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Seven Life Processes Essay Sample. The seven processes of life are the key to australian, all living organisms: these processes consist of nutrition, growth, movement, respiration, reproduction, sensitivity and excretion. Although, they may be achieved in different ways depending on the organism. These processes happen with in both plants and animals; in each organ, cell and organelle. All these processes are interlinked and have a chain effect upon one another. Without one of courage vs recklessness essay them the others aren’t possible. For living things to australian film essay, find energy/nutrients they have to interact with their surroundings, this is only possible if movement is able to happen. A plant will turn its leaves to the sun (phototropism): strands of xylem and in sanskrit on diwali, phomen provide a skeleton like structure for the plant to grow towards the light source. Whilst a plant’s roots grow downward in response to the pull of gravity known as gravitropism. Nastic movement in australian film essay plants do not involve growth and do not depend on the direction of the stimulus.
The leaflets of a Mimosa Pudica, after being exposed to thermal stimuli through touch react due to the change on essay conclusion, turgor pressure within the base of each leaflet. It can take only a few seconds to cause a response. Another nastic response is sleepmovement, known as photonasticy, a plant’s response to night and day. This again is a reaction from the change of film turgor pressure in language motor cells. Active transport is an example of movement on cellular level as only take place in a living system that is actively producing energy by respiration. Energy is needed for the molecules or ions to be carried against their concentration gradient. (M.B.V.
Roberts, Biology a functional approach) Animals have the ability to move from one place to another. This occurs in three different environments, water, land and australian film, air; in basic terms it enables them to move away from danger and find food. In water, buoyancy reduces the influence of gravity. The primary force restricting forward movement is drag, so the essays language body shape of the organism is important in order to reduce the friction and turbulence created through swimming. The sinuous undulation of an eel’s body propels it forward as each body segment pushes against the water and the moving wave forces the film essay eel forward.
On land, vertebrates and arthropods have been able to develop the means of rapid locomotion across a surface. Both of these body groups are raised above the ground by a series of jointed appendages, the legs, and essays language on diwali, can move forward by pushing against the ground. Not only australian film, do the legs provide propulsion but also support for writing india, the body, providing it with stability, helping the body maintain its centre of gravity when moving. In the air, flight is achieved by birds and insects by pushing down against the air with their wings. This raising and australian, lowering of the sociology papers wings happens due to film essay, the alternating contraction of the extensor muscles known as the elevators and the flexor muscles, the depressors. In flies and insects, the movement of their wings are too rapid for nerves to writing services, carry successive impulses. So in order for this to happen flight muscles are not attached to the wings, but to the stiff wall of the australian essay thorax, that becomes distorted in and out by the movement. The result of this distortion triggers its contraction in turn without the arrival of a nerve impulse. For example, a mosquito can beat its wings more than 1000 times per second. Respiration is a chemical change carried out in all living animals and plants, and is a continuous process.
Not all animals respire in a thesis the same way, but in all cases they consist of numerous flat surfaces, sacs or tubes, with a large surface area. For instance earthworms exchange gases across the entire surface area of the body, flatworms are the same but through having a flattened body the surface area not only film, maximises respiration but also decreasing the distance in which diffusion has to occur within the body of the essays in sanskrit language on diwali worm. External gills are another way of increasing the surface area for respiration an essay, example of this can be found on a lugworm where respiration occurs not only in the gills but across the body surface. Internal gills within a fish are highly vascularised, a ventilation mechanism in this case the opening and closing of a fishes mouth, drawing the defending a thesis exam water through the gills. Within arthropods gas is exchanged at the terminal ends of the tracheal tubes that spread throughout the body penetrating all the tissues. In larger animals, especially active ones, the surface volume ratio is australian too small, expansion of the thorax draws air down the respiratory tract into the lungs. The lungs consist of tree like structure made up of bronchioles spreading throughout the lungs with each one ending with alveoli. Defending A Thesis Exam! It is australian here that gas exchange takes place through the alveolar membrane, a very thin barrier only defending oral, 0.3 (.m thick in its thinnest part, reducing resistance to enable easy diffusion into the bloodstream.
Within humans two lungs contain approximately 700 million alveoli giving it a total surface area of over 70 sq meters, giving the lungs an film essay, enormous surface area for gas exchange to take place in. Looking at respiration on a cellular level it involves metabolic reactions that use energy from carbohydrates, fatty acid, and amino acid breakdown all to produce ATP molecules. It is vs recklessness a process that requires oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide and is known as aerobic respiration. Australian Film Essay! It usually involves the complete breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. This process takes place within Mitochondria for best friend essay, both plant and animal cells.
In animal cells glucose molecules are high energy are high energy whereas the breakdown products, carbon dioxide and water are low energy therefore energy has to be released. The carbon dioxide and film essay, ATP are then transported out of the essay Mitochondria and into the cell’s cytoplasm where the ATP is then ready to australian, be used elsewhere. The carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell through the plasma membrane and into the bloodstream to be carried to the lungs where it can be exchanged. The water can either remain in the cell, be diffused into the blood or excreted by the kidneys if need be or released by homotherms as a way of maintaining body temperature through sweating. In plants aerobic respiration occurs in the opposite direction to photosynthesis. As photosynthesis builds up sugars at spring season essay, the same time respiration is using them up, unlike photosynthesis it is an on going process. In anaerobic respiration oxygen is not present, and australian film essay, the glucose molecules are only partly broken down so instead of the end product being carbon dioxide and water it is lactic acid or ethanol depending on the nature of the organism. Within the animal world it is lactic acid that is produced during vigorous exercise when the heart and lungs are not able to supply enough oxygen to the muscles. This form of respiration is essays in sanskrit language not as efficient as aerobic respiration as only a small amount of australian essay energy is released due to the glucose only being party broken down. So in terms of energy production anaerobic respiration would be an insufficient process if it were carried out continuously.
However during exercise it is extremely useful as the lactic acid produced can be broken down or converted into carbohydrate using the Krebs cycle when oxygen becomes available. In plants, ethanol that is the product of anaerobic respiration, and unlike humans with lactic acid, it is not possible for assignment services india, ethanol to film essay, be converted into carbohydrate or be oxidised. As ethanol is toxic to plants it cannot accumulate, in order to stop this from only plants can only respire anaerobically for short periods of time. An example of this is during seed germination, but before the concentration of ethanol gets to high anaerobic respiration must stop and defending a thesis exam, the plant will revert back to aerobic respiration. Every type of essay organism can make more or another like itself like its self. There are two different ways in doing this: sexually and defending exam, asexually. Sexual reproduction involves meiosis, gamete formation and fertilization resulting in offspring being produced with inherited chromosomes from each parent creating a unique combination of genes allowing genetic variability and in a changing environment contributes to evolution. Film! Gametes are haploid, it is not possible for them to develop unless they fuse properly this is known as synagmy. Gametes that differ in shape size and behaviour are known as heterogametes. Best Essay Conclusion! An example of heterogametes is eggs and sperm with synagmy taking place during fertilization. After many cell divisions an embryo develops for australian, example into a specific type of defending a thesis whale or a flower due to the blueprint, or nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or sometimes ribonucleic acid (RNA).
It is these complex molecules that are present in all living organisms. Gametes contain one set of chromosomes, while a zygote is a diploid and contain two sets. It takes two distinct gametes, formed though meiosis, to form a zygote. With human reproduction the gametes involved are sperm and eggs. Often the male gamete is called the spermatozoon and australian film essay, usually has a flagellum. Whereas the female gamete is essays in sanskrit language known as the ovum and is produced in the ovaries, unlike the spermatozoon in nonmotile and is larger than the film male gamete. There are two different types of fertilization; external and internal. In human reproduction it is internal fertilization that takes place. The spermatozoon has a head, neck, middle piece, tail and end piece. Within the head is the nucleus where the DNA is held, as it is a haploid it only contains half the number of chromosomes, the other half is in the egg.
The tail is used for propulsion to swim. Surrounding the axial filament that runs the full length of the tail are densely packed mitochondria, rich in respiratory enzymes providing the energy enabling the spermatozoon to swim. External fertilization is courage essay where eggs are fertilized outside of the body, an example of this can be found in fish when the male deposits sperm into a body of water and they travel until they reach an film essay, egg or eggs that have been deposited into the water by a female. Sociology Papers! Internal fertilization is where the sperm is deposited into the female egg within the reproductive tract. Like animals, plants contain ovaries within their flowers, some may only contain one but it is here that the australian film haploid egg cell is found within an embryo sac. The male part of the flower is the known as the courage anther, it is here that the male gametes are made through meiosis in the form of pollen. When the grains of australian essay pollen are mature the season essay anther dries out and a process called dehiscence occurs where the anther splits and the pollen is released. Film Essay! If pollination is to occur the pollen needs to season, land on a compatible stigma here a pollen tube will grow so that the haploid within the embryo sac can be fertilized, creating a diploid zygote that then goes through the process of mitosis and divides many times to produce an australian film essay, embryo. Asexual reproduction does not involve fusion or the manufacture of gametes from two parents.
Every asexual organism can reproduce on its own, this means that every new organism produced this way is genetically identical to the parent, resulting in no variation. This can be useful in spring essay agriculture and horticulture but has some disadvantages as it can not adapt to a changing environment or evolve defences against a new disease, therefore m any asexually reproducing organisms can reproduce sexually as well. Some species of plant’s stems arch and australian film essay, take over a new root at their tips; a good example of this is a strawberry plant. Assignment Services! The staolon of the strawberry plant produce new daughter plants at alternate nodes, rhizomes, bulb, corms and tubers are used for asexual reproduction underground and also for food storage (Mader, Biology, 508). Leaves provide another site for reproduction when mitosis occurs at meristems long the leaf margins of the Bryophyllum plant. Tiny plantlets are produces that then fall off to take up their own existence. Within the animal kingdom asexual reproduction doesn’t take place on a large scale due to homozygosity. Various methods of asexual reproduction include budding, parthenogenesis, gemmules and polyembryony. Budding is when offspring develop as a growth of the parent. This is true to jellyfish; hydra cells within the organism split into parent and daughter cells. The process starts with the formation of australian essay a small bud on the side of the body, as it enlarges it develops tentacles and eventually drops off.
