia summarized the events as follows: FN3. FN3. For purposes of clarity, we have omitted any footnotes within this summary that are irrelevant to the disposition of the issues before us. “On October 21, 2001, Powell wrote an obscenity-laced letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell in his first trial. Powell stated in the letter that, because he believed he could not be retried for capital murder, ‘I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all y'all . are.’ Admitting that he ‘planned to kill the whole family’ on that day, Powell further stated that ‘I had other plans for [Stacey] before she died.’ Powell described how he had attempted to gce a level essays initiate consensual sexual intercourse with Stacey, which he had previously admitted.

Powell then revealed that when Stacey resisted his advances, he pushed her onto her bed and, while sitting on top of her, told Stacey ‘that we could do it the easy way or the hard way.’ “Powell then described how Stacey had ‘started fighting with me and clawed me [sic] face.’ Powell stated that he ‘slammed her to the floor . sat on top of her and biology, pinned her hands down again.’ Powell claimed that Stacey relented ‘and I told her if she tried fighting with me again I would kill her.’ “Continuing, Powell stated that, at his direction, Stacey began to gce a general paper essays disrobe, but stopped when the essay magic, telephone rang. Stacey put her clothes back on so that she could answer the telephone. Powell refused to gce a general paper essays allow Stacey to answer the essay teacher the maker better citizen, telephone and ordered her to resume disrobing. When she refused, Powell ‘pushed her back and pulled out [his] knife.’ When Stacey attempted to leave the level general essays, bedroom, Powell stabbed her. Stacey fell back and Powell removed the knife. Stacey then stumbled to the maker of a better citizen another bedroom and collapsed. Powell ‘saw that she was still breathing’ and ‘started stomping on her throat’ until he ‘didn't see her breathing anymore.’ “Armed with this new evidence, the Commonwealth elected to nolle prosequi the indictment in the remanded case, under which it was limited to trying Powell for first degree murder under our mandate, and sought a new indictment against Powell for capital murder. On December 3, 2001, the grand jury returned an indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of ‘Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to the attempted rape of Stacey Lynn Reed.’ “On April 24, 2002, Powell filed a motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment.

Powell asserted that'[w]hen the Supreme Court of Virginia issues an opinion concerning a case, this opinion becomes the gce a general essays, law of the case' and, thus, the phd research, directive of the opinion and mandate from this Court in his first appeal limited his retrial to gce a general paper a charge no greater than first degree murder, regardless whether that trial was conducted under the original indictment or a new indictment. The Commonwealth filed a response to this motion, asserting that the proposals, judgment of this Court in gce a, Powell's first appeal was not applicable to the December 3, 2001 indictment because Powell had ‘never [previously] been charged with the capital murder of Stacey Reed in strategies for writing a definition, the commission or attempted commission [of] sexual assault against [Stacey Reed] because, at the time of [Powell's first] trial, no such evidence existed.’ Accordingly, the Commonwealth contended that the December 3, 2001 indictment was ‘a new charge, one that has never been litigated in trial nor considered by the Virginia Supreme Court. Level Essays. Following a hearing on this and other pre-trial matters, the trial court overruled Powell's motion to crisis essay dismiss the indictment in an order dated May 6, 2002. “On May 17, 2002, Powell filed a second motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. The import of Powell's argument was that his prior trial and the reversal of his conviction by [the Supreme Court of Virginia] acted as an general essays ‘implied’ or ‘judicial’ acquittal of the attempted rape of Stacey, thus barring his retrial for her capital murder premised on essay, that gradation offense. The Commonwealth responded that the issue whether Stacey had been the victim of a sexual assault was not before the jury in his first trial because the bill of gce a level essays particulars provided at Powell's request indicated that only crisis essay, Kristie was the victim of the sexual assault gradation offenses charged in the amended indictment. Similarly, the Commonwealth contended that our comments concerning the gce a level general paper, insufficiency of the teacher the maker of a citizen, evidence to prove a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey were not directed toward any finding of the gce a level paper essays, jury, but to the contrary were indicative of the phd research proposals, fact that the jury did not consider whether Stacey had been the victim of such an assault or attempt.

“On June 5, 2002, the trial court held a hearing on general essays, Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. After hearing argument, the trial court stated that by identifying Kristie as the victim of the rape or attempted rape in yeats, the bill of particulars, the Commonwealth had clearly identified her as the general, victim of those gradation crimes in the amended indictment for capital murder. The trial court also agreed with the Commonwealth that this Court's reference to the lack of evidence to magic prove any sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey was merely a comment on the record, and not an assertion that this was a theory of the case presented by the Commonwealth in Powell's first trial. On July 3, 2002, the gce a, trial court entered an order overruling Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment.” Powell v. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, 544-545 (2004) (“ Powell II ”). D. In January 2003, Powell was convicted of the capital murder of essay Stacey during the commission of general rape or attempted rape of Stacey and sentenced to death. Powell appealed his conviction claiming, inter alia, that the second indictment should have been dismissed on various grounds, including the Double Jeopardy Clause. In Powell II, the Supreme Court of Virginia rejected Powell's claims and affirmed his conviction. Powell next challenged his conviction and sentence in collateral state proceedings. See Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison, No. 042716, 2005 WL 2980756 (Va.2005) (“ Powell III ”).

Powell raised numerous claims that the state supreme court found were procedurally defaulted, including an allegation that the Commonwealth violated his right against double jeopardy by trying him twice for the same offense. Among the new claims Powell asserted was an objection to the admission of a National Crime Information Center report (“NCIC report”) containing inaccurate information about Powell's criminal history during sentencing and a claim that his trial counsel provided him ineffective assistance by failing to investigate and present compelling mitigating evidence. Magic. The Supreme Court of Virginia denied relief on all grounds. Subsequently, the state supreme court granted rehearing on the question of whether counsel was ineffective in the sentencing phase for gce a level, failing to object to the NCIC report. See Powell v. Crisis Essay. Warden of Sussex I State Prison, 272 Va. 217, 634 S.E.2d 289 (2006) (“ Powell IV ”). Ultimately, the gce a general paper essays, court rejected this claim and denied Powell's petition for proposals, a new sentencing hearing. Id. Thereafter, Powell filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal district court.

See 28 U.S.C.A. § 2254. Powell asserted nine claims for relief. See Powell v. Kelly, 531 F.Supp.2d 695, 705 (E.D.Va.2008) (“ Powell V ”). On the Commonwealth's motion, the district court dismissed Powell's petition. As noted, we granted a COA on three issues: (1) whether the imposition of a death sentence is precluded by the Double Jeopardy Clause; (2) whether trial counsel was constitutionally ineffective in failing to object to the admission of an inaccurate NCIC report; and (3) whether trial counsel was constitutionally ineffective in level general, failing to develop and present available mitigating evidence. We address each in turn.

We review the district court's dismissal of Powell's petition de novo. See Tucker v. Ozmint, 350 F.3d 433, 438 (4th Cir.2003). However, under 28 U.S.C. § 2254, “the scope of our review is highly constrained.” Jackson v. Johnson, 523 F.3d 273, 276 (4th Cir.2008). Magic. We may only grant Powell relief if the state court's adjudication of his claims (1) “resulted in level essays, a decision that was contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of, clearly established Federal law, as determined by the Supreme Court of the United States,” 28 U.S.C. § 2254(d)(1); or (2) “resulted in a decision that was based on yeats essay, an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented in the State court proceeding,” 28 U.S.C. General Paper Essays. § 2254(d)(2). The “contrary to” and “unreasonable application” clauses of § 2254(d) have independent meanings. Tucker, 350 F.3d at titanic, 438. A state court's decision is “contrary to” clearly established federal law under § 2254(d)(1) when it “applies a rule that contradicts the governing law set forth” by the United States Supreme Court, or “confronts a set of facts that are materially indistinguishable from a decision of . Essays. [the Supreme] Court and nevertheless arrives at a result different from . [that] precedent,” Williams v. Taylor, 529 U.S. 362, 405-06, 120 S.Ct. 1495, 146 L.Ed.2d 389 (2000).

A state court's decision involves an “unreasonable application” of clearly established federal law under § 2254(d)(1) “if the state court identifies the correct governing legal rule from . [the Supreme] Court's cases but unreasonably applies it to the facts of the particular state prisoner's case.” Williams, 529 U.S. at 407, 120 S.Ct. 1495. This standard is quite deferential: “The state court's application of clearly established federal law must be ‘objectively unreasonable,’ and ‘a federal habeas court may not issue the writ simply because that court concludes in its independent judgment that the relevant state-court decision applied clearly established federal law erroneously or incorrectly.’ ” Robinson v. Titanic. Polk, 438 F.3d 350, 355 (4th Cir.2006) (quoting Williams, 529 U.S. at gce a paper, 411, 120 S.Ct. 1495). Moreover, when “assessing the reasonableness of the state court's application of federal law, the federal courts are to review the result that the state court reached, not whether [its decision] [was] well reasoned.” Wilson v. Ozmint, 352 F.3d 847, 855 (4th Cir.2003) (quotation marks omitted). Similarly, a petitioner alleging that a state court based its decision on an “unreasonable determination of the facts” under § 2254(d)(2) must satisfy a demanding standard: “The question . is not whether a federal court believes the state court's determination was incorrect but whether that determination was unreasonable-a substantially higher threshold.” Schriro v. Landrigan, 550 U.S.

465, 127 S.Ct. 1933, 1939, 167 L.Ed.2d 836 (2007). Finally, § 2254(e)(1) provides that a state court's factual decisions “shall be presumed to of a better be correct” and that the petitioner bears the burden of “rebutting the presumption of correctness by gce a level paper, clear and convincing evidence.” 28 U.S.C § 2254(e)(1).FN4. FN4. Yeats. Moreover, in cases proceeding under either § 2254(d)(1) or § 2254(d)(2), we can only general, grant the petitioner relief if the yeats essay magic, error had “a substantial and injurious effect or influence in determining the jury's verdict.” Brecht v. Abrahamson, 507 U.S. 619, 637, 113 S.Ct. 1710, 123 L.Ed.2d 353 (1993) (quotation marks omitted). B. We begin with Powell's double jeopardy claim. Powell asserts two arguments in this regard. First, he contends that the gradation offenses charged at both trials were the gce a level general essays, same-that is, he was tried for capital murder during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey in a definition essay, both trials.

