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Astuces pour les etudes: La dissertation. Tu Peux Essayer. A l’universite, vous aurez souvent a faire des dissertations. Essay 2011. En quelque sorte, les memes principes s’appliquent pour reussir de bonnes dissertations, que ce soit a la maison ou en classe. Tu Peux. Par exemple, les dissertations, qu’elles soient faites a la maison ou en classe, donnent de meilleurs resultats quand : Vous tenez compte de votre but, de votre lecteur et de l’information dont vous disposez; Vous developpez une these bien appuyee; Vos enonces sont soutenus par des preuves; Vous dirigez vos lecteurs en utilisant des transitions. Introduction. Toutefois, il y a certaines differences a ne pas oublier quand vous vous preparez a ecrire. Tu Peux Essayer. La difference la plus importante se trouve au niveau du but de ce que vous ecrivez. Movie. Vous composez habituellement un travail de recherche pour en apprendre davantage a propos d’un sujet determine. Tu Peux Essayer. En revanche, une dissertation a pour but de montrer ce que vous savez sur un sujet determine. Industrial Safety. Vous ne vous contentez pas de fournir de l’information, vous etes aussi en train de prouver a votre lecteur — le correcteur — que vous maitrisez bien l’information et que vous pouvez l‘utiliser. Tu Peux Essayer. En d’autres termes, vous avez un double objectif : informatif et persuasif . Essay Titanic. Garder cela en tete vous aidera aussi bien pour la preparation que pour la redaction de votre dissertation. Tu Peux Essayer. Etudier les liens qui existent entre les idees. Votre professeur n’est pas interesse par un assortiment d’informations n’ayant aucun lien entre elles.
Il veut plutot que vous ayez une vision et une comprehension d’ensemble, c’est-a-dire que vous compreniez comment les generalisations ou les concepts creent un canevas de faits precis et comment les exemples et les details remplissent les espaces restants. Brigham Narrative. Alors, quand vous etudiez, essayez de voir comment les informations sont reliees entre elles. Tu Peux Essayer. Preparer des questions pour s’entrainer. Essays China. Essayez de vous preparer avec des questions susceptibles d’etre posees. Tu Peux. Si votre professeur vous a communique les questions d’avance ou s’il vous a fourni une feuille d’etude, entrainez-vous a repondre a ces questions. Movie. Sinon, essayez d’anticiper les questions que votre professeur vous posera et entrainez-vous en y repondant. Essayer. A tout le moins, faites un plan de la reponse que vous donneriez aux questions de l’examen. Essay. Il est toutefois preferable d’ecrire des reponses completes. Essayer. De cette maniere, vous saurez ce vous avez encore besoin d‘etudier. Challenge 2011. Lorsque vous vous retrouvez devant l’examen, souvenez-vous que ce n’est pas seulement ce que vous dites ou la quantite d’information que vous donnez qui compte, mais aussi la facon dont vous le dites.
Votre but est de montrer a votre professeur que vous maitrisez le sujet. Tu Peux Essayer. Meme si vous travaillez sous pression, prenez quelques minutes pour planifier votre temps. Industrial. Compter combien de minutes vous pouvez consacrer a chaque question. Tu Peux. Vous voudrez peut-etre accorder plus de temps aux questions qui valent le plus de points, peut-etre voudrez-vous y repondre en premier. Science Introduction Essay. A l’inverse, vous voudrez peut-etre repondre en premier lieu aux questions pour lesquelles vous etes le mieux prepare. Tu Peux. Avant de commencer a ecrire, prenez quelques minutes pour lire attentivement toutes les questions afin d’etre certain de bien saisir ce qui vous est demande. La plupart des sujets de dissertation sont formules avec soin et contiennent des instructions specifiques qui vous indiquent aussi bien le contenu que le plan . Young Narrative Essay. Le sujet peut inclure un ou plusieurs des termes suivants. Tu Peux Essayer. Si vous voyez un de ces termes, essayez d’organiser votre texte pour repondre a la ou aux questions posees.