Corals on the other hand do not drop off; they stay as attached to form colonies. In parthenogenesis females produce eggs that then go on to develop without getting fertilized this can be found in some species of fish frogs and insects. Flatworms reproduce by the means of gammules. This involves cell masses being released from the organism. Essay! And finally olyembryony is when a large number of essay propagules are produced within the creature and then released to enter the next phase of their life cycle. The removal of toxic waste from plant and animal cells caused by the high number of metabolic reactions carried out in the organisms is known as excretion. These reactions include aerobic respiration (producing water and carbon dioxide), anaerobic respiration (producing lactic acid or ethanol and carbon dioxide), dehydration synthesis (producing water), protein metabolism (producing nitrogenous wastes) and other metabolic processes that can produce salts, oils, etc. Different species of animals have different means in which the go about this process. Fresh water flatworms are equipped with two strands of branching tubules that open to the outside of the defending body by pores, situated within the tubules are flame cells that flicker, propelling excess water and waste products out of the body.
There are many other excretory systems in small organisms such as nephridra in earth worm and malpighian tubuoles in insects. The main excretory organs within higher animals (mammals and other vertebrates, regarded as having relatively advanced characteristics) are lungs, liver, skin and kidneys. Lungs are responsible for the excretion of australian film essay carbon dioxide and water, the waste products of cellular respiration are removed as gasses through respiration, and this is done through exhalation of the lungs. The liver is the largest organ in spring essay vertibrates, and is known for its multipurpose qualities. Australian Film Essay! It changes the haemoglobin of worn out red blood cells into bile pigments, bilirubin and biliverdin.
These pigments are then passed into the alimentary canal to be excreted within faces. Best Friend Conclusion! It is also here where the conversion of ammonia into urea takes place and is then excreted through urine as uric acid. This evaporates and cools the body. When the kidney fails urea is excreted by sweat glands. The skin excretes through sweat glands, these sweat glands produce a solution consisting of water and salt, this evaporates and australian, cools the body, and on diwali, is a vital part of temperature control within the organism. Small amounts of other metabolic waste products are collected from australian around the body and sent to the sweat glands for excretion transported via the bloodstream, urea being one of them. Kidneys are a pair of organs found in vertebrates, used for regulating the chemical composition of the exam blood and are the site for the production of urine. Urea is australian created within the nephrons of the kidneys; from here it is transported to the glomerular capillaries where the filtration of the urea takes place through its semipermeable walls.
Unlike animals, plants do not have any specific excretory organs, but excretion still takes place, in the stomata of the leaves and the lectins of stems ridding the plant of gaseous wastes consisting of carbon dioxide and oxygen that are produced through respiration and photosynthesis. Another way in which a plant can excrete products of metabolic reactions is through storage within leaves and bark, when the leaves and bark are shed the harmful toxins are eliminated. An example of this is tannin stored within the bark. Nutrition is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for assignment writing, health and australian, growth. Compared to the simple nutritional requirements of plants, an animal’s requirements are more complex. An animal that feeds on solid organic material must have the means of obtaining it and be able to friend conclusion, break it down into a suitable substance for ready for absorption within the body. And like wise with in a plant the conditions must be correct too. There are different types of essay nutrition across the animal and plant kingdom, autotrophic, heterotrophic, saprotropic, parasitic and holoztic. However I am only going to courage vs recklessness essay, be concentrating on essay, two. Autotrophic can be known as self feeders such as algae, these feed on their own food out of raw materials. Spring Season! Where as heterotrophs need a source of organic nutrients.
Within this category there are herbivores, animals that directly graze on plants. Omnivores, that feed on australian essay, both animals and plants and Carnivores that feed only on other animals. Courage Vs Recklessness Essay! The nutrients that are required by animals include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, minerals and australian essay, vitamins. Up to best friend essay conclusion, two thirds of an animal’s daily calorie intake is from carbohydrates, making them the basic source of australian film energy for all animals, that have to obtained form their external environment. Assignment India! Whereas plants synthesize carbohydrates during photosynthesis. Lipids are used for the formation of some hormones, the sheaths surrounding nerve fibres, cell and organelle membranes. The fats are also a useful energy source. During the digestion process nucleic acids are broken down into nucleotides and are the ready to be absorbed into australian film essay, the cell, where they are used for the construction of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid (DNA and RNA). Proteins are made up of 20 kinds of amino acids, many can be synthesized, but others need to friend essay, be supplied through diet where they are broken down into their constituent amino acids during digestion.
On a cellular level they are essential within the australian cytoplasm, membranes and a thesis, organelles, not only are they needed in cell structure they are major components of australian muscles ligaments and tendons. Animals tend to acquire the in sanskrit language minerals they need through the consumption of australian film essay plants, these minerals include sulfur, potassium, phosphorous, zinc and magnesium. Vitamins are required to do different jobs around the body and are only needed in trace amounts, they can be water soluble or fat soluble. For good vision vitamin A is needed, vitamin B is used in cellular respiration and season essay, vitamin D helps assist in the absorption of calcium. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the three of the elements that make up 95% of the dry weight of a flowering plant and are taken from the air and water. The absorption of chemicals from the soil via the roots provides the remaining 5%. In total there are 17 essential inorganic nutrients, or elements, including carbon, hydrogen and oxygen some of the essential nutrients that are needed more than others are known as macronutrients and australian essay, those that are needed in smaller amounts are referred to as micronutrients but are all needed in specific amounts. The macronutrients absorbed from the air are oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The ones that are obtained through the india soil are nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and sulphur.
No micronutrients are obtained through the film essay air, only the soil, and these consist of iron, boron, chloride, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and nickel. Green plants obtain energy through the process called photosynthesis in order to build up sugars from carbon dioxide and water using sunlight as the source of season essay energy, this type of australian film nutrition is known as autotrophic. However plants can also be Hetertrophs and are known as carnivorous or insectivorous plants, all these plants have green leaves and obtain their carbohydrate by photosynthesis but nitrogen from the bodies of their victims. Best Essay! They attract their insect by their colour, scent of sugary bait. When trapped they are then killed and digested by fluid produced by the plant that is rich in film protease. The Venus fly trap is courage essay a wonderful example of this. Both plant and animal organisms grow. Plants however continue to grow throughout their lifetime, whereas animals stop once they have reached adulthood.
It is a gradual increase in size that is aquired by an organism in the course of its development. Australian Essay! During the course of its life there are three main processes that contribute to growth cell division, assimilation and cell expansion. Cell division within multicellular organisms is the basis of growth in order to grow to the size of the parent cell. For this to happen the daughter cells must be able to manufacture new structures from the absorption of raw materials from their surroundings. This is known as assimilation and results in the expansion of cells.
Within plants growth is aided by the uptake of water through the in sanskrit language on diwali process of osmosis into vacuolated cells causing the cell to essay, expand like a balloon, this can result in rapid elongated of the stem. One example of where this happens on a plant is spring season within localized regions in the plant called meristems, the site on a plant where new shoots form. Growth in both plants and animals tends to be regulated by film essay hormones, all stages of life. In plants growth is controlled by hormones known as auxins. In mammals the hormone most commonly involved is assignment india secreted by the pituitary gland and australian film essay, carried through the bloodstream directly to the epiphyses within the bones and to defending a thesis oral, other sites where growth is taking place. During adolescence the rate of growth is increased due to the pituitary gland producing an abundance of film growth hormones resulting in a growth surge. All organisms react to papers, stimuli, ranging from a plant growing towards the sunlight to the rapid withdrawal of australian film one’s hand from a hot object. Plant react to fewer stimuli than animals, gravity, water and light are the main stimuli but also changes in temperature, chemicals and touch.
Usually a plant will respond gradually by a altering its direction of growth or rate of growth. These slow movements are referred to as tropsims, and are controlled by chemicals called plant growth regulators. An example of this can be seen over the course of the day in writing india a sunflower, as it tracks the movement of the sun. In the morning the flower head face will face east and by sunset it will be facing west. This happens as the chemicals within the stem cells shift from one side to the other, resulting in movement. The influence of light effects how shoots grow, they bend towards it maximising photosynthesis. Roots will grow downwards to seek out water and also because of Gravitropism (the effect of gravity). Temperature and the water content of the australian soil will affect when seed germinate.
For example the change in papers on poverty temperature and light for the Forsythia plant results in a change in auxin flow, causing the elongation of cells breaking the connection between the layers of cells, allowing the leaves to essay, fall off the plant. In animal organisms external conditions stimulate the nervous system happens through a chain of events starting with a receptor. This receptor may be eyes (light), ears (sound), taste (chemicals in foods) touch which is usually through the skin (pain, heat, cold, pressure) and the nose (smell). An animal’s response to stimuli, such as light, sound and scent tends to be rapid and can be essential to its well being and on poverty, survival. If you were to hit your finger with a hammer the touch receptors will respond, (pain and pressure) an electrical signal will be transmitted to the through the nervous system to the brain. Here the film essay signal is interpreted causing a response to address the courage vs recklessness stimulus. Australian! In this case withdrawal of your finger. The nervous system includes sensory receptors, sensory neurons, and motor neurons.
Sensory neurons are activated by a change in the external or internal environment know as the sociology stimuli. This is then converted to an electronic signal that is transmitted to a sensory neuron, which then connects to the sensory receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS processes will then process this information and send a signal to the effector organ through a motor neuron, causing the australian essay organ to respond in vs recklessness the correct manner. This is referred to as a reflex arc. This relationship between the sensory and motor neurons is a reflex; a reflex is quick due to only a few neurons being involved. Somatic reflexes are when the australian film essay result is the contraction of assignment writing services india skeletal muscle, whereas autonomic involve the activation of smooth and australian essay, cardiac muscle. An example of this is an increase in heart rate.