Alternatively, if we decide the same offense was not charged in both trials, Powell nevertheless argues that the crime charged in the second trial had actually been litigated in the first trial, even if not formally charged. Conversely, the Commonwealth argues that the capital murder charges were different in each trial-that is, Powell was charged with the capital murder of Stacey during the rape or attempted rape of Kristie in the first trial and charged with the capital murder of Stacey during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey in the second trial. The Double Jeopardy Clause prohibits any person from being put in jeopardy twice for the same offence. See U.S. Const. amend. V. The Supreme Court held in general paper essays, Sanabria v. United States, 437 U.S. 54, 64, 98 S.Ct. 2170, 57 L.Ed.2d 43 (1978) (citing Ball v. A Definition Essay. United States, 163 U.S. 662, 670, 16 S.Ct.

1192, 41 L.Ed. 300 (1896)), that the Fifth Amendment prohibits subjecting a defendant to level general essays a second trial on the same offense for which he has been acquitted. In Sanabria, the Court stated that when a defendant is charged with several violations of the same criminal statute, the appropriate double jeopardy inquiry is whether the legislature intended the charged violations to be separate “allowable unit [s] of prosecution.” Id. at 70, 98 S.Ct. 2170. Teacher The Maker Better. Stated differently for purposes of gce a paper this case, the issue is whether the Virginia legislature intended that a defendant could be charged with multiple counts of capital murder where there is yeats essay magic, one murder victim accompanied by multiple gradation offenses. The Supreme Court of Virginia adjudicated Powell's double jeopardy claim on direct appeal and rejected both of his arguments. Powell II, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537.

In analyzing Powell's first argument, the court cited its precedent holding that the General Assembly of Virginia intended that a defendant may be prosecuted for general paper, multiple violations of the Virginia capital murder statute where, as here, there is a single murder victim but different gradation crime victims. Id. at 553 (citing Payne v. Commonwealth, 257 Va. 216, 509 S.E.2d 293 (1999)). The state court found that the capital murder charge in the second trial alleging the murder of Stacey and phd research, attempted rape of Stacey was a distinct and gce a paper essays, separate crime from the essay teacher better, offense charged in general paper, the first trial-namely, the capital murder of Stacey during the commission of, or subsequent to, Powell's rape of Kristie. The court concluded that Powell's second capital murder trial was not barred by the Double Jeopardy Clause. As to Powell's first argument, we hold that the Virginia Supreme Court's decision was consistent with Supreme Court precedent and was not an unreasonable application of federal law. The analysis that the essay the maker better, state court conducted was precisely the analysis Sanabria mandates. Therefore, the decision was not contrary to gce a level paper essays clearly established federal law. Further, the court's determination was not an unreasonable application of the Supreme Court's clearly established precedent. Movie. Sanabria requires a court to determine whether the legislature intended to allow multiple charges under the statute.

In this case, the Virginia Supreme Court decided that under Virginia law, a defendant can be charged for multiple capital murder counts where there is a single murder victim accompanied by multiple gradation offenses. Id. Thus, the state court did not apply the Supreme Court's precedents to the facts in an objectively unreasonable manner. The Virginia Supreme Court also rejected Powell's alternative double jeopardy argument that the attempted rape of Stacey charged in gce a general essays, the second trial had already been litigated in the first trial. Phd Research. The court relied on settled state law that Stacey's attempted rape was not at issue in the first trial because the Commonwealth's bill of particulars limited the first trial solely to the capital murder of Stacey subsequent to, or in the commission of, the rape of Kristie.

See Powell II, 590 S.E.2d at 554 (holding that “by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of gce a paper essays particulars”).FN5 In reaching this result, the court followed its precedent holding that “the bill of particulars and crisis essay, the indictment must be read together” as specifying the crime charged. See Livingston v. Commonwealth, 184 Va. 830, 36 S.E.2d 561, 565 (1946). The court recognized that the original indictment in the first trial did not identify the name of the victim of the gradation offense. However, upon Powell's request, the Commonwealth specified in a bill of particulars that the charged offense only involved Kristie as the level, victim of the gradation offense. Thus, the essay titanic, court concluded that Powell was only tried in the first trial for the capital murder of level paper essays Stacey during the commission of, or subsequent to, the rape of Kristie. See Powell II, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537. Strategies. Based on gce a general essays, established state law principles, the court ruled that Powell's second trial was not a double jeopardy violation because the indictment in the second trial charged a crime not charged in the first trial.

FN5. A defendant does not have a right to essay the maker of a better a bill of particulars in Virginia. Gce A Level Paper. See Quesinberry v. Commonwealth, 241 Va. Essay. 364, 402 S.E.2d 218, 223 (1991) (holding whether the Commonwealth is required to file a bill of general essays particulars lies within the crisis essay, discretion of the trial court). Further, there is no federal constitutional right to a bill of particulars. See United States v. Bales, 813 F.2d 1289 (4th Cir.1987) (internal citations omitted). The purpose of a bill of particulars is “to state sufficient facts regarding the crime to inform an accused in advance of the offense for which he is to be tried.” Quesinberry, 402 S.E.2d at 223 (citing Hevener v. Commonwealth, 189 Va. 802, 54 S.E.2d 893, 899 (1949)).

Importantly, at the time Powell requested a bill of particulars, he was the only person who knew that the unidentified gradation victim could be either Stacey or Kristie. Thus, he benefitted from the general paper essays, Commonwealth informing him that Kristie was the victim of the gradation offense in school biology, preparing his defense. Gce A Level Essays. Finally, in a jury trial, jeopardy attaches when a jury is empanelled and sworn. Serfass v. United States, 420 U.S. 377, 388, 95 S.Ct. 1055, 43 L.Ed.2d 265 (1975) (citing Downum v. United States, 372 U.S.

734, 83 S.Ct. Magic. 1033, 10 L.Ed.2d 100 (1963)). Gce A General. It is clear that at the time the jury was sworn in Powell's first trial, Powell was only in jeopardy, so far as is strategies essay, relevant here, for the murder of level general paper Stacey during the rape of Kristie as specified by the bill of particulars. Powell argues that this holding was an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented at a definition, trial. He claims, among other arguments, that the bill of particulars did not limit the charge because the jury heard argument from the prosecutor that Powell “wanted something more” from Stacey, the jury heard testimony from general essays, witnesses suggesting that Stacey refused to yeats have sex with Powell, and the jury was not told about the limitation of the bill of particulars. Powell's argument falls short of general paper essays showing an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented. Yeats Magic. First, under settled Virginia precedent, the court determined that, as a matter of state law, Powell was not charged with the general paper essays, attempted rape of biology lab reports Stacey in gce a general paper, the first trial. Second, because Powell “wanted something more” does not mean that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. It is entirely plausible that “wanted something more” meant only that Powell wanted a sexual relationship with Stacey, but she was uninterested. This is not a basis for a charge of attempted rape. Finally, there was testimony in essay titanic movie, the first trial that Stacey had refused to have sex with Powell.

Again, rejecting sexual advances, without more, is not evidence of an attempted rape. Gce A Level Essays. The evidence of Powell attempting to rape Stacey after her refusals only came to light after the first trial was over. If the Commonwealth had been prosecuting Powell for this gradation offense, it would not have restricted the bill of particulars to crisis essay identifying only Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. Clearly, the state court's determination that the charge that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey was not litigated in the first trial was not an unreasonable determination of the gce a level general, facts in light of the evidence presented. FN6 Accordingly, we find no error in the state court's application of federal law.FN7. FN6.

The dissent's criticism of our decision rests on a misunderstanding of the facts of this case. When one reviews the record of the first trial it becomes clear that no one involved litigated as though Powell was being tried for biology, murder during the rape or attempted rape of gce a level general paper Stacey. The Commonwealth certainly did not offer evidence on phd research, that purported charge during that trial. Moreover, the bill of particulars unambiguously identified Kristie only as the victim of the rape or attempted rape, and Powell's trial counsel clearly recognized this fact as evidenced by their comments to the court and to the jury. Gce A General Paper Essays. See, e.g., Record, Vol. 2, at 1068 (“The rape involved Kristi[e], not Stac[ey]”); Record, Vol. 2, at 1052 (“Stac[ey] is the essay teacher the maker of a better citizen, victim or alleged victim on gce a level, the capital murder, the robbery, and the attempted robbery. Essay. And . Kristi[e] the victim or alleged victim on general paper essays, rape . ”); Record, Vol. 2, at 995 (“and on the rape allegation, obviously, Kristi[e] Reed”); Record, Vol.

2, at 935 (“I might also add in the Bill of Particulars that Your Honor ordered, the Government identified the essay citizen, victim of the alleged rape and attempted rape . Gce A Level Paper Essays. as being Kristie, not Stac[ey], but Kristie”). The trial judge likewise recognized this fact. For example, the trial judge instructed the jury that “[s]exual intercourse means an actual penetration, no matter how slight, of the Defendant's penis into the sexual organ of strategies for writing essay Kristi[e] Reed.” Record, Vol. 2, at gce a level, 1024-25. Although the dissent contends that the trial judge's response to the jury question suggests that he was confused as to the identity of the rape victim, the proceedings that followed the receipt of the question demonstrate that the judge was not confused on biology, that point. It is clear that the trial judge was not concerned with who the victim of the rape was; instead, he was concerned with the gce a level general paper essays, timing of the rape of Kristie and essay movie, whether the murder of Stacey could be found to have occurred “subsequent to” or “during the commission of” the rape of Kristie. See J.A. 53-55, 62. FN7. Related to his double jeopardy claim, Powell argues that his second trial is barred by principles of collateral estoppel. See Ashe v. Level Paper Essays. Swenson, 397 U.S.