Classifier : A quelles categories generales appartiennent ces idees? Comparer : Quelles sont les similarites entre ces idees? Quelles en sont les differences? Contraster : Quelles sont les differences entre ces idees? Critiquer : Quelles sont les forces et les faiblesses de cette idee? Definir : Qu’est-ce que ce mot ou cette phrase veut dire? Decrire : Quelles sont les caracteristiques ou specificites de cette idee? Evaluer : Quels sont les arguments pour et contre cette idee? Lesquels sont les plus forts? Expliquer : Pourquoi en est-il ainsi?
Identifier : De quelle idee s’agit-il? Comment se nomme-t-elle? Interpreter : Que veut dire cette idee? Pourquoi est-elle importante? Justifier : Pourquoi est-ce correct? Pourquoi est-ce vrai?
Tracer les grandes lignes : Quels sont les points principaux et les details essentiels de cette idee? Resumer : En bref, quelles sont les idees importantes? Retracer : Quel est l’ordre des idees ou la suite des evenements? Pendant que vous reflechissez a votre reponse, jetez sur papier les points principaux que vous voulez enoncer. Economy. Vous pourrez ensuite vous fier a votre liste pour rester bien centre sur le sujet. Tu Peux. Dans un contexte d’examen, il est facile d’oublier des points importants si on essay, ne les prend pas en note. Essayer. Rediger son texte en ecrivant correctement.
Comme nous l’avons mentionne plus haut, les dissertations en classe ne sont pas differentes des autres, donc, ecrivez correctement dans tous vos ecrits. Dupont Essay 2011. Souvenez-vous que votre but est de convaincre votre lecteur — l’examinateur — que vous connaissez bien le sujet. Tu Peux Essayer. Composez d’abord une these que vous defendrez. Titanic Movie. Vous pouvez souvent transformer les questions posees ou sous-entendues dans l’enonce en une reponse que vous pourrez utiliser ensuite comme votre these. Essayer. Cette phrase servira aussi d’introduction. Challenge. Prenez par exemple la question suivante de l’ enoncee de votre examen de psychologie : « Definissez le terme “connaissance procedurale” et decrivez ses relations avec les resultats des etudes faites sur les patients amnesiques. Tu Peux Essayer. » La question sous-entendue est « Qu’est-ce que la “connaissance procedurale” et quel est son rapport avec les resultats des etudes faites sur les patients amnesiques? » Voyez comment vous pouvez transformer la reponse a cette question sous-entendue en these pour votre composition . Essay. Le paragraphe suivant pourrait vous servir d’introduction : La « connaissance procedurale », c’est la capacite d’accomplir une tache, telle qu’attacher un soulier ou conduire une voiture. Tu Peux. Les etudes sur l’amnesie ont demontre que ce type de connaissance est souvent retenu par les patients amnesiques.
Meme chez les patients amnesiques ayant perdu la plus grande partie de leur memoire explicite, l’habilete a emmagasiner de la connaissance procedurale demeure intacte… Ensuite, il vous reste a expliquer, developper et appuyer votre these en vous appuyant sur des textes, des cours magistraux et des discussions tenues en classe. China. Ensuite, appuyez chacune de vos generalisations avec des preuves concretes , des faits pertinents et des details precis qui convaincront votre lecteur que votre these est valide. Essayer. Soulignez vos arguments en les ecrivant dans des paragraphes differents et indiquez les liens qui les relient par des transitions. Dupont Challenge 2011. Par exemple, pour repondre a cette question de l’examen de travail social : « Identifiez et donnez un exemple de quatre solutions disponibles dans les cas de conflits familiaux », un etudiant a ecrit le paragraphe suivant. Essayer. Remarquez les transitions et les preuves specifiques qui appuient la generalisation. Economy. La quatrieme option lors des conflits familiaux est la violence, et il s’agit d’une reponse assez commune. Tu Peux Essayer. Vingt-cinq pour cent de tous les homicides commis aux Etats-Unis impliquent un membre de la famille qui en tue un autre et la moitie de ces meurtres impliquent des epoux.
La violence prend habituellement une des deux formes suivantes : violence explosive ou violence coercitive. La violence explosive n’est pas premeditee. Essay Challenge. Quand un fils emprunte la voiture et la detruit dans un accident, le pere peut avoir une explosion de colere et le battre. Tu Peux. La violence coercitive, au contraire, est dirigee et intentionnelle; elle vise a produire la soumission ou l’obeissance. Science And Technology Essay. Ainsi, un coup accompagne d’une menace concernant un certain comportement serait coercitif… Finalement, resumez votre these avec une courte conclusion qui donne a votre composition un air clair de finitude.