Although these reflexes are different they have the same five basic elements: receptor, sensory neuron, integration center (the CNS), motor neuron and effector. To conclude, all living organisms display the seven signs of life: all living things ingest substances, grow even when fully mature, move, respire and in sanskrit language, reproduce; they are all sensitive to their environments and excrete waste matter. www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/reproduction/revise-it/sexual-reproduction www.faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102 www.preservearticles.com/excretionsystem. Sylvia S. Mader, Biology (Mc Graw. Hill 8th edition 2004) M.B.V. Roberts, Biology a functional approach (Nelson 4th edition 1986) Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and essay, order Seven Life Processes. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
Relevant essay suggestions for essay, Seven Life Processes. Q1.Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition with examples Autotrophic Nutrition| Heterotrophic Nutrition| The mode of nutrition in which organisms can prepare their own food, using raw materials water and carbon… Cells: Structures #038; Processes. Organelles Illness – Imagine that you are part of a research team that specializes in australian diagnosing disorders associated with malfunctioning cellular organelles and structures. Medical doctors consult you to… Carbon Dioxide/ Oxygen Animals are Producing/ Consuming. Introduction Every cell needs a source of energy in order to perform their daily functions. However the process to get this energy is different for assignment writing services, plant and animal cells. Plants… Seven ways the animals survive and respond to australian film, their environment. All animals survive and respond to defending oral exam, the environment in seven different ways.
Animals carry out the following essential functions: feeding, respiration, circulation, excretion, response, movement, and reproduction. Feeding: Animals have… Cellular Photosynthesis and Respiration. Photosythesis and Cellular Respiration are both processes in Biology which transform energy in one form to another. Photosythesis is the process in which light energy is film essay converted into chemical energy…
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The host patch is defending a thesis oral exam, added to your non-critical updates automagically. Scan your hosts for missing updates and then remediate. I run a lot of different types of NICs, From Broadcom (bnx2 driver) to Intel (e1000e driver). I’ve not had any issues in years with these cards. Australian Film. I’m not sure who’s dropping the oral ball on the NetXen, but these cards just never seem to work 100% all the time. One major issue that I’ve encountered that actually triggers an australian HA failover is the best friend essay infamous transmit timeout. Australian Film. There are lots of results for people having this problem if you search Google. Best Friend Conclusion. Most of the recommendations are to turn off TCP Segmentation Offload (TSO). Australian Film Essay. However, the March edition of the nx_nic drivers don’t even support TSO, so that’s not the issue. To find out the stats on your card, issue this command:
The results when using version 4.0.585 of the nx_nic drivers are: As you can see, TSO is disabled. Additionally, the driver download page also states that TSO is not a functioning feature. The issue you will see in the messages.log file of the spring season essay ESX host affected is australian film, as follows. In my case the defending a thesis oral exam issue is on a card with vmnic0, 1, 2, and 3. From what I can tell, this basically means that the card puked somewhere at the driver level and essay, reset. I have several hosts that use a pair of spring essay these cards (one on board, the other in australian, a PCIe slot). I’ve had several occasions where the assignment india cards reset and HA no longer has an uplink to use for heartbeats, so it immediately goes into an isolation response – the advanced HA option of australian film essay das.failuredetectiontime is defending oral exam, rendered useless (I have my clusters set to 60 seconds).
By default, HA shuts down guest VMs. Australian. The timeline is like this: Cards timeout and a thesis, reset. HA immediately panics and the host goes into an isolation response. Film Essay. The VM guests are shut down (default behavior). As the VMs are shutting down, the card is reset and the uplink is restored. HA heartbeats are received once again. VMs are never powered on at another host location and remained off! TSO in Upgraded Firmware and Drivers. As of the 4.0.598 build of the nx_nic drivers, TSO makes a comeback.
As you can see from the results of my ethtool query, I do now have TSO and it is enabled. If this causes a problem in the future, I’ll disable it – however it was disabled previously (or rather, it was not available), so I don’t know how it could cause further problems to have it on. #128578; There was an best announcement from HP on 8/11/2011 that a number of firmware updates are also available for the NetXen suite of hardware. The article states clearly: FIRMWARE UPGRADE REQUIRED to Avoid the Loss and australian film, Automatic Recovery of Ethernet Connectivity or Adapter Unresponsiveness Requiring a Server Reboot to sociology papers, Recover. To update your firmware on a VMware host, use the “Firmware Upgrade for the NC375i, NC375T, NC522m, and NC522SFP Adapters Under VMware” section, or get a hold of the NetXen firmware CD/ISO as I have and essay, install over iLO. Thank you to Ben Richter for discussing his issues with the NetXen cards and emailing me over this link! Unless you are extremely confident in courage vs recklessness, your network and NetXen cards, set your HA isolation response to film, “leave powered on” if you are running ESX 4.1 or higher. It will cost you some time when a real HA event occurs, but will save you from this nx_nic headache. The chance of best friend a real HA event are much, much slimmer than having the cards reset (they seem to do it on a random host monthly). I’ve submitted a number of australian essay SRs to VMware, but they are unable to assist as it’s considered a driver issue.
If you find a permanent solution, please share in the comments. We have just implemented 7 of these hosts and the other day one host went dark twice in one day. The host completely lost all connectivity on both nics as the same time (which is a thesis exam, unfortunate when you run all the australian film networking and storage across them. I really hope the friend essay HP 930 firmware plus these latest drivers resolve the issue. I know that our SQL team uses DL 580s and 980s and have reported some network issues as well, which also use these cards, which reinforces my belief that the film NetXen card will probably not make it into the next rev of best G8 servers. #128578; Hi, We had the exact same isolation issue as well with HP NC375T PCI Express cards two different servers on the weekend. Australian Film. Broadcom cards were unaffected.
Driver versions of the season NC375T cards as below. Thanks for film essay sharing your experience, Chris. I have not gone longer than a month without the issue randomly popping up on my DL 580 cluster, so I still have about 3 weeks left before I know if the assignment writing new 4.0.598 drives fix the issue. Using the “leave powered on” isolation response has been enough to safeguard from a false positive so far. Essay. When the nic failure occurs, the host typically has a bang on it with an alarm stating “host error” along with HA noticing a degraded cluster. I’ll make sure to update the post with the outcome. Our big problem is that on our hosts we are putting ALL traffic across them so when it drops…well, everything hits the best essay conclusion dirt including the VM’s…. I know its a little late in responding to your post, however..I am having an issue (maybe) similar to film, what is happening above. I have a Dl380 G7 series in place with 2 4 port nx_nics. Sociology Papers. How when trying to configure Jumbo Frames, I keep getting the following error:” VMkernel failed to set the essay MTU value 9000 on the uplink vmnic10? I can create a vswitch and Port group and essays in sanskrit language on diwali, set it to 9000, however I can’t get the NX_Nics to attach…I have broadcom onboard nics and australian, they work perfectly. Essays In Sanskrit Language. I have also followed the post above and it stil hasn’t helped..any ideas?
thanks in advance. I can’t say I’ve encountered this issue, but I also don’t use (nor encourage) the use of jumbo frames for film VMware. There are a number of articles out on courage vs recklessness, the web that reinforce this belief through performance tests – in australian film essay, some cases, jumbo frames can decrease overall performance due to the workload being virtual machines. They do not typically send large strings of data that could take advantage of a jumbo frame. As for your issue, ensure that your vSwitch is set to an MTU of sociology papers 9000 before trying to do the same on the vmkernel port. I just called HP Tech and film, they have a known issue with the NC375T and vs recklessness, not being allowed to enable Jumbo frames with ESXi 4.X.
HP Solution:is downgrade firmware to australian film essay, 4.0.544 as a work around. I have not tested this! I lost the four LOMs in a DL580 G7 last week, even with current firmware and driver in spring season essay, ESXi 4.1. Australian Film Essay. Thos whole nx_nix thing seems like a disaster. Just another update everyone – I got a hold of some RC drivers / firmware for the cards from Qlogic and STILL had the NIC disconnect / reset on a host. I don’t have the version numbers off hand but will update when I do. Seriously disappointed with this card. I too am having the same issue with configuring Jumbo Frames (want one NC375T nic for iSCSI).
I have updated to spring season essay, the latest firmware as of Nov 22 2011, which is essay, 4.0.579. HP advised to downgrade to best friend essay, 4.0.544, but there is an advisory regarding the unresponsiveness/stability issue that states that the film essay issue is resolved in firmware 4.0.556 and later. So it seems to essays on diwali, be a catch 22 … either have stability + no jumbo frames, or jumbo frames + no stability. What a mess, I am waiting for more updates from HP. Film. Probably time to essays in sanskrit language on diwali, return these cards I think. We completely replaced all our HP dual port nic’s with the Intel X520-SR1 (E10G41BFSR) single port cards at a cost of $12000 (since we only ever used a single port anyhow) and since that time we have not had a single incident or issue with our esx farm dropping.
I’d call that money well spent because I can sleep at night now. […] I’ve used HP from film a server capacity, as evident from some of defending my posts complaining about the nx_nic issue, and am familiar with the BladeSystem, Matrix (MOE), CloudSystem, and Cloud Maps concepts (of which […] We’ve decided to go the same route as Mark Hodges and simply replace the australian film cards with Intel cards. I don’t have the a thesis oral exam exact model (I no longer work at the company where the australian essay servers are located) but the problem affected so many servers (including non-VMware DL980 G7’s) that it was thought to in sanskrit on diwali, be best to australian film, simply rip and replace. We have 8 DL580 G7s. Each hosts has the sociology on poverty NC375i NC375T (2 x 4 ports) When we started we experienced the australian film essay Host Isolation issue.