436, 443, 90 S.Ct. 1189, 25 L.Ed.2d 469 (1970). Although the for writing a definition essay, state argues this claim is procedurally defaulted, we find that it lacks merit in any event. For substantially the reasons given by the district court, we affirm the dismissal of gce a level general paper essays this claim. See Powell V, 531 F.Supp.2d at 724-25. C. We next turn to Powell's claim that his trial counsel was ineffective in not objecting to the admission of the NCIC report. The report incorrectly stated that Powell had been convicted of capital murder and referenced a pending capital murder charge, presumably the phd research proposals, charge for which Powell was standing trial. Finally, the report contained correct entries that Powell asserts were inadmissible at trial, such as charges that were nolle prossed or for which Powell was found not guilty. In Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S.

668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984), the Supreme Court articulated the relevant standard for a claim of ineffective assistance of counsel: A convicted defendant's claim that counsel's assistance was so defective as to require reversal of a conviction or death sentence has two components. First, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the ‘counsel’ guaranteed the essays, defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the defendant must show that the deficient performance prejudiced the defense. For Writing. This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to essays deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable. Essay Teacher Of A. Unless a defendant makes both showings, it cannot be said that the conviction or death sentence resulted from a breakdown in the adversary process that renders the result unreliable.

Id. at 687, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The Supreme Court of Virginia found, in its first opinion denying Powell's state habeas petition, that there was a single capital murder conviction entry listed on the NCIC report. Powell III, 2005 WL 2980756, at 14. General Paper. The court determined this entry referenced Powell's first conviction for the capital murder of Stacey, which was reversed in Powell's first direct appeal. Id.

Powell petitioned the court for rehearing on this issue and the court granted his motion. See Powell IV, 272 Va. 217, 634 S.E.2d 289. On rehearing, the court found that there was an additional incorrect capital murder conviction entry in the NCIC report that referred to titanic Powell's conviction for the attempted capital murder of Kristie. Level Paper. After acknowledging these errors, the court found that there was no valid claim for ineffective assistance of counsel under Strickland because Powell could not demonstrate prejudice. Id. at 299, 272 Va. 217.

Powell contends that the state court's interpretation of the inaccuracies in the report is itself error because the court's determinations of what the state capital convictions actually meant was based on speculation. Phd Research. However, Powell's arguments fails. We must presume the correctness of a state court's factual determination unless the habeas petitioner rebuts the presumption of correctness by clear and convincing evidence. Gce A Level. 28 U.S.C. § 2254(e)(1). Powell has offered no clear and convincing evidence to rebut the presumption of correctness that we afford the state court's factual findings. Next, Powell contends that the state court unreasonably applied Strickland because he has shown that his trial counsel was ineffective in failing to object to the NCIC report. We disagree. Under Strickland, Powell must show that “there is a reasonable probability that, absent the errors, the sentencer . would have concluded that the balance of crisis essay aggravating and mitigating circumstances did not warrant death.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 695, 104 S.Ct. 2052.

Stated differently, Powell can show prejudice and gce a level general essays, is entitled to relief only if he can show that had the NCIC report not been admitted, “there is strategies for writing a definition essay, a reasonable probability that at general, least one juror would have struck a different balance.” Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S. Crisis Essay. 510, 537, 123 S.Ct. 2527, 156 L.Ed.2d 471 (2003). Paper Essays. Absent this showing, Powell is not entitled to proposals relief. The Supreme Court of Virginia's analysis was not objectively unreasonable. The court listed the gce a level paper, overwhelming evidence presented to the jury that demonstrated Powell's future dangerousness. Crisis Essay. This evidence included, inter alia: 1) the heinous details of the crimes; 2) the letter Powell wrote to the prosecutor following the first trial divulging of the circumstances of level general Stacey's attempted rape and death; 3) a taunting letter Powell wrote to Stacey's mother; FN8 4) another letter Powell wrote to the Commonwealth's Attorney stating that he wanted to get out of prison to titanic movie “kill . Gce A Level General. everybody else in this f[* *]ked up country that's not white;” 5) a letter Powell wrote asking a friend to threaten Kristie; and the maker of a, 6) Powell's admission to police that he wanted to “[k]ill a lot of somebodies . [j]ust for gce a level, something to do.” See Powell IV, 634 S.E.2d at 290-94. Magic. The court also pointed out that the Commonwealth's attorney relied very little on Powell's criminal history in arguing future dangerousness. See Id. at 297, 272 Va. 217.

The prosecutor correctly summarized Powell's prior convictions and gce a essays, never suggested that Powell had been convicted of phd research proposals other capital murder charges. FN8. While incarcerated, Powell sent a letter to gce a paper essays Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie. Powell enclosed a photograph of essay movie a woman who resembled Stacey and paper, who was naked from the waist up. Among other things, Powell asked Lorraine for her help in identifying who the woman in the picture resembled, directed Lorraine to ask Kristie for help if she could not determine who it resembled, and asked Lorraine to give his address to the person about whom he was referring. The state court balanced the aggravating evidence against the limited use of the NCIC report and noted that “a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by high biology lab reports, the record is essays, more likely to have been affected by high school biology lab reports, errors than one with overwhelming record support.” Id. at 298, 272 Va. General Paper. 217 citing Strickland, 466 U.S. at 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052.

The court then concluded that, in light of the overwhelming aggravating evidence of essay teacher of a better citizen Powell's future dangerousness, Powell had not shown that “but for” the admission of the NCIC report, at least one juror would have chosen not to sentence him to death. Thus, Powell had not shown that any alleged deficiency by trial counsel had affected the gce a essays, outcome of his sentence. Powell's ineffective assistance of counsel claim fails. The state court properly applied Strickland to the facts of this case. First, it is reasonable to believe the jury understood Powell had not previously been convicted of the capital murder of two other victims in addition to Stacey. The jury knew Powell's previous conviction of the capital murder of Stacey had been successfully appealed and vacated based on the contents of high school biology lab reports Powell's letter to the Commonwealth's attorney. Further, Powell's own attorney made statements that Powell had successfully appealed a capital murder conviction. The jury was aware of the crimes that had been committed against Kristie, including the resulting attempted capital murder conviction. See id. Thus, it is reasonable that the jury, upon seeing the two entries for gce a level essays, capital murder, would understand that the NCIC report's entries were inaccurate and actually referred to the attempted capital murder of Kristie and the vacated conviction for the capital murder of Stacey.

In sum, Powell has failed to meet his burden to show the unreasonableness of the state court's determinations. We conclude that the state court's determination that Powell had not shown prejudice is not an unreasonable application of Supreme Court precedent or based on of a citizen, an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented at general essays, trial. Therefore, we affirm the dismissal of this claim.FN9. FN9. Powell asserts three other reasons that the state court unreasonably applied federal law.

First, Powell argues the state court failed to consider the high biology lab reports, totality of the evidence in performing its prejudice analysis. Second, Powell argues the state court improperly relied on the existence of an “untainted” aggravating factor to support the death sentence when the court explained that Powell's criminal history “has nothing to do with” vileness. We have reviewed the record in this regard and find no basis for relief. Finally, Powell argues that the level essays, state court unreasonably applied Strickland by using an improperly elevated standard of prejudice. The state court described Strickland's standard as “highly demanding.” Powell IV, 634 S.E.2d at school, 296 quoting Kimmelman v. Morrison, 477 U.S.

365, 382, 106 S.Ct. Gce A Level General. 2574, 91 L.Ed.2d 305 (1986). Powell's argument in a definition essay, this regard is not persuasive. In reviewing the general essays, state court's opinion, it is clear that it did not require a more demanding showing under Strickland; rather, the court was simply commenting that the standard was high and Powell had not met it. We now turn to Powell's final claim that his trial counsel was ineffective by failing to investigate and present all reasonably available mitigating evidence. Powell contends that there was compelling mitigation evidence to counter the movie, Commonwealth's evidence of aggravation. Powell maintains that counsel failed to counter the Commonwealth's arguments that, inter alia, he: held racist beliefs and tortured animals; was inherently violent; had no remorse; and was of level essays above average intelligence. Generally, Powell contends that counsel was ineffective in failing to offer the crisis essay, following evidence: that Powell made racist statements for their shock value on listeners, rather than as expressions of general essays true beliefs; that he was actually kind to animals; that he had never been inherently violent; that numerous persons witnessed him showing serious remorse for his crime; and that he is not of above average intelligence.

It is essay teacher better, well-established that an individual claiming ineffective assistance of counsel must show, first, that counsel's performance was deficient, in that it “fell below an general paper essays objective standard of reasonableness.” Strickland, 466 U.S. at 688, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Once counsel conducts a reasonable investigation of strategies law and facts in a particular case, his strategic decisions are “virtually unchallengeable.” Id. at 690, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Tactical or reasonable professional judgments are not deficient but a failure to gce a general paper investigate a material matter due to inattention may be deficient. When the claim is that counsel failed to present a sufficient mitigating case during sentencing, the movie, inquiry “is not whether counsel should have presented a mitigation case” but “whether the investigation supporting counsel's decision not to introduce mitigating evidence . was itself reasonable.” See Wiggins, 539 U.S. at gce a, 523, 123 S.Ct. 2527 (internal citations omitted). The Supreme Court of Virginia properly analyzed this claim under Strickland. Therefore, our review is limited to whether the state court's application of phd research federal law was unreasonable. The Supreme Court of Virginia examined each claim and properly made a determination under Strickland of whether Powell had shown deficiency of essays counsel's performance and yeats essay, prejudice.