Conservez quelques minutes a la fin de l’examen pour reviser attentivement. Tu Peux Essayer. Tout d’abord, assurez-vous que votre reponse « colle » bien a la question. Essay Industrial. Repondez toujours directement a la question sans faire de digression. Essayer. Si vous voyez que vous avez digresse, rayez proprement les mots ou les paragraphes fautifs. Il est preferable de rayer un paragraphe qui n’est pas pertinent (et de le remplacer par un paragraphe pertinent si vous avez le temps) que de le laisser la. Essays. Dans ce contexte particulier, la qualite est toujours preferable a la quantite. Tu Peux. Verifiez aussi la structure de vos phrases, l’orthographe et la ponctuation.
Cet article a originalement ete produit par les Services d’Aide a l’Ecriture (Writing Tutorial Services) de l’Universite de l’Indiana, situee a Bloomington, IN. Essay. Copyright 2002 The Trustees of tu peux essayer, Indiana University. Utilise avec permission. Essay Titanic. Traduit par Pierre-Louis Lefebvre. Essayer. Lili dit: wesh.vous ne pouvez surement pas imaginer se que. Science And Technology. Axel dit: Bon, de toute facon, si la personne n'est jamais. Tu Peux Essayer. Kamui dit: Paix et amour, mon ami et frere. Brigham Young Essay. La fellation ainsi.
Kamui dit: Que la paix, l'amour et la verite soient avec. Tu Peux Essayer. Justin dit: Aidez moi svp.elle dit c'est parce qu'elle avais. Croyez-vous aux recits de la naissance de Jesus trouves dans la Bible?
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Reinventing Performance Management. Like many other companies, Deloitte realized that its system for evaluating the tu peux essayer, work of employees—and then training them, promoting them, and paying them accordingly—was increasingly out of step with its objectives. It searched for something nimbler, real-time, and titanic more individualized—something squarely focused on fueling performance in the future rather than assessing it in the past. The new system will have no cascading objectives, no once-a-year reviews, and no 360-degree-feedback tools. Its hallmarks are speed, agility, one-size-fits-one, and constant learning, all underpinned by a new way of collecting reliable performance data. To arrive at this design, Deloitte drew on three pieces of tu peux essayer, evidence: a simple counting of hours, a review of research in the science of ratings, and a carefully controlled study of its own organization.
It discovered that the organization was spending close to 2 million hours a year on challenge performance management, and tu peux that “idiosyncratic rater effects” led to ratings that revealed more about team leaders than about the people they were rating. From an empirical study of its own high-performing teams, the company learned that three items correlated best with high performance for a team: “My coworkers are committed to essay industrial safety doing quality work,” “The mission of our company inspires me,” and “I have the chance to use my strengths every day.” Of these, the third was the most powerful across the organization. With all this evidence in hand, the company set about designing a radical new performance management system, which the authors describe in this article. HBR Reprint R1504B. Not just employees but their managers and essayer even HR departments are by now questioning the conventional wisdom of movie, performance management, including its common reliance on essayer cascading objectives, backward-looking assessments, once-a-year rankings and reviews, and 360-degree-feedback tools. Some companies have ditched the rankings and even annual reviews, but they haven’t found better solutions. Deloitte resolved to design a system that would fairly recognize varying performance, have a clear view into performance anytime, and boost performance in the future. Deloitte’s new approach separates compensation decisions from day-to-day performance management, produces better insight through quarterly or per-project “performance snapshots,” and brigham young narrative essay relies on weekly check-ins with managers to keep performance on course. At Deloitte we’re redesigning our performance management system. This may not surprise you.
Like many other companies, we realize that our current process for evaluating the work of our people—and then training them, promoting them, and paying them accordingly—is increasingly out of step with our objectives. In a public survey Deloitte conducted recently, more than half the executives questioned (58%) believe that their current performance management approach drives neither employee engagement nor high performance. Essayer. They, and we, are in organized essay need of something nimbler, real-time, and more individualized—something squarely focused on tu peux essayer fueling performance in the future rather than assessing it in the past. Leadership Development in the Age of the Algorithm. What might surprise you, however, is what we’ll include in Deloitte’s new system and what we won’t. It will have no cascading objectives, no once-a-year reviews, and no 360-degree-feedback tools. We’ve arrived at a very different and much simpler design for essay managing people’s performance.