Firmware at the time was 4.0.554 and 4.0.554. We upgraded to 4.0.579 firmware using a Windows 2008 R2 installed on a hard drive and the online firmware updater. We also loaded 4.0.594 driver. After this change the Host Isolation issue did not occur, but we still had cards stop passing traffic, despite being up. In this condition no VLANs shown in Network Card configuration, but the writing services india cards showed 1000/Full. This was a huge problem as VMs were not moved when they needed to be.
At this point we were using only Link Status as the Network Failover Detection method. Sooo…we switched to Beacon Probing for everything. This allowed us to identify network outages and have VMs be moved to functioning network adapters. We also noticed that with firmware 4.0.579 we no longer had both cards fail at film the same time. We also upgraded to 4.0.598 driver using the vihostupdate.pl command. vihostupdate.pl –server –install –bundle C:Downloadsoffline-bundle602ntx-nx_nic-4.0.602-164009-offline_bundle-509624.zip. After loading the 4.0.598 driver (still using firmware 4.0.579) we had better overall stability.
Although we still would get notices from a thesis exam vCenter like this: [VMware vCenter – Alarm Network uplink redundancy lost] Lost uplink redundancy on virtual switch “vSwitch0?. Physical NIC vmnic0 is down. Affected portgroups:”vMotion”, “Management Network”. Sometimes the alerts would not even show up in vCenter the outage was so brief. Essay. VM connectivity seemed pretty good, although we did have several occasions where a host had slow network access and vMotion them to another host resolved the issue. Yesterday we began loading the 4.0.602 nx_nic driver from essay this package. “VMware ESX/ESXi 4.x Driver CD for Qlogic for NIC Driver for NetXen HP NC522SFP (P3) Ethernet Devices” It loaded successfully on essay, all of our Hosts, although it has not been long enough yet to know if this finally fixes the remaining up/down alerts we experience. With the essay 4.0.598 driver those alerts did not start for several weeks, but then occurred every couple of days or more per hosts. We are strongly leaning toward replacing all 8 ports per host with Intel cards if this driver does not resolve the issue.
This has been a very trying process and I loathe the person who ordered the hardware. Essay. They thought “having the same card will lead to less chance of problem due to driver conflicts”… too bad it also leads to on poverty, a single point of failure when the australian film driver is the conflict. I hope this helps others as we have invested far more time than we should have to spring season, considering we are using hardware on the HCL from name brand vendors. We are now getting onwards of 2+ months without a single issue since I put in the X520 single port cards. Essay. Those HP cards are now all sitting in assignment writing india, a drawer. Anyone know if these cards also have the same problems in Windows or if its specifically a vmware issue. Personally I suspect that having the dual ports is causing the cards to overheat (since one of the HP advisories recommended turning up cooling and not puttting cards into specific slots) and the X520’s seem to run much cooler… Do you have a link to this advisory? I have fewer issues with these in Windows machines, perhaps it’s letting them run hotter than vmware. Well, we have had 3 alerts since we upgraded to 4.0.602. This driver did not resolve the issue.
Still using 4.0.579 firmware (the latest available that I know of). The NC375 cards are quad (4) ports per card. I have seen mention this affects Windows as well so it would seem the firmware may have an issue also. We have the NC375T 4port running on australian essay, a ubuntu server, firmware 4.0.550 and I can’t set the defending a thesis speed to essay, gigabit without the defending a thesis exam whole card dropping off the network until I restart the networking. ethtool reports that it has changed the settings but afterwards there no activity, even the australian essay connection light on the switch dies. Please ignore my post as I have just discovered that the problem was in assignment, fact the switch is not actually gigabit, although that wasn’t specified on it’s specification only on the blurb! Important life lesson for me there. DL380’s with NC522SFP 10G using 4.0.602 drivers. Film. Still has random disconnects and drops network traffic. Anyone have thoughts on the QLE8242? My shop have suffered for this issue for few times already… This is a serious problem of in sanskrit language those qlogic cards.
below is the message log just capture from one of the australian essay DL585 G7. I have both 375i (onboard) and 2 x 375T add on card. this firmware affect all cards in the server. Jan 26 14:29:30 cimslp: Found 46 profiles in namespace interop. Jan 26 14:52:38 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.215 cpu19:4519)nx_nic[vmnic6]: Device is sociology on poverty, DOWN. Film. Fail count Jan 26 14:52:38 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.215 cpu19:4519)nx_nic[vmnic6]: Firmware hang detected. A Thesis Oral. Severity code=0 Peg number=0 Error code=0 Return address=0. Jan 26 14:52:38 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.365 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1565: 0x99. Jan 26 14:52:38 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.365 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1634:
Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.367 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1565: 0xa1. Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.367 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1634: Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.368 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1565: 0xa9. Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.368 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1634: Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.369 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1565: 0xb1. Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.369 cpu19:4519)IDT: 1634:
Jan 26 14:52:39 vmkernel: 10:10:02:53.370 cpu19:4519)nx_nic[vmnic6]: Load stored FW. Jan 26 14:52:44 vmkernel: 10:10:02:58.549 cpu19:4519)nx_nic: Loading firmware from file , version = 4.0.579. Jan 26 14:52:44 vmkernel: 10:10:02:58.783 cpu19:4519)VMK_PCI: 746: device 000:071:00.0 capType 16 capIndex 192. Jan 26 14:52:44 vmkernel: 10:10:02:58.783 cpu19:4519)nx_nic: Gen2 strapping detected. Jan 26 14:52:46 vobd: Jan 26 14:52:46.182: 900180598394us: [vob.net.pg.uplink.transition.down] Uplink: vmnic6 is down. Affected portgroup: Management Network.
1 uplinks up. Failed criteria: 130. Jan 26 14:52:46 vobd: Jan 26 14:52:46.182: 900180598509us: [vob.net.vmnic.linkstate.down] vmnic vmnic6 linkstate down. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.316 cpu21:4519)VMK_PCI: 746: device 000:071:00.0 capType 16 capIndex 192. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.354 cpu21:4519)nx_nic NetXen NX3031 Quad Port Gigabit Server Adapter Board S/N TI19BK0822 Chip id 0x1. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.400 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1036: 0x99 exclusive (entropy source), flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.400 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 143: Added handler for vector 153, flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.400 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1133: 0x99 for vmkernel. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.401 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 231: vector 153 enabled.
Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.478 cpu21:4519)nx_nic NetXen NX3031 Quad Port Gigabit Server Adapter Board S/N TI19BK0822 Chip id 0x1. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.595 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1036: 0xa1 exclusive (entropy source), flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.595 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 143: Added handler for vector 161, flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.595 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1133: 0xa1 for vmkernel. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.595 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 231: vector 161 enabled. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.673 cpu21:4519)nx_nic NetXen NX3031 Quad Port Gigabit Server Adapter Board S/N TI19BK0822 Chip id 0x1.
Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.772 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1036: 0xa9 exclusive (entropy source), flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.772 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 143: Added handler for vector 169, flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.772 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1133: 0xa9 for vmkernel. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.772 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 231: vector 169 enabled. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.832 cpu21:4519)nx_nic NetXen NX3031 Quad Port Gigabit Server Adapter Board S/N TI19BK0822 Chip id 0x1. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.878 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1036: 0xb1 exclusive (entropy source), flags 0x10. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.878 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 143: Added handler for vector 177, flags 0x10.
Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.878 cpu21:4519)IDT: 1133: 0xb1 for vmkernel. Jan 26 14:52:46 vmkernel: 10:10:03:00.878 cpu21:4519)VMK_VECTOR: 231: vector 177 enabled. Jan 26 14:52:46 vobd: Jan 26 14:52:46.683: 900181099377us: [vob.net.vmnic.linkstate.up] vmnic vmnic6 linkstate up. Jan 26 14:52:47 vobd: Jan 26 14:52:47.684: 900179885774us: [esx.clear.net.vmnic.linkstate.up] Physical NIC vmnic6 linkstate is australian film, up. Jan 26 14:52:48 vobd: Jan 26 14:52:48.685: 900180886863us: [esx.problem.net.redundancy.lost] Lost uplink redundancy on virtual switch “vSwitch0”.
Physical NIC vmnic6 is down. Affected port groups: “Management. Jan 26 14:52:50 vmkernel: 10:10:03:04.481 cpu7:4103)nx_nic[vmnic6]: NIC Link is up. Actually I have 2 523SFP 10Gb card on that server too with latest firmware 4.8.2, I am afraid that qlogics’ firmware still have problem too. HI, just for clarification: the NC375 / NC375i and essay, 522STP 10G use NetXen-basec Chipsets, which are causing the Issues. But the 523SFP should use a different “Non-NetXen” QLogic-Chip or am I wrong here ? We are looking for 10 GbE NICs and HP doesn’t seem to have 10 GbE Intel-branded Adapters. Our current plan was to use the australian film 523SFP (other Options are 550SFP or 552SFP with Emulex-Chips). Has anyone tried to get the cards replaced by HP (which are unfortunaletly used as onboard-Nics on the DL370 G6 we currently use) ? For Statistics: we are using NC375i on Windows Server 2008 R2 with DataCore on Top and see occational iSCSI-Disconnects for about 5 secs about vs recklessness once every week (Fw.4.0.534), however we see no Packet Errors in Statistics so I suspected the film problem somewhere else. You are right. Courage Vs Recklessness. The NC523 has is ql_nic, not nx_nic. I have several boxes with NC522/NC375 – all causing issues in ESX 4 and 5 with different Firmwares and drivers.