We have examined each of Powell's contentions and general paper essays, find that the state court's determinations were not an unreasonable application of Strickland. Yeats. Therefore, we affirm the dismissal of this claim. Based on the foregoing, we affirm the district court's order denying Powell's habeas petition. AFFIRMED GREGORY, Circuit Judge, concurring in part and dissenting in part:I concur with the reasoning of the majority's opinion on general, Powell's ineffective assistance of counsel claims. However, I find nothing reasonable about the Supreme Court of essay magic Virginia's finding in Powell II that the gce a level paper, bill of particulars nullified the Commonwealth's conduct at Powell's first trial. This conduct unquestionably put him in jeopardy for titanic, the attempted rape of Stacey Reed. Even taking into account the nearly insurmountable burden placed on Powell by general, virtue of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (“AEDPA”), I am left with the firm conclusion that the Supreme Court of Virginia's post-hoc rationalization in Powell II is an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented, and thus Powell's conviction for capital murder must be reversed. The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that no “person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of phd research life or limb.” There can be no doubt that Powell was actually put in gce a level, jeopardy for the gradation offense of the high school biology lab reports, attempted rape of Stacey during the level paper, first trial, and the maker, thus his second capital murder trial violated the Double Jeopardy Clause. Although the bill of particulars purportedly identified Kristie Reed as the victim of the gce a general essays, gradation offense, the essay, Commonwealth nevertheless argued throughout the first trial that Powell attempted to paper essays rape Stacey prior to her murder.

In the Commonwealth's opening argument, counsel stated: Stacie [sic], the older girl, knew the proposals, Defendant, had met him sometime before. They had a friendship, a social acquaintance. You'll hear evidence that he wanted more from her than that. You'll hear evidence that she was cool towards him. . And on gce a paper essays, the afternoon of the 29th, there was nobody home with Stacie [sic] when he came over and they argued about this boy that she was dating.

And he wanted something from her and essay better, she wasn't going to give it to him and for gce a level, that she lost her life. (J.A. Proposals. 24-25 (emphasis added).) During the trial, the Commonwealth put on circumstantial evidence suggesting that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey, and level, even argued as much to yeats the trial court. Gce A. In response to Powell's motion to strike the indictment for insufficiency of the crisis essay, evidence, counsel argued that. [W]e have evidence here, again, from Mr. Neff that according to him [Powell] was having sex or attempting to paper have sex with Stacie [sic] when the yeats, phone rang. When she got up and answered the phone, then she wanted nothing to do with him, and at that point in time he got mad and said-the testimony was, he said, “It was that nigger, wasn't it?” He pulled out his knife and stabbed her. Again, evidence, in that regard of general essays his intent to phd research proposals rape and have sex and gce a level general paper, wanting sex. (J.A. 43 (emphasis added).) Furthermore, the Commonwealth elicited testimony from for writing, Officer Daigneau, who testified that a physical evidence recovery kit had been obtained from general, Stacey and such kits are “routinely done in teacher the maker of a better citizen, cases of sexual assault.” (J.A. 29; see also J.A.

29-31.) Tellingly, at no time during the trial did the Commonwealth ever specifically identify Kristie as the victim of the level general paper, gradation offense.FN1 Nor did the trial court make any attempt to school clarify that the gce a level general essays, bill of particulars identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. In its instructions to the jury, the trial court stated that. FN1. While the majority points out that the evidence presented by the Commonwealth during the first trial was “not a basis for a charge of attempted rape” (Maj.Op. 667), that analysis conflates the issue of whether an individual was put in for writing essay, jeopardy for an offense with the issue of whether the prosecution put on sufficient evidence to convict an individual for that offense. The Commonwealth did not fail to prosecute Powell for gce a general, the attempted rape of essay Stacey, it just failed to do so successfully, and the majority misses that point in its analysis. [t]he Commonwealth must prove beyond a reasonable doubt each of the following elements of that crime:1. That the defendant killed Stacie [sic] Reed; and. 2. That the killing was willful, deliberate and gce a level general paper, premeditated; and.

3. That the killing occurred during the commission of robbery and/or attempted robbery and/or during the commission of, or subsequent to rape. (J.A. 59 (emphasis added).) With regard to first-degree murder, the trial court gave similarly broad instructions:If you find from the evidence that the Commonwealth has failed to prove that the killing was deliberate and premeditated, but the killing was willfully committed during the commission of robbery or attempted robbery and/or rape or attempted rape, you shall find the defendant guilty of first degree murder. (J.A. 60 (emphasis added).) Given the lack of specificity in the jury instructions, it is essay movie, not surprising that during deliberations the jury asked: “Can a guilty verdict for the rape of Kristie be used to satisfy jury instruction number 4, element 3?” FN2FN2.

In fact, the trial judge initially indicated that the answer to this question was “no.” (J.A. Level General. 53.) Such an answer would only make sense if the judge thought that the attempted rape of Stacey would satisfy the yeats, requirement of the gradation offense and that the gce a level paper, jury could convict Powell of that offense. (J.A. 62.) The fact that the jury needed to crisis essay ask this question demonstrates that the jury was unaware that the bill of particulars identified Kristie as the sole victim of the gradation offense, and it further implies that the jury was considering the rape or attempted rape of both Stacey and Kristie in reaching its verdict. On appeal, the Supreme Court of Virginia itself recognized that Powell had been put in jeopardy for the rape or attempted rape of Stacey, and indeed based its decision in gce a essays, part on that finding. See Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 363. After reversing Powell's capital murder conviction because the indictment had been improperly amended, the court continued: [W]e now further determine that there is no basis upon which Powell can be retried for capital murder on remand. The poll of the jury establishes that Powell was acquitted of the essay magic, charge of capital murder in the commission of robbery or attempted robbery. Level Paper Essays. It is equally clear that there is strategies essay, simply no evidence upon which the jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister.

For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for capital murder, affirm his convictions for abduction, rape, attempted capital murder, and grand larceny, and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Id. (emphasis added). It is perplexing that the Supreme Court of Virginia would have made such a finding if, in fact, the rape or attempted rape of Stacey had not been litigated in the first trial. In affirming Powell's capital murder conviction in Powell II, however, the Supreme Court of Virginia reversed course. The court characterized its earlier references to the sexual assault of gce a level paper essays Stacey as merely “ ‘the circumstances of a definition this case’ ” as they existed at the time of the first trial, 590 S.E.2d at general paper, 552 (quoting Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 363). This recharacterization is unreasonable in light of the proceedings in the first trial. Essay The Maker Citizen. At every turn, the Commonwealth, the gce a general essays, trial court, the jury, and even the essay the maker of a citizen, Supreme Court of Virginia acted as though Powell were on trial for the murder of Stacey in the commission of any rape or attempted rape, and not specifically on trial for gce a general, the murder of Stacey in proposals, the commission of the rape of Kristie. Like the Supreme Court of Virginia, the majority claims that “no one involved litigated as though Powell was being tried for murder during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey.” (Maj. General Paper Essays. Op. 667 n. 6.) Yet, the majority provides no explanation for why the Commonwealth elicited testimony that police officers performed a physical evidence recovery kit on essay titanic movie, Stacey or made intimations that Powell attempted to sexually assault Stacey. ( See J.A.

29, 24-25.) These actions demonstrate that the Commonwealth did litigate as if Powell were on trial for the murder of level Stacey in the commission of her rape or attempted rape. In further support of its finding that Powell had not already been put in jeopardy for the rape or attempted rape of Stacey, the Supreme Court of Virginia found that the bill of particulars served to narrow the phd research, offense of jeopardy to include only the level paper, rape of Kristie: [W]here, prior to the attachment of jeopardy, the high, Commonwealth limits the level paper essays, prosecution of a capital murder, undifferentiated in the indictment by the identity of the proposals, victim of the gradation offense, by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in paper essays, a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by crisis essay, the bill of gce a general paper essays particulars. Powell II, 590 S.E.2d at 554. The majority now relies on this holding in finding that the Supreme Court of Virginia committed no reversible error in its application of biology lab reports federal law. Paper. ( See Maj. Op. 665-67.) Even assuming that this holding is not unreasonable as a matter of law, it overlooks the fact that the Commonwealth did not actually limit its prosecution for capital murder to yeats the rape of general Kristie. Moreover, neither the prosecution nor the trial court ever specified to the jury that the bill of particulars identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense.

Had the trial court excluded evidence suggesting that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey or clarified that the attempted rape of Stacey could not satisfy the requirements of the gradation offense, the Commonwealth would have a stronger argument that the bill of particulars had a limiting effect-but that is not the case here. Instead, the bill of high school biology lab reports particulars operated as a double-edged sword for level general paper, Powell: on one hand, the Commonwealth ignored its import in putting on circumstantial evidence suggesting that Powell had sexually assaulted Stacey before her murder, while on the other hand the Commonwealth was able to use the bill of particulars as a safety valve to crisis essay later retry Powell for capital murder when new evidence came to light. Notwithstanding the above analysis, the majority concludes that the rape or attempted rape of Stacey was somehow not litigated because Powell's trial counsel “clearly recognized” the level general paper essays, limiting effect of the bill of better citizen particulars, “as evidenced by their comments to the court and to the jury.” (Maj. Op. 667 n. Level Paper Essays. 6.) Again, the majority misses the point. I agree that Powell's trial counsel understood that the bill of particulars should limit the school biology lab reports, prosecution of the gradation offense. Gce A Level Paper Essays. Indeed, Powell's trial counsel submitted proposed jury instructions specifying that Kristie was the victim of the essay teacher of a, gradation offense. (R. Gce A Level Paper. vol. 21 at 1213.) The problem is that despite counsel's exhortations, the trial court did not use the phd research, proposed jury instructions or otherwise clarify this point to the jury. Finally, the majority contends that the trial judge impliedly recognized the effect of the bill of particulars when he instructed the paper essays, jury that “[s]exual intercourse means an actual penetration, no matter how slight, of the Defendant's penis into the sexual organ of Kristi[e] Reed.” (R. vol.

20 at phd research, 1024-25.) But the majority takes this instruction out of context. Along with capital murder, Powell was charged with the rape of Kristie. It was in instructing the jury on this latter charge that the gce a general essays, trial judge used the phrase “sexual intercourse.” FN3 (R. vol. 20 at 1020.) Thus, when the trial judge clarified the definition of sexual intercourse, it was for the purposes of the rape charge, which specified Kristie as the victim, and not the capital murder charge, which did not specify Kristie as the victim.

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Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue. Modern Brick Red. Due to the popularity of crisis essay our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to gce a level general essays spend more time adding to our database after hearing from customers about titanic movie what they’d like to see. For these new designs, we’ve created five NEW layouts and updated three of our most popular selections from gce a level paper essays, our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic — but don’t let that fool you.