Its hallmarks are speed, agility, one-size-fits-one, and tu peux constant learning, and it’s underpinned by a new way of collecting reliable performance data. Essay Safety. This system will make much more sense for our talent-dependent business. But we might never have arrived at its design without drawing on three pieces of evidence: a simple counting of tu peux, hours, a review of research in the science of essay, ratings, and a carefully controlled study of our own organization. More than likely, the performance management system Deloitte has been using has some characteristics in common with yours. Objectives are set for each of our 65,000-plus people at the beginning of the year; after a project is finished, each person’s manager rates him or her on how well those objectives were met. Tu Peux Essayer. The manager also comments on brigham young where the person did or didn’t excel. These evaluations are factored into a single year-end rating, arrived at in lengthy “consensus meetings” at which groups of “counselors” discuss hundreds of people in tu peux essayer light of their peers.
Internal feedback demonstrates that our people like the predictability of this process and the fact that because each person is assigned a counselor, he or she has a representative at write essay, the consensus meetings. The vast majority of our people believe the process is fair. We realize, however, that it’s no longer the best design for Deloitte’s emerging needs: Once-a-year goals are too “batched” for a real-time world, and tu peux essayer conversations about year-end ratings are generally less valuable than conversations conducted in the moment about actual performance. But the need for dupont challenge change didn’t crystallize until we decided to count things. Specifically, we tallied the number of hours the organization was spending on performance management—and found that completing the forms, holding the meetings, and creating the ratings consumed close to 2 million hours a year. As we studied how those hours were spent, we realized that many of tu peux, them were eaten up by leaders’ discussions behind closed doors about the outcomes of the science, process. We wondered if we could somehow shift our investment of time from talking to ourselves about ratings to talking to our people about their performance and careers—from a focus on the past to a focus on the future. We found that creating the tu peux essayer, ratings consumed close to 2 million hours a year. Our next discovery was that assessing someone’s skills produces inconsistent data. Objective as I may try to be in evaluating you on, say, strategic thinking, it turns out that how much strategic thinking I do, or how valuable I think strategic thinking is, or how tough a rater I am significantly affects my assessment of your strategic thinking.
How significantly? The most comprehensive research on what ratings actually measure was conducted by essay Michael Mount, Steven Scullen, and Maynard Goff and essayer published in challenge 2011 the Journal of essayer, Applied Psychology in 2000. Their study—in which 4,492 managers were rated on certain performance dimensions by two bosses, two peers, and two subordinates—revealed that 62% of the variance in the ratings could be accounted for by individual raters’ peculiarities of perception. Actual performance accounted for only 21% of the variance. This led the brigham young narrative essay, researchers to conclude (in How People Evaluate Others in Organizations, edited by tu peux Manuel London): “Although it is implicitly assumed that the ratings measure the performance of the ratee, most of what is being measured by the ratings is the unique rating tendencies of the rater.
Thus ratings reveal more about the rater than they do about the ratee.” This gave us pause. We wanted to understand performance at a well organized, the individual level, and we knew that the person in the best position to judge it was the immediate team leader. But how could we capture a team leader’s view of performance without running afoul of essayer, what the researchers termed “idiosyncratic rater effects”? Putting Ourselves Under the Microscope. We also learned that the defining characteristic of the very best teams at Deloitte is that they are strengths oriented. Their members feel that they are called upon to do their best work every day. This discovery was not based on intuitive judgment or gleaned from a well anecdotes and hearsay; rather, it was derived from an empirical study of tu peux, our own high-performing teams. Our study built on previous research. Starting in the late 1990s, Gallup conducted a multiyear examination of high-performing teams that eventually involved more than 1.4 million employees, 50,000 teams, and 192 organizations.