I also have several NC550/NC552 Emulex – causing no problems. HP only swapped 522 to new 522, but that ovisoulsy did not help. We are currently planning to rip NC522 and replace with NC550. Finally from VMware!! We ave these joke’s of essay a card in defending a thesis exam, our cluster as well. Have upgraded the Firmware and australian film essay, Drivers and still are having this issue. We are replacing out all the cards with the spring season essay Intel nics, since HP will only australian film replace the cards which we’ve already done. Dell is starting to look really good with HP’s clear lack of vision and support that has gone down the tubes in on poverty, the past three years. Same symptoms and troubles here with those NetXen adapters (NC375T). I am working with HP on this case. When I have some news about this case I will update it here.
P.s. we are running the latest firmware and drivers: ]# ethtool -i vmnic4. But we still encounter a lot of random vMotion/Storage and VM Traffic issues. I am already tired playing with HP and film, i got them replace all cards to intels (365T). by the way, the a thesis 523SFP seems does not have problem on the latest firmware. We’ve been having the australian same problem with the best essay NC375T cards. Every now and then one will cause the driver to log “Firmware hang detected.” and australian, reset itself. We’re already running the recommended firmware and driver so those do not fix the issue (as of 6th March 2012). I’ve got an defending oral open case with HP to get a fix. # ethtool -i vmnic7. Hey did you get a fix for this one ??
I have a client running into same problems ./ I wanted to be certain it is a Hardware level issue. I have verified through the logs the message is same in regards firmware puking for no reason. Guys, can somebody help me and essay, give me steps to vs recklessness essay, update firmware on australian essay, NC375i and NC375T cards which are installed in DL980. Operating system is ESXi 4.1 driver is latest,4.0.602, but how can I safely update firmare on both cards? Thanks in sociology on poverty, advance. Just download latest SPP (2012-01) from http://www.hp.com/go/foundation and boot from that DVD. I have several DL585 G7s (NC375i) running vSphere 4.1 that have experienced this issue over the last few months and this entry has been a great help. So I wanted to share that HP support contacted me to say that they are replacing the SPI boards for my 585s with a newer Rev board. The criteria is australian film essay, machines that have the “firmware hang detected” message in a thesis, the vmkernel logs and they are running the film essay 4.0.602 driver and 4.0.579 firmware.
I was told there is on poverty, a backlog on australian essay, the boards and to essay, expect delivery in 3-4 weeks. Can you share some information, maybe case number? I have open cases, too… I just wanted to film, add that we have 10 dl380 g7 with two nc523sfp cards in each. we have two links from defending a thesis each server plugged into two nexus switches. We are getting a single random dropped link on australian, each server periodically. I’m at driver version 4.0.727 and firmware version 4.8.22. I just want to make people aware if they decide to buy this card. could still be a configuration, switch, card, or spf cable problem.
Just odd that it happens on all of them at different times. We were using disperse switches, cables and NIC’s and we were droppnig completely. After replacing the NIC’s (and using the sociology on poverty intel SP’s) we have not dropped once…since Sept..) You replaced the australian film essay cards with the same type? nope..replaced them with the Intel x520 single port’s I believe…after that no more problems…unfortunately that was 11k worth of hardware replacements I had to courage, do…and we are afraid to australian essay, use the HP’s for anything else. Our main problem with the defending a thesis exam HP’s was pause frame flooding which would basically kill all traffic on australian essay, the network and writing, wouldn’t failover to australian essay, the other. We have “firmware hang” problems with all kinds of Qlogic cards since 6 months. The DL580G7 onboard NC375i, the quad port NC375T and 10ge NC523SFP. Defending Oral Exam. Now we should run a qlogic debugging tool on each ESXi server in the backgroud that takes a core dump in case of a hang… Not very promising. We also replaced the australian essay NetXen adapter with HP for the Intel 365T adapters.
No problems since the assignment replacement. We’re now getting new Qlogic cards from HP, including new SPI board with the australian onboard NIC ports. Don’t know what I should think about that. But we don’t get cards with Intel chips. We also get *new selected* QLogic 10Gb Cards. Wonder what will happen then… […] interessant in diesem Zusammenhang ist der Artikel Identifying and vs recklessness essay, Resolving NetXen nx_nic (Qlogic) NIC Failures von Chris Wahl. Film Essay. Gefallt mir:Gefallt mirSei der Erste, dem dieser […] hp is sending us new cards also but it looks like it will be the same card. Courage Vs Recklessness. I opened a ticket with vmware and they are leaning towards driver/firmware.
Mean while i’m going to australian essay, do some more testing and essay conclusion, see if only australian film essay certain configurations are causing this in our environment. There was a discusion on sociology, vmware communities about disabling the onboard nics and having only the 10gb ports be seen by esxi. Australian Essay. i tried that and I had the same issue. Writing Services India. i also seprated the australian traffic between 4 10gb links instead of just 2 thinking it could be mtu related and i had the same issue. I’m going to season, go to an explicit failover and remove iphash to see if that helps. Australian Film Essay. So far i can trigger it every 24hrs or so if I do vmotion between two hosts twice an hour. Right now we 2 single port intel 520 10g nic’s and 2 onboard 1g nics active and have not had the problem.
With the 522 cards you are not able to essay, disable one of the ports on the dual port card so you can’t have any of the film 1g nic’s active (since 4-10g means you cannot have any 1g cards) We did try going with a single dual port 522 (so we were running 2-10G and 2-1G) and we still fell over defending a thesis oral exam, with the australian film 522’s… It sounds like you have the exact same setup that we have. The randomness of it all was what drove me crazy! We replaced the 523 cards with dual port x520s back in February and have not had any issues since then. Did you ever get anywhere with the firmware dumps? If it turns out essay conclusion that HP is replacing “faulty” nics, I might have to australian film essay, call and get the ones sitting in a box replaced with ones that work. just to keep people updated. I’ve removed iphash and the portchannel.
The vsphere 4.1 cluster im testing on i have had no issues so far its almost been 48hrs BUT i did make the change on sociology papers, our exchange ESXI cluster and I had a host fail with the Firmware Hang Detected so it doenst look like the config changes are working. i’m going to try what others are doing and replace 13 unboxed NC523sfp with nc552sfps. Film Essay. Im going to buy an intel card to test with also since you guys are havng good luck with them. Also on the esxi host for our exchange servers I didn disable the 4 1gb nics so Im going to oral exam, try that on those servers while i’m waiting for the other cards. i noticed on the NC523sfp card that hp sent me to replace my other NC523sfp it had Rev: 0C on the sticker. the cards in the servers that are failing are of the same Rev 0C so I’m not sure its going to make a difference changing it. Australian Film Essay. On the best friend conclusion vmware thread I’m on other users were mentioning having Rev 0B. I dont know if this means there is a difference between the cards but I thought Id mention it. Just a note – the HP NC523SFP has similar issues. I have a bunch of servers each have two of the cards and the cards would regularly fail. There was urgent firmware released late last year along with a bios change to australian film, increase the cooling but it doesn’t help (didn’t do anything for in sanskrit language on diwali me). Australian Film. HP and Qlogic are trying to keep it quiet because there are a lot of cards to replace.
It took me almost two months to get replacement cards. There apparently was a manufacturing issue with the original sets of cards and there is a new hardware revision that fixes it. For HP the spare part# is 593715-001 (what L2 told me when I told them a big package had arrived with that number on it – my servers are remote so I didn’t know what was in the box). You can’t get this part# if you just call HP and tell them to replace your NIC, you have to go through escalation and essays, stuff. My new NICs shipped from somewhere deep in the innards of HP direct to me, they didn’t go through the field team for our 4 hour on site support. I had them replace the NICs in the servers every other day and at least so far it seems to have resolved the issues. The L2/L3 support folks at HP claim to be confident that this revision of hardware resolves the film essay outstanding hardware issues on the 523SFP. Essay. I was impressed with how well the essay HP techs cabled up my systems. I mean I took great pains to label and courage vs recklessness, stuff, but there are 11 cables on each of my DL385G7s, and at australian least for the 10GbE and FC (boot from SAN) – if you plug em in to the wrong ports bad things happen. But I verified each and every 10GbE port was correct after they replaced the NICs and writing services india, they were every time.
Same goes for FC (with the boot from australian essay SAN if the FC cables are swapped the card won’t see the LUN and season, won’t boot – not hard to fix just go to the bios and re-scan again and change the LUN, but still annoying). It’s a wide spread issue, on two different occasions I had full on network card failure – the cards would not pass traffic. I could get them working again for australian a few hours by rebooting, but then they would die again. Courage. VMware would sit there for hours resetting the card over australian film, and over. On Diwali. 3 cards in two servers in less than a week – in essay, both cases – despite having 4 hour on site support there was no spare parts in the area. In one case I had to wait 5 days for new cards (and these were not the new cards these were just replacement old cards until the best essay new cards arrived) because of miscommunication inside HP. If you see messages like this on film, boot up – replace your card too (if it wasn’t obvious) #128578; NIC boot code starting cmd peg times out! status 0xffffffff.
ql_update_adapt_cfg failed to init nic rc fffd for on poverty pci dev c00. SetupOSCD failed to essay, init nic rc fffd for pci dev c00. Abort QLogic NIC boot process. That first message I saw on one system several months ago, I didn’t know what it was for so I ran diagnostics at courage vs recklessness essay the time but didn’t get anything from them. Fortunately we designed our systems with two cards each and split our distributed virtual switches across them(active/passive – no load balancing), so when one card completely failed the other one took over pretty quick. Also all of film essay our storage if good ‘ol fibre channel so that never skipped a beat. Also I put all of defending our service consoles on a separate redundant 1GbE network.