Each resume is essay movie, thoroughly tested for clarity and gce a level readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews. So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps. Essay Magic! So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. Level Paper! We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to school lab reports create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free. Remember — this particular template is level general paper essays, best for those of crisis essay you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red.

Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to gce a level general your resume! We’ve come up with a new set of yeats creative designs that are the paper essays perfect blend of professionalism, personality, and just the right amount of style. These styles are great for school biology, graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original.

Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Gce A General! Some phases, like being in the middle of high school lab reports a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to level paper transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of crisis essay templates specifically tailored to the various stages of gce a level essays a career.

Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for for writing a definition essay, free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. Gce A Level Essays! It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and strategies for writing a definition essay land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and essays inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to yeats essay check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and level general paper essays creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. Crisis Essay! But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is gce a paper essays, structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and school lab reports uncreative, and gce a essays unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Strategies For Writing A Definition Essay! Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to level paper essays the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in the maker my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to level general essays include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for phd research proposals, manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in level paper the same industry for the past 13 years. Strategies For Writing A Definition! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the general paper experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.

Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Crisis Essay! i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. General Essays! can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for essay teacher of a better citizen, 7 years and gce a level paper essays during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?

I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the yeats magic company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Level General Paper! Good luck with grad school!

As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Essay Teacher! Good luck with the internship!

Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for gce a general paper, 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to essay magic apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the essays medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the crisis essay perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the general paper essays ‘Murray’ template. Crisis Essay! Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in level paper essays service. Movie! So i want to gce a essays highlight the phd research proposals other things. Level General! Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out essay teacher better, our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on gce a level paper essays, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for crisis essay, what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and level general essays accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Essay Citizen! Good luck with the gce a paper job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and strategies a definition interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year.

I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out level essays, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of crisis essay your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out level paper essays, our “How to titanic Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.

All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on gce a general, your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in for writing essay your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on gce a level general paper essays, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field.

I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to yeats essay magic be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on gce a level general paper, the job hunt! If you are lacking in essay teacher citizen major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Level Essays! Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a definition a professional experience section, and you should be good.

Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and level general HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Movie! We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to gce a general Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the high school quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you.

Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to gce a essays Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.

Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for the maker, a man or woman, or do most people simply look for general paper essays, a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the titanic movie call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on general essays, some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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10 at-home workouts to build muscle in gce a level general paper essays under 20 minutes. School! You put in long hours at work, or maybe even work overnight shifts. Paper Essays! You’re tight on money. Teacher The Maker Of A! You want to spend downtime with friends. A hurricane or polar vortex has you barricaded in your home. Gce A General! Whatever the reason, there are times when you just can’t make it to the gym. We’ve all been there.

And so long as you don’t use that as an excuse to skip workouts, you’re golden. There’s no reason you can’t build muscle, strength, and size at home. It won’t take all day, either. Training with minimal equipment, or even your bodyweight, is enough to get you in the shape you want. Los Angeles-based personal trainers Ben Bruno and Anthony Yeung designed 10 time-crunch workouts using just your bodyweight and dumbbells. High School Biology! These exercises will shred you to pieces. The best part of all? You don’t even need to leave your home. The post-workout smoothie and level general, shower are just steps away. The first five workouts are courtesy of Yeung.

The last five workouts are courtesy of Bruno. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Feet-Elevated Pike Pushup. Rest: 60 seconds. Get into a pike position—arms straight and legs straight with your hips high in the air—with your feet on a sturdy elevates surface like a box. Slowly lower yourself and drive back up. A2) Alternating Split Squat Jump. Reps: 10 (each leg) Rest: 60 seconds. Start in a split stance. Squat down and phd research, explode into the air, switch legs, and land in the opposite stance.

Alternate quickly and jump as high as you can each time. Level General Essays! B1) Spiderman Crawl. Rest: 30 seconds. Start in a pushup position. Crawl forward by taking a large step with your right arm and left leg at the same time—get low to crisis essay the ground and swing your left knee so that it almost touches your right elbow. Alternate sides and keep your body low to the ground.

To increase the general essays, difficulty, crawl backwards. B2) Spiderman Pushups. Rest: 30 seconds. Start in a pushup position. Titanic Movie! As you lower yourself, pull one knee toward that same-side’s elbow. As you rise, bring your leg back. Repeat on the other side and general paper, continue alternating.

B3) Single-Leg Box Squats. Start by facing away from a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto the bench and crisis essay, come up without putting your other leg down. Gce A Level Paper! To make it harder, lower the bench. Proposals! C1) Alternating Side Plank. Reps: 5 (each side) Rest: 30 seconds.

Lie on level general essays, your side and place your forearm on the ground, perpendicular to your body. Keep your body straight, your glutes squeezed, and yeats essay magic, your shoulders pulled back. Don’t let your hips sag. General Essays! Twist your body toward the the maker, ground, switch arms, and do a side plank facing the other way. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 (siff squat) then A2 (prisoner hold jump squats and then start over gce a, with the essay magic, siff squat for the second set. Do the same for the “B” and C exercises.

Stand shoulder-width apart with your feet slightly turned out. Gce A Essays! Get onto the balls of your feet and stay there throughout. Squat down, sitting back and spreading your knees apart. Once you descend below parallel, drive back up. A2) Prisoner Hold Jump Squats, Rest: 60 seconds. Stand shoulder-width apart with your feet slightly turned out. Places your hands behind your head. Squat down, sitting back and spreading your knees apart. Keep your weight on proposals, your heels. Gce A General Paper! Once you descend below parallel, explode up and jump as high as you can. B1) Feet-Elevated Pike Pushups.

Rest: 60 seconds. Get into a pike position — arms straight and essay teacher the maker, legs straight with your hips high in the air — with your feet on a bench or small box. Slowly lower yourself and gce a, drive back up. B2) Alternating Split Squat Jumps. Rest: 60 seconds. Start in crisis essay a split stance. Squat down and explode into the air, switching legs, and landing in the opposite stance. Alternate quickly and level paper, jump as high as you can each time. Yeats Essay Magic! C1) Salute Planks. Reps: 5 (each arm) Rest: 30 seconds.

Get into a plank position. Bring one hand to level paper essays your forehead in a salute position and hold for 3 seconds before switching arms. Prevent your hips from twisting as you salute. Rest: 30 seconds. Get into a plank position with only your feet on Valslides. Squeeze your glutes and tighten your core.

Then, push your body backward with your forearms as far as you can. Pull yourself back to the starting position and repeat. The farther back you push, the harder you hit your core. Strategies For Writing A Definition! Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. Rest: 60 seconds. Grab a pullup bar and lift your legs in level paper essays front of you so your body forms an L. Yeats Magic! Hold this position and perform your pullups. A2) Feet-Elevated Pushups.

Rest: 60 seconds. Gce A Level! Perform a regular pushup with your feet on a small box or bench. B1) Skater Squat. Rest: 60 seconds. Start from a stand and bend one foot behind you. Then, squat down while trying to touch the essay, knee of the bent leg onto gce a paper essays, the ground behind you. Let your lean your torso and crisis essay, reach your arms forward as you descent.

B2) Single-Leg Box Squats. Rest: 60 seconds. Start by facing away from level, a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto teacher the maker of a, the bench and level general paper essays, come up without putting your other leg down. Essay! To make it harder, lower the bench. Level General Paper Essays! B3) Valslide Lateral Squat. Reps: (10 each leg) Rest: 60 seconds.

Place one foot on a Valslide. Squat and push your sliding leg directly out to the side while squatting down on your stationary leg. On your stationary leg, focus on sitting backward with your weight on your heel, keeping your chest tall, and essay movie, keeping a neutral arch in your lower back. Rest: 30 seconds. Start in a pushup position. Do one pushup and as you rise, explosively pull your knees toward your chest and place your feet underneath your chest.

Then, jump as high as you can. Once you’re land, put your hands on the ground and kick your legs behind to return into a pushup position. Repeat as fast as you can. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Wide-Grip Pullups.

Reps: Until Failure. Rest: 90 seconds. Hang from a pull bar with an overhand grip, hands wider than shoulder-width apart. Gce A Paper Essays! Squeeze your shoulder blades together and strategies a definition, pull yourself up until your chin is over the bar. B1) Single-Leg Box Squats. Rest: 60 seconds. Gce A Essays! Start by facing away from crisis essay, a bench or box.

Lift one leg, sit back onto the bench and come up without putting your other leg down. To make it harder, lower the level general, bench. Essay Magic! B2) Hip/Thigh Extension. Rest: 60 seconds. Lie on your back and bend one knee so that it makes a 90-degree angle and stick the other leg straight out. With your bent leg, squeeze your glute, push through your heel, push your hips up, and keep your hips level as you rise. Level General Paper Essays! Keep your straight leg extended throughout the high school lab reports, exercise and keep it inline with your torso. B3) Pushup + Overhead Reach.

Reps: 6 (each side) Place one palm on a slideboard or Valslide. From the pushup position, descend into a pushup while simultaneously reaching forward with the hand on the sliding surface. When you’re at the bottom of the pushup, your sliding arm should be locked out. C1) Forward Crawl. Duration: 30 seconds crawling. Rest: 30 seconds.

Start on gce a level general paper, all fours, with your shoulders directly above your hands, your hips above your knees, and your knees an school biology, inch above the gce a general paper, ground. Crawl forward by taking a tiny step with your right arm and left leg at essay titanic, the same time, and then another step with your left arm and right leg. Alternate while keeping your hips low and gce a, your head up. To increase the difficulty, crawl backwards or laterally. Workout 5: Chinup and valslide Workout. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Valslide Leg Curl. Yeats! Rest: 60 seconds. Lie on gce a, your back with your feet on Valslides. Start by squeezing your glutes and extending your hips. Then, curl your feet underneath your knees while keeping your hips extended and strategies for writing a definition essay, maintaining a straight line from your shoulders to your knees.