Gallup asked both high- and lower-performing teams questions on essay titanic numerous subjects, from mission and purpose to pay and career opportunities, and isolated the questions on which the high-performing teams strongly agreed and the rest did not. It found at tu peux essayer, the beginning of the study that almost all the variation between high- and economy lower-performing teams was explained by a very small group of items. Tu Peux Essayer. The most powerful one proved to be “At work, I have the essays economy china, opportunity to tu peux do what I do best every day.” Business units whose employees chose “strongly agree” for this item were 44% more likely to earn high customer satisfaction scores, 50% more likely to have low employee turnover, and 38% more likely to be productive. You Get What You Expect From Performance Assessment. We set out to see whether those results held at Deloitte. First we identified 60 high-performing teams, which involved 1,287 employees and represented all parts of the essays, organization. For the control group, we chose a representative sample of 1,954 employees.
To measure the conditions within a team, we employed a six-item survey. Tu Peux. When the results were in and tallied, three items correlated best with high performance for write a team: “My coworkers are committed to doing quality work,” “The mission of our company inspires me,” and “I have the essayer, chance to use my strengths every day.” Of these, the titanic movie, third was the most powerful across the organization. All this evidence helped bring into focus the problem we were trying to solve with our new design. Essayer. We wanted to spend more time helping our people use their strengths—in teams characterized by great clarity of purpose and essay expectations—and we wanted a quick way to tu peux collect reliable and differentiated performance data. With this in mind, we set to work.
We began by stating as clearly as we could what performance management is actually for, at least as far as Deloitte is concerned. Science And Technology Introduction Essay. We articulated three objectives for essayer our new system. The first was clear: It would allow us to recognize performance, particularly through variable compensation. Most current systems do this. But to recognize each person’s performance, we had to and technology introduction be able to see it clearly. That became our second objective. Here we faced two issues—the idiosyncratic rater effect and the need to streamline our traditional process of evaluation, project rating, consensus meeting, and essayer final rating.
The solution to essay the former requires a subtle shift in our approach. Rather than asking more people for tu peux essayer their opinion of china, a team member (in a 360-degree or an upward-feedback survey, for tu peux example), we found that we will need to ask only the immediate team leader—but, critically, to essays economy ask a different kind of essayer, question. People may rate other people’s skills inconsistently, but they are highly consistent when rating their own feelings and dupont 2011 intentions. To see performance at essayer, the individual level, then, we will ask team leaders not about the write a well organized, skills of each team member but about their own future actions with respect to that person. At the tu peux, end of every project (or once every quarter for long-term projects) we will ask team leaders to brigham young narrative respond to four future-focused statements about each team member. We’ve refined the wording of tu peux essayer, these statements through successive tests, and essay movie we know that at Deloitte they clearly highlight differences among individuals and reliably measure performance. Here are the four: 1. Given what I know of this person’s performance, and tu peux if it were my money, I would award this person the highest possible compensation increase and bonus [ measures overall performance and unique value to the organization on a five-point scale from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” ].
2. Given what I know of this person’s performance, I would always want him or her on my team [ measures ability to work well with others on the same five-point scale ]. 3. This person is at risk for low performance [ identifies problems that might harm the customer or the team on a yes-or-no basis ]. 4. This person is ready for promotion today [ measures potential on a yes-or-no basis ]. In effect, we are asking our team leaders what they would do with each team member rather than what they think of that individual. When we aggregate these data points over a year, weighting each according to the duration of a given project, we produce a rich stream of information for leaders’ discussions of essay challenge 2011, what they, in turn, will do—whether it’s a question of succession planning, development paths, or performance-pattern analysis. Once a quarter the tu peux essayer, organization’s leaders can use the new data to review a targeted subset of essay challenge 2011, employees (those eligible for promotion, for example, or those with critical skills) and can debate what actions Deloitte might take to better develop that particular group. In this aggregation of simple but powerful data points, we see the possibility of shifting our 2-million-hour annual investment from talking about the tu peux essayer, ratings to talking about write organized, our people—from ascertaining the facts of tu peux essayer, performance to considering what we should do in response to those facts. We ask leaders what they’d do with their team members, not what they think of dupont essay 2011, them.
In addition to this consistent—and countable—data, when it comes to compensation, we want to factor in essayer some uncountable things, such as the difficulty of project assignments in a given year and write contributions to the organization other than formal projects. So the data will serve as the starting point for compensation, not the ending point. Essayer. The final determination will be reached either by a leader who knows each individual personally or by a group of leaders looking at an entire segment of our practice and at industrial safety, many data points in tu peux parallel. We could call this new evaluation a rating, but it bears no resemblance, in generation or in use, to science essay the ratings of the past. Because it allows us to quickly capture performance at a single moment in time, we call it a performance snapshot. Two objectives for tu peux our new system, then, were clear: We wanted to dupont challenge 2011 recognize performance, and we had to be able to see it clearly.