I planned for the worst when I built it – I honestly didn’t think I’d ever need it. This is a well known issue inside HP, so you shouldn’t have trouble getting on the list to film essay, get new cards if you can provide the log files to show the issue your having – they also may have you provide a firmware dump (which can be painful because the firmware dump rendered my NICs inoperable until I rebooted) – also to sociology on poverty, get a firmware dump you have to wait until the problem recurs, you can’t just trigger it on demand. For me it took about australian essay 3 days until the NICs failed again on that particular server. Assignment Services. I was expecting the backup NICs to take over film, but it seems the firmware dump process did something to them, or the drivers, the backup NICs didn’t work either and all VMs lost connectivity. In Sanskrit. Fortunately I was still able to film essay, manage the server with the 1GbE network. I feel for those folks that are relying on a thesis, IP storage and film essay, just have a single NIC since these problems cause both ports on the NICs to best essay conclusion, fail simultaneously. hopefully this can help some of you out there.
I haven’t posted on this topic on australian essay, my own blog yet. There is another known issue on the NC522SFP (I believe) that I was made aware of recently – apparently with certain passive copper cables can trigger this NIC to flap it’s network ports (not the same behavior as the assignment india 523 issue). This is a known issue in australian essay, the firmware (no fix yet) – and is hit or miss depending on best essay, what card you have(different cards with the same model# can behave differently). Australian Film. The only true workaround if you have this issue is to use optical cable instead of passive copper. Sociology Papers. Or maybe you can get lucky by australian film essay, changing the passive copper cable your using as it doesn’t happen on all cables (again – was told it was hit or miss, they haven’t found a sure workaround other than to use optical). also – you can’t order new systems with the new cards.
My HP VAR has been trying for the same two months to get new NICs for other servers that we bought last year(but are not using yet they are being shipped to essays language, europe soon), and so far has not had much luck. I’m sure that given the configuration is the same and film essay, it’s for assignment writing services india the same customer(me) that it’s just a matter of time, but still it’s taking a while. @Jonesy: after uploading the australian film firmware dumps to HP (about 8 of writing services them) HP deceided to send us new NC375T cards and new SPI boards with NC375i. I’m still waiting for the cards to arrive. The NC523SFP 10ge cards were replaced some months ago with NC550 Emulex cards. Thanks for the update! Did HP actually find anything with all those firmware dumps or are they just throwing different hardware at the problem? I don’t know what HP or Qlogic did with the dumps. Essay. Shortly after we uploaded the dumps we received the message from HP that Qlogic confirmed the problem and that we’ll get cards with a revision of the board/chip. Don’t know why the “Firmware hang” message wasn’t enough, because the cards simply didn’t work. Friend Essay. We had 2 HA failures because the film ESXi host was not reachable for 30 seconds.
I received the new NC375T cards today. The revision number is 0G. Sociology On Poverty. We have ar least one old card that already has Rev. 0G the australian essay rest is vs recklessness, 0F. So maybe we are lucky and 0G really fixes the problem. NC523sfp issues. I’ve been testing with x520-da2, nc552sfp and nc550sfp cards and I’ve had zero issues with either of the australian essay cards. Courage Vs Recklessness Essay. I left a host in film, each of my vsphere clusters with the nc523sfp cards and writing, they would fail every few days the other cards would stay up. I made zero configuration changes just so I could make sure it was the cardfirmwaredriver. I’ve been testing this for the last couple of weeks. We are going to film essay, purchase nc552sfp cards as are our solution to oral, this issue.
The 20+ nc523sfp cards will be resused in our windows servers. There is another guy over on the vmware forums doing similar testing and he’s had similar results. So, the 522 and 523 cards have been failing in essay, the vmware environments, but they do work properly without failure on Windows Servers? I would really like to use these 14x 522 cards if I was confident they wouldn’t fall over on sociology papers, us… Waiting on our HP rep to investigate replacing them…. We are testing it with our netbackup solution which is on a windows platform. I hate to have the nc 523sfp cards just sit around not being used so I’m hopeful i can. Based on the comments it sounds like that might not be the case.
I was hoping the issue was more driver related. We are still doing testing so i dont know if they will work for us in window or not. I would be careful about using these cards in your Windows Servers, I have seen references on the Internet that this can affect Windows as well. People with large SQL servers were reporting the issue. We replaced ours with Intel cards about 3 months ago and not have not seen a single issue since then related to australian film, the network. I was not interested in being a Beta Tester for QLogic/HP.
Ken you are right after further testing we are having issues with the oral exam windows servers also. I hate to have the nc523sfp cards laying around and not be able to use them but I just dont trust them. We have had two replacement (rev.G) NC375T cards sent to film essay, us by HP and defending a thesis oral, they seem to have resolved the australian film issue. We had 4 pre-rev.G cards which were causing us problems. Papers On Poverty. We swapped all of the australian film essay faulty cards out for NC364T cards we had in stock as soon as we were able as loss of essays network connectivity on ESX hosts using Ethernet-connected storage was causing outages and corruption. Unfortunately HP will only replace the australian essay other two cards if we put them back into servers and reproduce the language on diwali error with associated logs etc. I’m not prepared to put customer services at very real known risk in order to prove each card is faulty so we will have to take the australian essay hit. Extremely unimpressed by that latter response from HP and friend, quite glad that we’re switching away from them in the near future.
Am running into australian this problem despite updating firmware on the cards.. presumably I need to install the VMware driver *as well as* the firmware update? When the card “crashes” I can see in the vmkernel the sociology papers firmware version of the film essay card (4.0.579) but am running an older driver (4.0.550.1-1vmw) … We have been experiencing issues with all qLogic NIC’s except the NC522SFP. Sure they had issues early on but have been very stable since the last firmware release in late 2011. Unfortunatly the NC375T’s and NC523SFP were so unstable they have been banished to the LAB and a thesis exam, replaced with NC365T’s and NC552SFP’s respectively. Now to the NC375i, these have been simply horrible. Australian. HP refused to accept there were issues with them early on, qLogic released a firmware and driver update to courage essay, address the precise issue that HP said didn’t exist.
Since the australian film last firmware and driver update the issue still persits. HP have not been very supportive this time around either but are al least talking about it. I hear there is a new SPI riser board available which uses updated hardware, apparently this resolves the issues with these NIC’s pausing.. They only seem to do this when pushed very hard.. I see utiliation of upto 600Mb/s then the season essay NIC’s just stop transmitting and essay, recieveing. All hell breaks loose, alarms start ringing and the phone calls start. I’m over it, I really need a solution which does not involve me throwing money at HP to replace something we have already purchased but doesn’t do the job it’s designed to courage vs recklessness, do. Oddly enough Dell are aware of these issues and have offered assistance..
They are looking to get a foot in to the DataCentre per australian film essay say.. They might get it yet. Simply Dell are offering to be part of the solution, HP seem content to be part of the problem. Just a work for HP if you are reading. Everything can suffer problems, what defines the better party is the method they utilise to resolve these problems.
After all our NC375i and best essay conclusion, NC375T were replaced by cards with a new hardware revision we had no firmware hang problems for 5 weeks…. until today. One NC375i card had a firmware hang this morning. Film Essay. So it seems the new revision improves the on poverty situation but does not solve it 100%. There is australian film essay, a new firmware/Driver package available. I’ve no idea if this resolves anything and I have no confidence in qLogics statements about it resolving anything.. Hey the last 2 firmware/driver packages have resolved the papers issue.. Obviously NOT. This package is for NC375i, NC375T, NC522SFP nic’s. After applying the package on a Dev server I now see.
There was a catch to this. After applying the film package via the VMWare update manager. The server rebooted as expected. When the server was back up the VC could not connect to it. Further investigation showed the NC375i nic’s were not initialised or connected, even though they were before applying the essays in sanskrit language package. A reboot of the server didn’t resolve anything, so I headed for the computer room. I needed to in this case power the australian hardware down to essay, disconnect the ILO as it was connected to my PC at another site which was not accessible to me from australian film within the computer room. So I truely pulled the spring essay power on the server. Powered the server up again and australian film, ILO’ed to the server from my laptop within the Computer Room..
To my surprise the defending a thesis oral NC375i nic’s were all up and working. It appears in at australian least some situations it maybe necessary to power the server off after applying this Firmware/Driver package. Dodgy Dogy stuff HP or more to the point QLogic. I hope this rather arduous process isn’t necessary on all servers but there’s my experience so far. Dodgy Dogy stuff HP or more to assignment writing india, the point QLogic. This is australian essay, also true for Emulex CNA FW-Upgrades, but Power-Cold Boot via iLO does the papers on poverty job. Film. You do nt need physical access to pull the plugs. Also, the driver/fw you are referring to best friend, is three month old and film essay, did not fix the vs recklessness problems. Not sure how old this forum is australian film essay, but we have been experiencing issues with the NC522sfp / DL580 G7 servers for a year and a half. We finally have a resolution so I hope this helps everybody here. It turns out on poverty that there is film, a manufacturing issue with the spring season Qlogic chipset that of course affects the NC522SFP 10Gbe cards as well as the australian essay onboard cards on a Dl580 G7 server.
If you run the following on an ESX host, you will determine if the server is affected.: cat /var/log/vmkernel* | grep -i -e “firmware hang” -e “device is DOWN” What you have to do is open a case with HP and get the SPI board or the season NC522 card replaced. HP replaced every single one of our cards and film essay, server SPI boards and we have lots of them…(20) DL580 G7’s running ESX and spring season essay, (20) NC522 cards. Australian. What a nightmare this has been but I am glad they have a solution. As a note, I tried every driver, firmware version, etc and noting helped which is not surprising since it is a hardware manufacturing isue. Knock on spring season, wood, all is good thusfar and yes it doesn’t look good on essay, the resume when you have hosts going down and people are pointing the finger at you. Best. By the way, the problem has lasted since early 2011 and we are in July of 2012.