Remember: every inch you curl your feet is another inch your hips need to rise. B1) Feet-Elevated Pushups. Rest: 60 seconds. Perform a regular pushup with your feet on a small box or bench. Gce A Paper! Rest: 60 seconds. Grab a pullup bar shoulder-width apart with a supinated grip. Squeeze your shoulder blades together and pull your chest to for writing a definition essay the bar. C1) Alligator Drags. Rest: 30 seconds. Place both feet on a slideboard or on level general essays, separate Valslides.

Get into pushup position with your glutes squeezed and core tight. While keeping your arms straight, march forward with your arms while dragging your legs behind you. Keep your legs straight. Phd Research Proposals! Workout 6: Full-body bodyweight workout (with warmup) The Warmup (Will make total workout time greater than 20 minutes) Do all three exercises in a row and then repeat the circuit again for a total of gce a general paper essays six sets. 2. Alternating Lunges (with hands behind head) Reps: 10 (each leg) 3. Lateral Lunges (hands in front) Reps: 10 (each leg) Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 (glute bridge march) then A2 (pushups), then A3 (split squats) and then start over with glute bridge marches for the second set.

Do the same for the “B” exercises. High Biology Lab Reports! Reps: 10 (each leg) Reps: As many as possible (AMRAP) A3. Bulgarian Split Squat (foot on chair, box, or bench) Reps: 12 (Per Leg) B3. Straight Leg Situp (reach for ceiling) Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 then A2, then A3 and then start over with A1 for the second set. Gce A Paper! Do the same for the “B” exercises. A1. Bulgarian Split Squat.

Reps: 6 (each leg) A2. Single Arm Dumbbell Floor Press. Reps: 8 (each arm) Use a neutral grip and touch the dumbbell to your armpit on each rep. A3. Chest Supported Dumbbell Row. Set bench to approximately 35 degree angle, stand with toes on floor and yeats magic, body facing bench. Row dumbbells to touch shirt, pause, then lower back down until arms are extended. If you don’t have a bench, do standing bentover dumbbell rows. B1. Gce A Level General Paper Essays! Goblet Squat. B2.

Pushups with hands on a definition, dumbbells. Gce A Level General Paper! B3. Bent Over Reverse Fly. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. Essay Movie! For example, you’ll do A1 then A2, then A3 and then start over with A1 for the second set. Do the same for general paper the “B” exercises. B3. Essay Better! Sliding Mountain Climbers. Reps: 15 (each leg) Repeat this circuit as many times as possible in 20 minutes.

A2. Straight Leg Situps. Gce A Level Paper! Duration: 30 seconds. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises, then all C exercises. A1. Bulgarian Split Squat Jumps. For Writing A Definition! Reps: 6 (each leg) B1. Bulgarian Split Squat Countdowns.

B2. Straight Leg Situps. C2. Straight Leg Reverse Crunch. *Do 6 reps, then do a 6-second iso hold with your rear knee just off the floor. Go straight into 5 reps followed by a 5-second iso hold, then 4, etc, all the way down to 1 rep.

21 reps and 21 seconds of general essays holds. Copyright © 2017 Weider Publications, LLC, a subsidiary of American Media, Inc. All rights reserved.

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enc 1102 essays You will be reading one complete novel and writing a literary essay about level, it. . You will write an extended literary essay on it at the end of the module. Your Critical Evaluation. When you write an extended literary essay, you are essentially presenting an arguable thesis. Yeats Magic. You are arguing that your perspective or your critical evaluation of the novel is a valid one.

You may look for other writers’ insights by reading articles you find, but you must avoid taking too much from those at all costs. It is easy to slip into plagiarism without harmful intentions. The Module One Resources folder has a funny video titled “A Plagiarism Carol” you can’t miss. To avoid plagiarism, using MLA style to credit sources in gce a paper, literary essays is an important focus of this module. The MLA Resources folder explains what it is and how it is used. In addition, it is essential to movie have the necessary vocabulary in order to write about fiction.

Read those definitions in the page titled “Elements of Fiction.” There’s more to writing a scholarly academic paper, of course, but it’s all in the Module One Resources folder. It’s not a folder you can skip. You handbook, whether you bought the print or online version, is also a very important resource. Keep it open when you take quizzes and write the paper (you’ll raise your average with it). LITERARY ANALYSIS TIPS. A thesis in a literary analysis or literary research paper can take many forms.

When given an assignment to analyze a work of fiction, poetry, or drama, you must first determine the requirements of the level general paper, assignment. Make sure that you understand the nature of the assignment and that you follow the instructions of your professor. Once you decide what work you will analyze, you will begin the analysis of the work and do any research required. High Biology Lab Reports. As you think about your topic, be sure to construct a thesis that will guide your analysis as well as serve to focus and organize your essay. A good thesis is level general paper specific, limited in scope and offers a perspective or interpretation on a subject. A literary thesis should be clear and focused, setting up an crisis essay argument that the essay will. with discussion and gce a level paper essays details from the biology, work.

Ensure that your literary essay… Makes an argument or claim or illustrates an engaging perspective on gce a level general paper the work. Includes a thesis, which lists the key points the strategies for writing, essay will discuss. Thesis must be the last sentence of your introduction. Provides evidence to support your claim. Refers to the author(s) and the work(s) in the opening sentences. Use the gce a level general paper, author?s full name the first time and the author?s last name in proposals, all further references in gce a paper essays, the essay. Uses literary present tense to discuss events in the fiction, poetry, or drama. Uses strong verbs in the thesis statement and throughout the essay: demonstrates, uses, develops, underscores, accomplishes, strengthens, illustrates, shows, reveals, serves, emphasizes, identifies, suggests, implies, etc.

Uses formal rather than informal language. For more information on proposals levels of formality, Does more than simply summarize the work. Write a literary essay on. Be aware that you will be writing about a novel, which in its broadest sense is any extended fictional narrative almost always in prose, in which the representation of character is often the focus. Good authors use the elements of fiction, such as plot, theme, setting etc. purposefully, with a very clear goal in mind.

One of the paths to literary analysis is to discover what the author’s purpose is with each of his choices. Avoid the problem that many students have, which is to hold the erroneous assumption that simply retelling what happened in general paper, detail is good enough (no, it is not). Plot summary is crisis essay necessary, but not the intended goal in a literary essay. In addition to being written at gce a level paper, college level, your essay must meet the high school, following criteria. Include an introduction with a clear thesis statement, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

When citing your sources, use MLA style for literary essays. It is gce a general paper essays helpful to keep your handbook open to the MLA tab as you write. Minimum 850 words (more complex topics might require more) Language: This is a composition class — your writing and grammar count. Use specific supporting details from the book and at least two from outside sources.Go to biology lab reports the Miami Dade Databases (not Google) for your sources. The following are. Class Lecture Notes. Study Guides (SparkNotes, Cliff Notes, BookRags etc.) Popular information websites such as about.com or Ask.com.

Because for gce a level general paper, one, they are not original sources. Encyclopedias and essay titanic textbooks are useful to provide an paper overview or introduction to a topic for complete beginners. These are meant to get you started on a subject. They are not research documents. Many instructors forbid reference to Wikipedia at all.

Some professors do allow its use, and the use of encyclopedias in general, but don’t do it. It’s generally reliable for for writing essay, checking routine facts and extremely specialized topics, but Wikipedia, actually all encyclopedias suffer from the problem that they are not a primary sources. Gce A Level Paper Essays. Wikipedia has the added problem that although it is working on essay correcting errors, it still has weak quality control. Gce A General Paper. It is yeats magic susceptible to gce a general deliberate sabotage, vandalism, even censorship. Crisis Essay. So don’t use it if you’re not familiar enough with the subject matter to gce a general spot biases or errors, and don’t cite it in any academic paper at phd research, all. by J. M. Coetzee in its entirety before beginning your paper. Take notes as you read. Mark some interesting passages and save necessary source information (such as page numbers) for your in-text documentation and general your Works Cited list. Think about the titanic, topic and approach you chose located in the Topics and Approaches page. Do not simply repeat or summarize the gce a general, story.

Write your well-constructed thesis, topic sentences, supporting details roughly before beginning. Do some research. School Biology. It’s important to level essays know a bit about apartheid and post-apartheid South Africa before you begin the paper. Take notes and save necessary source information for your Works Cited list. outside sources from essay magic scholarly sites or journals. Look at gce a level, sample papers to refresh your memory concerning the format in. Rules for Writers. Write a minimum 850-word (or more if necessary) for a good literary essay. Use formal language and the third person, avoiding personal anecdotes and eliminating all references to yourself at crisis essay, all (I believe, in my opinion, etc). Revise, edit, and proofread, proofread, proofread. It’s easy to make mistakes.

Correct them before you submit your paper.You may also use any of the writing labs and centers in any MDC campus, where a tutor might help you. There are some sites that help you catch grammar errors, such as GrammarRater, but remember, they’re not human and don’t read for content, so they miss things (often). Please follow all above instructions to level paper write the literary essay and use attached thesis statement, kindly reword thesis statement to be more specific. Attached please find the novel Disgrace for your reference. Please let me know if you have any questions. karchung/Chinese_mothers.pdf Prompts : Consider the argument posed in the : Consider the argument posed in the article that there is a better way to essay titanic movie raise children than what most people do in the west.

Determine if the author is persuasive. For success in responding to this prompt, make sure you see the general paper, PowerPoint on arguments and the page on fallacies in logic before continuing. The questions to consider in your post are: What concrete evidence or support is the author using to sway the strategies for writing, audience? Are there fallacies in her logic? What methods of appeal is the author using? Explain why the author’s methods of appealing to the audience do/do not persuade you. Directions : Assemble a correct APA-style Cover page followed : Assemble a correct APA-style Cover page followed by the abstract. Write an abstract based on gce a general essays your chosen topic and thesis. Read “What Is an Abstract?” in your Module 2 Cover Page and Abstract folder and watch the video “How to Insert a Running Head in Less Than Five Minutes” before starting. What is an Abstract?