But all our research, all our conversations with leaders on tu peux the topic of write organized essay, performance management, and all the feedback from our people left us convinced that something was missing. Is performance management at tu peux, root more about “management” or about “performance”? Put differently, although it may be great to science introduction be able to tu peux measure and reward the science and technology essay, performance you have, wouldn’t it be better still to be able to improve it? Our third objective therefore became to fuel performance. And if the tu peux essayer, performance snapshot was an organizational tool for measuring it, we needed a tool that team leaders could use to strengthen it. How Deloitte Built a Radically Simple Performance Measure.
One of the most important tools in our redesigned performance management system is the “performance snapshot.” It lets us see performance quickly and reliably across the organization, freeing us to spend more time engaging with our people. Brigham Young Narrative Essay. Here’s how we created it. We looked for measures that met three criteria. To neutralize the idiosyncratic rater effect, we wanted raters to rate their own actions, rather than the qualities or behaviors of the ratee. To generate the necessary range, the tu peux, questions had to be phrased in essay industrial the extreme. And to avoid confusion, each one had to contain a single, easily understood concept. We chose one about essayer, pay, one about teamwork, one about poor performance, and one about promotion. Those categories may or may not be right for narrative essay other organizations, but they work for us. We were looking for someone with vivid experience of the individual’s performance and whose subjective judgment we felt was important. We agreed that team leaders are closest to the performance of ratees and, by virtue of their roles, must exercise subjective judgment.
We could have included functional managers, or even ratees’ peers, but we wanted to start with clarity and simplicity. We then tested that our questions would produce useful data. Validity testing focuses on essayer their difficulty (as revealed by and technology introduction essay mean responses) and the range of responses (as revealed by standard deviations). We knew that if they consistently yielded a tight cluster of “strongly agree” responses, we wouldn’t get the differentiation we were looking for. Construct validity and criterion-related validity are also important. (That is, the questions should collectively test an underlying theory and make it possible to tu peux essayer find correlations with outcomes measured in a well essay other ways, such as engagement surveys.) At Deloitte we live and work in tu peux a project structure, so it makes sense for us to produce a performance snapshot at the end of each project.
For longer-term projects we’ve decided that quarterly is the best frequency. Our goal is to strike the right balance between tying the evaluation as tightly as possible to the experience of the performance and not overburdening our team leaders, lest survey fatigue yield poor data. We’re experimenting with this now. Young Narrative Essay. We want our snapshots to reveal the real-time “truth” of what our team leaders think, yet our experience tells us that if they know that team members will see every data point, they may be tempted to sugarcoat the results to tu peux avoid difficult conversations. We know that we’ll aggregate an individual’s snapshot scores into an annual composite. But what, exactly, should we share at year’s end? We want to err on the side of sharing more, not less—to aggregate snapshot scores not only for client work but also for internal projects, along with performance metrics such as hours and sales, in the context of a group of peers—so that we can give our people the richest possible view of where they stand. Time will tell how close to that ideal we can get. Research into the practices of the best team leaders reveals that they conduct regular check-ins with each team member about near-term work.
These brief conversations allow leaders to set expectations for industrial safety the upcoming week, review priorities, comment on essayer recent work, and provide course correction, coaching, or important new information. The conversations provide clarity regarding what is expected of each team member and why, what great work looks like, and industrial how each can do his or her best work in the upcoming days—in other words, exactly the trinity of purpose, expectations, and strengths that characterizes our best teams. Our design calls for every team leader to check in with each team member once a week. For us, these check-ins are not in essayer addition to science introduction essay the work of a team leader; they are the work of tu peux essayer, a team leader. If a leader checks in less often than once a week, the team member’s priorities may become vague and brigham essay aspirational, and the leader can’t be as helpful—and the tu peux, conversation will shift from and technology introduction coaching for tu peux near-term work to essay giving feedback about past performance. In other words, the content of these conversations will be a direct outcome of their frequency: If you want people to talk about how to do their best work in the near future, they need to tu peux essayer talk often. Essays. And so far we have found in our testing a direct and measurable correlation between the frequency of these conversations and the engagement of team members. Very frequent check-ins (we might say radically frequent check-ins) are a team leader’s killer app.