Good Luck! Hi Tim, do you have the HP case number so we can reference to? we had the same firmware hang issue with our server. Thanks much! 9/24/2012 – I have been having the film essay issue about spring season once every 6 months (Dl585 G7) until about 2 weeks ago. It has happened 3 times since then. Film Essay. Over this past weekend, I updated to the firmware dated 9/4/12 (4.0.588) which says it specifically addresses this issue. Spring Season Essay. I also updated to australian film essay, the latest drivers. Within less than a day, the server already hung the NIC before anyone hit the system yet (1 hour of use). I opened a case today, and assignment writing india, they are shipping me a replacement SPI board.
The new firmware/drivers do NOTHING to help this issue, as it is australian essay, a hardware problem. We finally 12 months later and a discussion about writing services moving to IBM have replacement 5222SFP Nic’s that the rep states is a known issue with the earlier revision cards. The old revision cards were 0B and film essay, the new revision are a 0H….I put 2 cards into an Windows server and never had a drop eventhough I happened them with 1.3TB of data transfer… Will put 2 into a new ESX 5 box at some point and see if they survive… We’ve been chasing down this problem for nearly two months and narrowed in the NC375T network adapter as well. Most vDS connections have a redundant connection to another model NIC so we moved the problem uplink to standby.
No combination of drivers and firmware fixes the problem. HP just sent out a replacement card which seems the same (though I did not check the hardware rev -next time I open the server I guess) , although the problem only occurs under load so time will tell. In the in sanskrit on diwali meantime we’re replacing one of the NC375T adapters per server with an Intel based card instead. Painful. We have been dealing witht his problem for approx 6 months now and after numerous firmware and driver updates we are at a cross roads. HP was willing to ship me out another 375T card with revision 0J. Can anyone confirm that a later revision fixes the actual issue and film, you don’t see anymore disconnects? Share your point of view!
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Persuasive Advertising (Example of an Ad) Persuasive Advertising Advertising plays an important role in our diverse, media-saturated world. It surrounds our everyday lives. It is in . everything we do, whether we are looking for a number in defending oral, the phone directory, taking a ride down a road, or watching TV. According to Jamie Beckett’s article in San Francisco Chronicle, “The average U.S. adult is bombarded by 255 advertisements every day--100 on TV, 60 in magazines, 50 on film essay, the radio, and 45 in newspapers” (Beckett). More recently, Advertising.
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This year the Social Security Administration is projecting, it will collect less in a thesis oral exam, payroll taxes than it pays out in retirement, disability, and survivor benefits. Even though the government economists are saying that the economy and social. Chairman of the Federal Reserve , Federal government of the australian United States , Independent agencies of the oral United States government 892 Words | 3 Pages. ?Question 1 of 20 The basic sections of an APA paper are as follows: title page, abstract (optional), text of the . paper , and a reference page. Film Essay? Which of the following is true concerning an APA style paper ? A.Always use contractions.
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Education , Emotional intelligence , Gymnasium 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Process Papers Students producing entries in the exhibit, media, and performance categories* must also write a “process . paper .” This paper introduces your topic, explains how you developed your entry, and documents your research. It is important to do a good job on this part of defending exam your entry because it is the first thing that people look at when evaluating History Day entries. Australian Film Essay? The process paper contains three parts: the title page, a research description, and a thesis exam, the annotated bibliography. *The. Annotated bibliography , Annotation , Book design 732 Words | 3 Pages.
? Persuasive research paper - final draft Abstract Being a Crime Scene Investigator a person . needs strong mind, stomach, diligence and australian film essay, high attention to detail. A crime Scene Investigator job is complicated and gruesome. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how stressful a crime scene Investigators job is. In this paper a crime scene is presented complicated which calls for high attention to detail and good organization skills. The job is critical but. Academic degree , Crime , Crime scene 2420 Words | 6 Pages.
APA Writing Style SourceAid, LLC www.SourceAid.com Edited by: Julia Johns, Tom Fox, and Ronald Silvia Copyright © 2004 by SourceAid, LLC. . All rights reserved. This document may be freely distributed contingent upon the fact that it is distributed as a whole document. This includes printing it as a whole document or providing it as a resource by linking to it. This document may not be republished or modified in any form without written consent from season essay, SourceAid, LLC. Australian? For more information please.
American Psychological Association , APA style , Bibliography 806 Words | 4 Pages. APA (5th ed.) Format and Style Checklist: Part One Note: Page numbers refer to best the location of information in the APA manual . (5th ed.). General Guidelines ? Font The font style must be Times New Roman or Courier New. Australian? The font size is defending a thesis oral 12 pt (p. Essay? 285). ? Page Headers Page headers should include the first two or three words of the title. Type the page header five spaces to the left of the page number (p.
288, 5.06; sample paper , pp. In Sanskrit Language? 306-316, Figure 5.1). Note: Do not confuse. Letter case , Orthography , Page 653 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: TYPING TEMPLATE FOR APA PAPERS Collaborative Learning Community: Analysis of an Ethical . Australian? Dilemma Student A. Sample Grand Canyon University: Collaborative Learning Community: Analysis of an Ethical Dilemma (Jessica will complete the introduction of the paper ) This is an electronic template for papers written in APA style (American Psychological Association, 2001). The purpose of the template is to help the student set.
Bibliography , Business ethics , Citation 973 Words | 3 Pages. http://writingcenter.appstate.edu/sites/writingcenter.appstate.edu/files/Credible%20v%20Non-Credible%20Sources13.pdf References (centered, not bold) Type . your references in alphabetical order here using hanging indents. See your APA Manual and the resources in your APA folder in Doc Sharing for reference formatting. . Health and Safety Executive , Law , Material safety data sheet 849 Words | 5 Pages. attention to is the scope of your paper or what you will be including in your discussion. The broader your topic is, the more difficult it is . to discuss your topic in full details. This is why you should establish before hand the scope and limitations of on poverty your paper and australian film essay, this will be the foundation of best friend your research paper outline.
Basically, your outline will constitute three main parts namely the australian Introduction, the sociology on poverty Body and the Conclusion. But to make sure your paper is complete, consult your instructor. Argument , Breast milk , Breastfeeding 570 Words | 3 Pages. Rehabilitation Paper CJA/234 June 28, 2012 Instructor: James Lytle Rehabilitation Rehabilitation is the treatment intended to assist . in the process of film essay recovery from essays language, a condition or way of thinking to film essay another, which should be as normal as possible .A proper, and adequate rehabilitation program can reverse many disabling conditions and also help patients, criminals deal with deficits that cannot be reversed by medical care. Rehabilitation addresses the patient's physical, psychological, and.
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essay on roman baths by Angela Graebert. Today, it is considered proper hygiene to take a bath on a daily basis. Bathing usually takes place in a private bathtub or in australian a shower at essay, home. Also, if a person has fallen ill, the afflicted may seek advice from a family member, research the illness, or most likely, make a visit to a doctor. These practices were not heard of when the Celts, Saxons, Normans, and most notably, the Romans inhabited the island of Britain.
The ancient Romans relied upon their public bathing houses for cleanliness and healing. Film! They also made these baths centers of essay, entertainment and sites for worship, where they served tasty foods and alcoholic drinks. In 33 B.C. during Augustus' reign, Rome had only australian film, 170 bathing houses (The History of a thesis, Plumbing). But as visits to the baths became a necessary part of life, more and more bathhouses began to be built in the surrounding areas. By A. D., 300 the number of baths had increased to 937. Some baths were relatively small and could hold only 300 people, while larger baths could hold 1,500 and sometimes as many as 3,000 persons. Despite the essay great number of baths, there are three main bathhouses from courage essay, antiquity that surpassed all others: the baths of Caracalla, in australian film Rome, the baths of Diocletian, in Rome, and vs recklessness essay the Roman baths in Bath, England.
The baths of Caracalla could seat over 1,600 visitors and australian film essay took up almost 28 acres of land (The History of Plumbing). The baths of courage, Diocletian were even grander. Australian! The great bath, commissioned by the emperor, could hold more than 3,000 visitors (History of sociology papers on poverty, Ancient Roman Baths). Although these two Roman baths were spectacular, other notable baths with natural springs were built in film England. It will be shown that the baths, which give the season city of Bath its name, while far from Rome, were prized for the hot springs and were distinctly Roman in design.
Bath is located in West England, 10 miles east of Bristol and 100 miles west of London. One legend states the australian film essay city was founded by Bladud, the son of King Lud (Bladud of Bath). According to the legend, Bladud was exiled from his hometown for being a leper before he became a king. He later found work as a swineherd and observed that pigs enjoyed bathing in the warm mud. Supposedly, Bladud attempted to cure his leprosy by bathing in sociology on poverty the mud as the essay pigs did.
He was successful and returned home to writing, claim the throne that belonged to him. Bladud remained popular while the city of essay, Bath remained under Celtic control. In A.D., 43 the Celts were conquered by the Romans. The Romans changed the name of the city to Aquae Sulis because they worshipped the goddess Sulis Minerva (Sullivan). The name Sulis for a female fertility goddess came from the spring season Celtic inhabitants of the land, and the name Minerva came from the Romans. The popularity of Sulis Minerva attests to the merging of australian film, Celtic and Roman forms. In the late 6th century the Romans lost control of Bath to the Saxons after the Battle of courage, Dyrham. The Saxons and their pagan religion prevailed until the Norman Conquest of australian film essay, 1066. The Normans built a cathedral and monastery and brought the baths back into assignment writing, use. However, over time, the australian film baths again fell into ruin. There were later revivals with the city of Bath reaching its highest peak at the end of the 18th century during the Georgian period.
It was during this time that the city's roads and buildings were largely repaired. The baths were maintained throughout the 18th and 19th centuries and can be visited today. In visiting them, it is on poverty, worthwhile to australian essay, imagine what a visit to the baths would have been like if one were a Roman. A Roman Briton arriving at a bath around 10:30 a.m. Vs Recklessness! probably paid a minimal fee to enter, although most Roman baths were usually free (The Roman Baths). The purpose of this fee was to essay, keep the essay poor and the slaves from being able to use the bathhouses. The first main stop upon arriving at australian essay, a bath would be the writing india palestra.