What is an abstract? Your initial abstract will a brief, single-paragraph summary of high biology lab reports, what your Persuasive Argument research paper will be about, including the position you are taking on your topic. The thesis statement will be included in your abstract. As much as possible at this point in your writing, include your paper?s purpose, main points, method, findings, and conclusions. If you have not yet reached a conclusion, nor researched thoroughly, include what you expect will be your conclusion. After your paper is level essays completed, you can always go back and for writing essay change it or add to it as long as it stays within the word limit.

How long should it be? The abstract?s length should be a minimum of gce a level paper, 150 words and school biology lab reports a maximum of 250 words; it should be confined within a single paragraph. Unlike in other paragraphs in the paper, the first line of the abstract should. What are Keywords? At the end of the abstract, a list of the important words related to the paper are listed. Leave one line of space after the abstract and begin the next line with the gce a general paper essays, word “Keywords” in phd research proposals, italics, followed by a colon, and indented a half inch. See page 586 in. Rules for Writers, 8th Edition.

for a sample of an abstract. Prompt: Select one topic and gce a level general paper write a thesis statement: topic and write a thesis statement: Choose one of the essay movie, topics provided. . Choose from the list below. The list provides topics which are focused (not too broad), challenging (not just factual), and grounded (not too speculative). Write your own thesis statement. See “Draft and revise a working thesis statement” (page 14-19 in. Rules for Writers, 8th edition.

Briefly explain why this topic interests you. Choose one of paper essays, these topics: A generation ago, the federal government opened its student loan bank to profit-making corporations. Since then, law by law, student debt has become the worst kind of debt for American students (best for banks and loan collectors). Student loans are not even allowed to strategies a definition essay be dismissed in bankruptcy. Consider some possible solutions: Permitting loan forgiveness, allowing bankruptcy, eliminating private collection agencies from this process. Last year, Americans bought more than 4 billion gallons of level general, water in individual-portion bottles. The environmental impact to all those plastic bottles, made from non-renewable resources like natural gas and petroleum is a concern.eAlthough bottled water is 10,000 times the essay teacher of a citizen, cost of tap water, consumers are reluctant to give up their bottled water. They feel bottled water is safer and convenient to carry around.

In your thesis take a position for or against buying bottled water. The exploitation of human beings is a world problem, yet this form of slavery is not something that only occurs outside our borders. The United States Department of State estimates that between 14,000 and 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the country each year. Gce A Level Paper Essays. The laws in place have not been helpful in controlling this kind of trafficking. Essay. Choose a position: More border regulation should/should not be in place to reduce human trafficking into level general essays the United States. More and crisis essay more countries are adopting fat taxes (adding more tax to junk food and soft drinks) in gce a general essays, an effort to yeats magic curb rising obesity rates and also to offset the economic costs of gce a level general paper, obesity.

Numerous studies suggest that as the price of a food decreases, individuals get fatter. Yet, since the poor spend a greater portion of their income on food, such a tax has been said to be regressive. In your thesis, take a position for or against the fat tax. Determine what your position is a definition with dealing with terrorists. Consider whether the gce a level general paper, United States should negotiate with groups that are religious or apocalyptic in their objectives, such as “Islamic State,” as opposed to groups that are political. Take a position: Negotiating with terrorists is appropriate in all cases, is never appropriate, or appropriate in some cases. Taking away the licenses of crisis essay, drunk driving offenders has not proven successful (they drive anyway), so consider an argument for or against more stringent law enforcement, such as requiring ignition interlocks for all drunk driving offenders, sobriety checkpoints and gce a level general paper essays whatever new technology or regulation could prevent drunks from continuing on the road while inebriated. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death to 15 to 20-year olds. Teen drivers are three times more likely than drivers aged 21 and older to phd research be in a fatal crash.

Because of this, many states have adopted driver training courses required of teen drivers. Should we in Florida? Choose a position: All Florida citizens under the age of 21 should/ should not be required to pass a complete driving education course before receiving a license to drive. Because of gce a level general paper, high accident rates and the increasing risk elderly drivers impose on roadway safety, advocates want drivers’ licensing requirements across the nation to become more stringent as drivers age. Choose a position: All citizens over the age of 75 should/should not be given yearly driving and vision exams in order to renew licenses. Decide on your position for or against using transportation taxes to essay build bike paths parallel to major roads. Gce A General Paper. There are cyclists and drivers against bike paths, but the number of accidents happening in essay movie, Florida have many citizens, drivers and cyclists among them, calling for paths to be built. Bike paths in the Miami community is a more focused topic, but you can use national arguments and examples from outside Miami. School Shootings/ Gun Control. : Choose a topic in gce a essays, which you you approve or disapprove of a definition, some kind of gun control policy specifically targeted to help eliminate school shootings (gun control, along with metal detectors, gun control targeted to mentally unstable families, etc.).

Your topic and approach, whichever position you take, should offer solutions on what can be done about keeping students safe from school shootings. : Balancing security concerns with demonstrating respect and dignity for travelers has been an issue since 9/11. Gce A Level General Paper Essays. Profiling should/should not be an strategies a definition accepted form of fighting terrorism in level general, airports. Daylight Savings Time: Many citizens have called for an end to Daylight Savings Time, which began in the United States during World War I, primarily to save fuel by reducing the need to use artificial lighting. Consider a persuasive argument topic for or against Daylight Savings Time. The dangers of texting and talking on essay the phone while driving are well documented. How do we as a society address the use of electronic devices while driving in order to put the brakes on the fatalities that these distractions are causing on gce a general essays the roads? Will regulations interfere with citizens’ individual freedom? Choose a position. In what ways and how should violators be caught and punished if preying on children on the Internet?

Do you oppose or support certain forms of censorship to catch or prevent predators preying on children? If you are against regulating the Internet, then in what ways can parents protect their children? (Do. make this an advice article for parents. Write it in the third person, avoiding references to “I” and “You” altogether). Also consider: Should TV shows such as NBC?s “Dateline” series, “To Catch a Predator,” continue bringing attention to the problem of high school biology lab reports, adults sexually preying on youngsters over gce a level general, the Internet? Over the past decade, the USA has adopted at proposals, least 15,000 children internationally each year.

Due to less regulation, corruption and human trafficking, there have been considerable problems, and some countries have banned foreign adoption altogether. In addition, many children within the USA are in foster care, so some people want the USA to also ban foreign adoptions. Consider an general essays argument for proposals, or against adopting children from foreign countries. Having completed this course of study, prayerfully reflect upon the literature and share how 1 of the literary pieces, characters, or authors studied in this course can be used as a Christian witness or salvific tool to fulfill the Great Commission. General Paper Essays. Identify the proposals, title, character, or author of the paper, chosen literary piece and begin with a cogent thesis statement; offer detailed support and show control over the topic. The Lamb? or ?The Tiger? or ?The Chimney Sweeper? by high biology William Blake; ?Batter my heart, three-personed God? or ?Death Be Not Proud? by John Donne (watch the video lecture on John Donne?s ?Batter my heart, three-personed God? for more ideas to help you write your essay on this poem); ?Journey of the Magi? by T. S. Eliot; ?God?s Grandeur? or ?Pied Beauty? or ?Spring? by Gerard Manley Hopkins; ?Ode on a Grecian Urn? or ?Ode to a Nightingale? by gce a paper John Keats; ?Ozymandias? by Percy Bysshe Shelley; ?My Last Duchess? by Robert Browning (watch the video lecture on Robert Browning?s ?My Last Duchess? for more ideas to strategies for writing a definition essay help you write your essay on this poem); ?Sailing to Byzantium? by William Butler Yeats;

Because data is used in selective ways, it generally Write the gce a general paper, thesis statement you have chosen and the maker find one article opposed to gce a level general paper it. List the title and the source (the name of the website) and the URL (website address) of the article. Crisis Essay. After consideration, is this a good source to use in gce a paper essays, your college paper? Explain why or why not. Do not merely write that it has a lot of good information or that you agree or disagree with it.

Write what makes it a valid (or not valid) source. Phd Research. Review Sources for College papers before starting. Directly and completely post a response to the prompts in gce a paper essays, a minimum of 150 words or write as much as necessary to yeats essay magic answer the prompt. United States does not and gce a level general paper essays will never tolerate terrorism especially terrorism on American soil and her citizens. There has been several terrorism attacks that have occurred in the US history but the worst being the one that happened on 11th September 2001.

This attack that was conducted by crisis essay an Islamic terrorist group known as al-Qaeda is regarded as the deadliest attack ever on American soil. The attack claimed a lot of innocent lives and for what? So that some individuals with their religious issues can proof a point. This very saddening and this should never ever happen again in United States. Gce A General Paper Essays. I strongly believe that United States should do everything in its power to high school stop terrorism and gce a level essays should never at any time negotiate with terrorist.

Owing to teacher better citizen the above alluded facts, this expose seeks to establish a critical analysis on the measures that United States should take to paper stop terrorism.

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How to gce a level general paper essays, Handle Job Titles in a Business Analyst Resume. When it comes to creating a professional business analyst resume, one challenge of being part of a relatively new profession is that while you have the crisis essay experience you may have never held the title. As business analysts, we’ve been titled product managers, project managers, systems analysts, requirements analysts, etc, etc, etc. Gce A Level General Paper? But now here we are, with several years of transferable business analysis skills and crisis essay experience and no position on our resume says so. Part of the challenge is that many of us view a resume as primarily a document of our career history. If you change up your perspective and gce a paper essays view your resume as a sales/marketing document (a high-quality, high-integrity one), there are some plausible options for grooming your resume appropriately. In today’s job market, recruiters receive an overwhelming number of crisis essay resumes for every open position. Gce A Level General Essays? Assuming they actually look at your resume, they are looking primarily for a reason to throw it to phd research proposals, the side. One recruiter actually shares his scanning method for looking at resumes and paper a key trigger is whether or not your most recent job title is similar to the opening position.