That said, team leaders have many demands on their time. We’ve learned that the best way to ensure frequency is to have check-ins be initiated by the team member—who more often than not is eager for the guidance and attention they provide—rather than by the team leader. To support both people in these conversations, our system will allow individual members to understand and explore their strengths using a self-assessment tool and tu peux then to present those strengths to their teammates, their team leader, and essay the rest of the tu peux essayer, organization. Our reasoning is brigham young, twofold. First, as we’ve seen, people’s strengths generate their highest performance today and the greatest improvement in tu peux essayer their performance tomorrow, and so deserve to be a central focus. Second, if we want to see frequent (weekly!) use of our system, we have to think of it as a consumer technology—that is, designed to be simple, quick, and above all engaging to narrative essay use. Many of the tu peux, successful consumer technologies of the past several years (particularly social media) are sharing technologies, which suggests that most of us are consistently interested in ourselves—our own insights, achievements, and impact. So we want this new system to provide a place for people to explore and share what is best about themselves. This is where we are today: We’ve defined three objectives at the root of performance management—to recognize, see, and fuel performance.
We have three interlocking rituals to industrial support them—the annual compensation decision, the quarterly or per-project performance snapshot, and the weekly check-in. And we’ve shifted from a batched focus on the past to a continual focus on the future, through regular evaluations and frequent check-ins. As we’ve tested each element of this design with ever-larger groups across Deloitte, we’ve seen that the change can be an evolution over time: Different business units can introduce a strengths orientation first, then more-frequent conversations, then new ways of measuring, and finally new software for monitoring performance. Tu Peux Essayer. (See the exhibit “Performance Intelligence.”) But one issue has surfaced again and again during this work, and essays china that’s the issue of transparency. When an tu peux essayer organization knows something about young narrative essay, us, and that knowledge is captured in a number, we often feel entitled to tu peux know it—to know where we stand. We suspect that this issue will need its own radical answer. It’s not the number we assign to a person; it’s the essay, fact that there’s a single number. In the first version of our design, we kept the results of performance snapshots from the team member. We did this because we knew from the past that when an tu peux evaluation is to be shared, the responses skew high—that is, they are sugarcoated. Because we wanted to capture unfiltered assessments, we made the responses private.
We worried that otherwise we might end up destroying the very truth we sought to reveal. But what, in fact, is that truth? What do we see when we try to quantify a person? In the dupont essay 2011, world of sports, we have pages of tu peux, statistics for each player; in medicine, a three-page report each time we get blood work done; in psychometric evaluations, a battery of tests and percentiles. At work, however, at least when it comes to quantifying performance, we try to express the essays, infinite variety and nuance of tu peux, a human being in a single number. Surely, however, a better understanding comes from conversations—with your team leader about how you’re doing, or between leaders as they consider your compensation or your career.
And these conversations are best served not by a single data point but by many. If we want to do our best to tell you where you stand, we must capture as much of your diversity as we can and then talk about it. We haven’t resolved this issue yet, but here’s what we’re asking ourselves and testing: What’s the most detailed view of you that we can gather and share? How does that data support a conversation about your performance? How can we equip our leaders to have insightful conversations? Our question now is not What is the industrial, simplest view of essayer, you? but What is the richest? Our question now is not What is the simplest view of you? but What is the richest? Over the past few years the safety, debate about performance management has been characterized as a debate about ratings—whether or not they are fair, and whether or not they achieve their stated objectives.
But perhaps the issue is different: not so much that ratings fail to convey what the essayer, organization knows about each person but that as presented, that knowledge is sadly one-dimensional. In the end, it’s not the particular number we assign to young narrative essay a person that’s the problem; rather, it’s the fact that there is a single number. Ratings are a distillation of the truth—and up until now, one might argue, a necessary one. Yet we want our organizations to know us, and we want to tu peux know ourselves at work, and essay industrial safety that can’t be compressed into a single number. We now have the technology to go from tu peux a small data version of our people to a big data version of them. As we scale up our new approach across Deloitte, that’s the dupont, problem we want to solve next. Marcus Buckingham provides performance management tools and training to organizations.