This is where the ancient Britons participated in exercises and activities. Ball games, weight lifting, wrestling, boxing, bowling, and board games are a few of the australian most popular activities in which the Roman Britons would participate. Exercise was not performed competitively or vigorously; it was performed only to maintain good health and for enjoyment. The next stop would be the apodyterium, where the ancient Britons would change their clothes (The Roman Baths). The apodyterium was similar to essay, a modern day locker room. This room contained many shelves and australian essay cubbyholes where a visitor to the bath could store his belongings (History of Ancient Roman Baths). Theft, however, was a common occurrence, so whenever possible a servant was left behind to guard a person's belongings. Before entering the warm waters of the tepidarium, or warm bath, a process known as stringling would occur. A person would apply oil to language on diwali, his entire body, which would loosen dirt and sweat from the pores. Curved metal tools were then used to wipe the film oil from the body.
If one wanted a massage, it would take place at this time. A long soak in warm water would prepare the bather for the remainder of in sanskrit language, their bath. After spending adequate time in the tepidarium, the visitor would proceed into the caldarium. This bath contained hot water and essay steamy air, which was meant to open a person's pores. Spring Essay! While walking around in the caldarium, sandals were worn because the floor was hot enough to burn one's feet. The springs of Bath were extraordinary because they supplied naturally hot water to the baths. The water of both the tepidarium and australian the caldarium remained heated by the rooms below the floor known as the hypocaust or furnace. The furnaces were kept lit by slaves. Courage Vs Recklessness Essay! The last major stop at the baths was the frigidarium. This bath was filled with cold water and australian film was meant to assignment services, close the pores and australian refresh the body. The bathing process was a very important part of these baths; however, it was not the assignment writing services india only purpose for visiting the australian baths.
A day at the bath would not be complete without an abundant amount of food and alcohol. Vendors walked around the friend essay conclusion baths shouting the items that were for sale: eggs, lettuce, fish, nuts, hog's fat, bread, cutlets and sausage. Alcohol consumption was also very high and patrons consumed mostly wine. Entertainment was also provided. No matter what a person's interest, they would easily be entertained by film, the large variety of activities. Performances of juggling and gymnastics were very popular and spring audiences listened to jesters and film essay musicians. Philosophers and poets also delivered readings throughout the day. In addition to entertainment, the bathers were surrounded by beautiful artwork. Brightly colored statues and marble columns were displayed all around the baths. Mosaics made of glass covered the courage vs recklessness floors and the ceilings. Much of this beautiful artwork was later removed to film essay, help construct the cathedrals and medieval buildings, but ancient tile mosaic has been excavated and preserved (figure 1).
If a little relaxation in essays in sanskrit on diwali the sunshine was desired, the facility included some rooms with unglazed windows where it would be possible to sunbathe. Essay! Also, some baths contained gymnasiums, and there were other amenities such as libraries, bars, shops, museums, theatres, and barbershops. It appears that a visit to the baths in season essay antiquity would be nothing less than luxurious. Although one cannot bathe in the baths today, a visit to the renovated area is an exciting and interesting experience. A visit allows for a greater appreciation of life in australian ancient Bath. The modern entrance to the Roman baths provides access to spring, the renovated Pump Room, a facility that dates from the australian Georgian period. Here, visitors can eat lunch or purchase a cup of mineral water from the natural springs for only 50 pence. In the reception area located near the Pump Room, visitors are asked to pay a small fee of less than ?10 and can pick up a personal audio guide (Roman Baths). The audio guide discusses points of interest that are marked by numbers posted on the walls. The numbers can be selected on the audio guide so that the visitor can listen to the appropriate commentary.
After leaving the reception area and walking out onto the terrace the visitor can look down over the rail to find the first impressive view of the Great Bath (figure 2). It is possible to walk completely around the terrace and to india, view carved statues of historical figures on the railing (figure 3). These sculptures were not part of the original complex. Australian Essay! They were only added at the end of the 19th century after the Great Bath was renovated. At the sociology papers on poverty bottom of a flight of stairs, the visitor will see the famous springs that feed the baths. Although five springs provided water for the Roman baths, there was one primary water source: the sacred spring.
More than one million liters of water flowed from this spring each day to supply the bathers with the water they needed. The water rose first into the temple courtyard of Sulis Minerva before being distributed to the various secondary baths. The base of the main spring was lined with lead and was uncovered. During the second century a classical building with barrel vaulting and columns was constructed over the sacred spring. The structure kept much of the light out, and thus, strengthened the allure of the spring. The site seemed more remote. Statues and columns were added to the site and film essay offerings to Sulis Minerva were tossed into the spring.
The building enclosing the spring remained until at least the 6th century when it collapsed and fell into the spring. As visitors follow the course of the spring, they will notice objects in glass cases that archaeologists have recovered from the baths. Over 12,000 coins were tossed into writing, the spring as sacred offerings. In addition to that, curses were carved into australian, sheets of lead or pewter and were thrown into the spring. For example, if a person had an assignment services india, item of clothing stolen from the apodyterium, he would write a curse for the person who stole his clothing in hope that the gods would bring him justice. The temple and the temple courtyard in the next area were extremely important places in the lives of these Roman bathers. The temple stood two meters above the essay courtyard and had steps leading up to writing services india, it. Four columns of the Corinthian order, held up the frieze and pediment. The triangular pediment bears the australian head of a Gorgon (figure 4), a motif associated with Sulis Minerva. During the Roman period, one could enter into the classical temple to a thesis oral, view a bronze statue of the goddess, Sulis Minerva (figure 5).
Near the end of the second century, this classical style was altered when side chapels and an ambulatory were added to the temple. Australian Film! The temple remained this way until A.D., 391 when Theodosius, the Roman Emperor, demanded that all pagan temples be closed. The temple was, indeed, closed and essays eventually fell into ruin. The temple courtyard was where sacrificial offerings were made and where worshippers congregated. Altars, belonging to the worshippers, filled the courtyard. The sacred spring could be seen at the south end of the temple courtyard, and another building dedicated to the four seasons was located on the north end of the temple courtyard. This building has obtained its name from the facade of the building that had carvings of the four seasons.
The purpose of the four seasons building is unclear. One theory is that a Roman worshipper would spend the night in the four seasons in hope of australian film, seeing a vision while asleep (The Roman Baths: Bath). If one continues, the next view would be of the spring. The excess water from the season essay springs that was not needed for the baths flowed into the Roman drain, which was lined with wood, and emptied into the River Avon. In following the essay spring the visitor comes to the most exciting part of the visit: the Great Bath. At the center of the entire building is the Great Bath, the essay largest bath of them all: 80' by 40' by 6' (Sullivan). Four steps surround the edge of the bath to lead down into the 1.6 meters of tepid water, at a temperature of 120 degrees Fahrenheit. The floor of the Great Bath like the sacred spring that fed it was lined with lead (45 sheets to be exact). When the bath was first built, a fountain was located in the middle of the australian film north end that took water from the sacred spring and directed it into the Great Bath. This bath was once covered with a barrel-vaulted ceiling that was 40 meters high.
More caldariums were added as the bathing houses were expanded well into the 4th century. The heated baths were added to defending exam, areas that are now referred to as the eastern and western baths. These baths probably allowed men and film women to have more privacy (The Roman Baths: Bath). The baths were heated using stacks of tiles that were placed under the assignment services floor of a heated bath, known as pilae. The pilae allowed for film essay heat to be transferred into oral, the room above. These stacks can clearly be viewed at Bath today (figure 6). With the desire for even greater heat, another special room was developed known as the laconicum. This bath was packed full with heat and may have been similar to a present day sauna. In addition to australian film essay, these renovations, a large circular bath measuring (figure 7) 1.6 meters deep was constructed on a grander scales.
The round frigidarium was much larger because it was unheated. Nonetheless, as note above, there were many smaller heated baths that were part of the complex. Although Bath was never a major city in the Roman Empire, its baths were built on defending a thesis oral a large scale to satisfy the great number of visitors and the permanent residents. The very success of the baths meant that the complex used significantly more hot water than other baths, which was no doubt expensive for the city and made the film essay facility difficult to maintain. The springs survived and continue to provide hot water. A sample can be obtained at the modern gift shop. Here, visitors can purchase a bottle of the healing water from the sacred spring. One can also purchase many other items to remind them of the spring essay great experience they had at the Roman Baths. Luckily, for future visitors there is australian essay, more to come. Bath is essays, opening a spa that will be supplied by the hot springs (Thermae Bath Spa).
Hot baths, massages, steam rooms, body wraps, and film essay mud baths will be available to the public. A two-hour session at the spa will cost ?19, a four-hour session will cost ?29, and an all day pass will cost ?45. Soon, anyone will be able to enjoy a day at spring, the baths just as the Britons did centuries ago. Ancient Roman Baths. http://www.crystalinks.com/romebaths.html (28 May 2004. History of Ancient Roman Baths. Kentucky Educational Television: 2004. http:// www.dl.ket.org/latin2/mores/baths/history/ (18 May 2004).
http://www.cityofbath.co.uk/history/body_bladud.html (14 July 2004). The History of Plumbing- Roman and English Legacy. http://www.theplumber.com/eng.html. 1994 (28 May 2004) The Roman Baths: Bath. http://www.romanbaths.co.uk.
Heritage Services (18 May 2004). coolmine/typ/romans/intro.html (18 May 2004). Secrets of Lost Empires: Roman Bath. NOVA Online Series. PBS: January 2000. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/roman/ (18 May 2004). Sullivan, Mary Ann. Roman Baths. sullivanm/bathbaths/bathbaths.html (28 May 2004).
Thermae Bath Spa. http://www.thermaebathspa.com (11 July 2004) Organized by Deborah Cibelli / Design by australian film, Brandon Bailey.