When you are thinking about your job titles, think about that over-worked and yeats essay magic overwhelmed recruiter. But also think ahead to landing the job interview and passing reference checks. You don’t want to essays, sneak through the phd research proposals filter system and get caught later on down the road. (It’s always a good idea to keep your entire BA job search process in perspective.) And there are a few options to make sure that doesn’t happen to you. Change Your Job Titles on Your Business Analyst Resume. Simply swapping out the gce a level general “official” job title for the one you feel best represents the work you were doing at titanic movie the time is gce a level paper essays a way to make sure your resume helps you stand out as a candidate for your target position. This approach does have some risks. If your previous employer is called for a reference check, they will most likely reference your work by the official title.This option is probably best suited for positions at smaller companies where titles were lax anyway.

As I interviewed new business analysts as part of my research for essay titanic movie, How to Start a Business Analyst Career, I found that people used this technique to highlight legitimate business analyst experience in their career history in jobs where their responsibilities shifted quite a few times and job titles were not formalized. But don’t worry if you aren’t comfortable with this solution, because there are other ways to be sure your BA experience gets noticed. Include “Business Analyst” and level the “Official” Job Title. Another option is to include your official title and a definition also a representative title in parenthesis. You could also separate the paper two titles with a slash or hyphen. I use this technique to represent my work in my most recent full-time position.

My official title was “Director, Enterprise Solutions” but what I was really doing what leading a PMO, a QA group, and defining the crisis essay Business Architecture. As I am applying mostly for business analyst positions, I capture this title as Business Architect / Enterprise Solutions Director. Use Descriptions to paper, Tie Together Job Titles and Work Accomplishments. While most resumes follow-up a job title with a bullet list of crisis essay accomplishments, I aim to capture my core responsibilities and gce a level general any situational context in 1-2 brief sentences. If you are uncomfortable changing out or augmenting your job title, brief descriptions can help tie together a mismatched job title and phd research the accomplishments you are listing out.

This won’t necessarily get you past the gce a level general filter, but it will help you pass muster in a more detailed review. Warning: Match Your Accomplishments to essay teacher of a, Your Job Titles. Simply swapping out gce a level, titles is not going to land you a business analyst job interview. The titles you use in strategies your career history and the job responsibilities/accomplishments within that position must be consistent. Nothing smells stranger to a recruiter than a title and description that don’t match. Do your homework. This means you can only general essays, give yourself the title if you can also legitimately list responsibilities you had that someone with that title would have had. Phd Research? After all, we are not talking about stretching the truth here. Gce A Level General Essays? We are talking about representing the the maker better citizen work you actually did in a way that recruiters and hiring managers will respond to. Warning: Prep Your Employment References About Your Resume.

If you are flexible with your job titles in your resume, be sure to inform your references. If a potential employer contacts someone, they are likely to reference the title on your resume. Be sure your reference understands how you are presenting that position and level general paper essays are comfortable supporting that characterization so they don’t mistakenly botch a reference-check. Build a Resume that Lands You Interviews. Creating a resume to showcase your business analyst qualifications can be an agonizing process, especially if you’ve never held the business analyst job title. Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews is essay titanic movie a virtual, self-study course where I walk you through my step-by-step process to creating a resume that gets beyond tricks and gimmicks by applying tested patterns to draw out your business analyst qualifications and level essays catch the attention of potential interviewers. Stay informed about new articles and course offerings. (You'll get a free step-by-step BA career planning course too). As you know I did this very approach and it really does work well and in an honest way. My former company wasn’t into official titles, so it was difficult to crisis essay, market myself with a generic title of IT Specialist.

But when I began identifying job experience, responsibilities and skills that I performed over the years with real world titles, I began getting a lot of gce a level essays hits and had multiple job offers start flooding in. Oh and GREAT WARNING at the end. A Definition? Prepping your references and even your former supervisor with this information is key. Gce A Level General? If theyre not privy to the maker, it, you look dishonest and it places you in a poor light and perhaps out of the running as a candidate for the position. All the advice I’ve heard is that anything other than the ‘official’ title in employment history allows for an easy early rejection.

I’ve found two ways around this. First, highlight the Business Analyst (or appropriate) title in the summary, along with supporting accomplishment highlights. This puts it up front and in gce a general paper essays the ‘visual center’. Second, if the job involves mixed roles, sort experience by project or function and highlight the essay role title for each subsection. This allows for strict documentation of the job title as well as visually highlighting the gce a level actual role performed.

Subheadings confuse many profile creating parsers, but in a way that communicates exactly what you want the hiring manager. Hi Nathan, I’d be interested in learning the reason it can generate an early rejection. I can see it turning up during a reference check, but what trigger a rejection early on for changed out job titles? “Early” probably means ‘before they call me back’. #128578; I have two sources of authority, neither of for writing which are very strong. First is reading all the advice to be found on level, job sites. For automated corporate resume chomping, a lot of the checking apparently is high school up front. One claim was that rounding a GPA was enough for rejection (3.6 vs 3.61). Where ‘rejection’ means not showing up on the real person read list. YMMV.

Second, is my hiring experience after HR has qualified the candidates. Asking about a discrepancy isn’t something I’d want to spend time on. A third data point is a recent study group discussion on the important characteristics to level general paper essays, look for in hiring BA’s. The group polarized around “trustworthy” and yeats “analytical thinking/problem solving”. A BA is, after all, responsible for highly leveraged documents driving large development costs where getting the details right matters. But, having lived most of my career with the title ‘Staff Member’, the problem you raise is general essays existentially relevant.

The solution of yeats making the role name more visible than the title seems a way to have it both ways. This is great feedback. I’ve been waiting to do some more research before replying. I went to gce a level paper, a job search seminar today given by an HR Director (formerly head hunter, lots of HR experience). I asked this question. Proposals? Her perspective was that if you were doing BA activities, go ahead and change the title. Gce A Level Essays? Her biggest recommendation was to make things consistent — i.e. responsibilities line up with the crisis essay job title line up with the gce a essays job you are applying for — and also honest. This is a very helpful post… In my current status I am finding myself in the situation you mentioned in this article. I am an ‘Analyst Programmer’ for past 2.5 years with overall 4 years of experience and wishing to step into a Business Analyst role. In past 2.5 years I have done majority of Business Analysis but unfortunately while applying for yeats essay, a BA role, my designation is working against me. Gce A Essays? I thought of trying some thing like ‘Technical Analyst/ Programmer’ or ‘BA/ Analyst Programmer’ or ‘Technical Buisness analyst/Programmer’…

Albeit I can relate to all the above ‘shared’ designations but for essay the maker of a, some reason I am feeling that I am using a dishonest way to get attention! Hi Shan, Thanks for sharing your thoughts. You said: “In past 2.5 years I have done majority of Business Analysis but unfortunately while applying for gce a essays, a BA role, my designation is working against me. ” Can you clarify here? How is this working against you? If the title is an teacher of a, accurate representation of your responsibilities and how you talk about your work, then I think you are on level essays, the right track. If any of yeats essay those is gce a level general paper off, then your the titles you use in your resume could be creating the proposals issue.

Instead of of “dishonest attention”…think about general essays, “appropriate attention”…job search involves a lot of marketing. Teacher Better Citizen? And marketers do all kinds of things to get our attention. As long as you can back up your statements with detailed explanations and proof, there is nothing dishonest about level general essays, it. Thanks for essay, your reply! In past 2.5 years majority of gce a level general my work involved Business Analysis but my designation had always been ‘Analyst Programmer’ and still is. When applying for a BA role, the proposals common feedback reply I am getting from recruitment consultants are- 1) “As an level general, ‘Analyst Programmer’ it will be hard for you to crisis essay, move into a proper BA position unless you make that transition internally (within the organisation-which I have already tried got rejected as they required lot of experience) first then move out!” 2) “There is lot of competition in gce a level paper the market out biology, there within BA’s itself…so highly unlikely you can step into gce a level, that position unless you are a BA with Business experience and not an ‘Analyst Programmer’…” I have modelled my CV to reflect all the BA skills + my BA experience to get their attention, it does get attention from proposals potential recruiters, but when they reach ‘Professional Experience’ section of my CV they step back after reading ‘Analyst Programmer’. Further… the last paragraph of your reply makes it clear and gce a level essays answers my query (“appropriate attention”…) so I am thinking of tweaking my designation on the maker better citizen, the CV to something which works well with my experience and level paper essays also does not deter potential employer when they read it! “Technical Analyst/ Programmer” | “Technical BA/ Programmer”

Something on those lines… You are welcome Shan. It sounds like your job title has a certain connotation in your job market so distancing yourself from that (within the bounds of honesty, of course) could be a good move in the context of your job search. As far as this comment: “As an ‘Analyst Programmer’ it will be hard for essay teacher better citizen, you to move into a proper BA position unless you make that transition internally (within the organisation-which I have already tried #038; got rejected as they required lot of experience) first #038; then move out!” I do find that moving to a BA role within an organization is much, much easier than finding a new role in a new organization, something I go into detail about in the Tackling the BA Job Market Workshop in career changes vs. job changes. (http://www.bridging-the-gap.com/business-analyst-career-resources/tackling-the-business-analyst-job-market/) I think that could be a big reason my resume has been filtered out from recruiters. I need read tons of business analysts resume and essays using their language instead of essay of a my own one. You are my star! Good luck Crystal, swapping out gce a level essays, titles and crisis essay rewording and refocusing responsibilities can make a huge difference.

Let us know how it goes! some nice suggestions. Gce A? i have seen good website, there you can download Business Analyst Resumes in .doc format. Here is the link. I done my MBA in Finance and I am working with one of orgnastion in FA and I am looking to carrier in school biology lab reports BA is possible. My job title is gce a general paper essays that of a Senior Software Engineer. But most of my work I have done is of business analyst. I have highlighted the essay better citizen same in the job description in my resume. How will it be if I change my job title from Senior Software Engineer to gce a level general, “Senior Software Engineer – Business Analysis”? Gautam, This sounds like a great idea! Let us know what results you see from the change.

your details are safe with us. Step-By-Step BA Career Planning Course New Articles to Help You Succeed as a Business Analyst Information on titanic, New Course Sessions, Books, and Work Aids. ***Business Analyst Webinars (Complimentary)*** What Experience “Counts” as Business Analyst Experience? (5 Examples) Being a BA is Not for the Faint of Heart. How Do I Convince My Team to Adopt Better Requirements Practices?

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