He is the author of several best-selling books and the forthcoming StandOut 2.0: Assess Your Strengths, Find Your Edge, Win at Work (Harvard Business Review Press). Ashley Goodall is the director of leader development at tu peux essayer, Deloitte Services LP, based in write a well organized essay New York.
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Advantages and Perks of Being a Freelancer. Definition of Freelancer. A freelancer is self-employed person offering services, usually to businesses and often to multiple clients at essayer, a time. The type of essay industrial work freelancers do varies. Tu Peux Essayer! Nearly every type of service a business would need could be provided by a freelancer, including (but not limited to), marketing, such as social media marketing, copywriting, and publicity, writing, such as articles and blog posts, technological support, such as web programming and design, creative works such as graphic design, and financial support, such as bookkeeping.
According to titanic movie, the Freelancers Union, 55 million Americans--35% of the workforce--have freelance careers, with a combined estimated earning of $1 trillion a year. Freelancing is so flexible, you can set your own hours, working full or part-time on the projects of your choice. While clients can offer specifications to the work, a freelancer works similar to an independent contractor, in which he#39;s free to tu peux essayer, control how the work is completed. This is an important distinction for tax purposes, because the IRS views employees and independent contractors differently. Further, freelancing allows you to set your own price, which is often higher than what you#39;d make as an employee doing the dupont essay, same work. The regularity of freelance work can vary. Many freelancers work for the same set of clients over a long period of time. For example, a freelance writer might have a client that requires an article twice a week ongoing.
Others work with clients over shorter periods, usually on tu peux specific projects. For example, a freelance web designer might build a website for a client and once the site is done, so is the work relationship. There are several perks to working as a freelancer, including: Get started quickly . today even. As long as you already know the skill you plan to offer, getting started is simply a matter of essay movie finding your first client. Easy to start. You can start right now, using your network find a client.
While you#39;ll want to tu peux essayer, build a LinkedIn profile and/or a website, you can network within your current career and friend networks to find your first client. Organized! Affordable. Odds are if you have the ability to provide the service, you also have whatever equipment or software you need to deliver it. Eventually you#39;ll want to tu peux, invest in business building tools, such as a website, but using LinkedIn (which is free) is economy a great online resume that can help you promote your service. High demand for help. While the marketplace of freelancers is competitive, the need for essayer, quality, reliable freelancers is growing.
Many businesses don#39;t have employees and instead have a team of freelancers. Essays! Choose your own schedule. Work when and where you want. Pick and choose clients. While in the beginning you may take any client that will hire you, as you grow, you can choose not to take on difficult clients. You can even fire them. Do the tu peux essayer, work the way you see fit. While you need to write, deliver what the essayer, client asks, how the work is done is up to you. Where there#39;s a good, there#39;s usually a bad. Here are some disadvantages to freelancing: Can take time to build a steady clientele. Getting enough clients to make freelancing something that supports you and your family can take awhile.
Work can be irregular. Many freelancers experience an ebb and flow in their work. You need to plan for lean times, and be ready to work hard to deliver work on-time when work is plentiful. Managing multiple clients and projects can be a challenge. While some people like the variety of working on several projects at a time, others may find it difficult to keep track of deadlines and a well essay pace themselves to deliver quality work on time. Great time management systems and organization is key. Pay may be low to start out. Essayer! Especially in today#39;s digital economy, many people expect to essay, pay less for work from a new freelancer. Breaking in essayer, with lower costs may be needed, but as quickly as possible, seek to charge what you#39;re worth and find clients willing to pay for quality. Learn how to start your own business or side hustle, and discover strategies to attract customers and pump up your profits. What#39;s the Difference Between a Freelancer and write essay Home-Based Service Business?
There really isn#39;t a difference between freelancing and tu peux essayer a home business. Both are self-employed individuals and brigham essay can work for several clients at a time. Both can set their own schedules and have to essayer, abide by the same self-employment tax rules. With that said, there are a few differences between freelancers and home business owners. A freelancer often works under his own name, where as a home business owner usually creates a business name. Brigham Narrative! Often a home business owner has found way to tu peux essayer, fill a gap in and technology introduction essay, the market whereas a freelancer works within the established needs of the market.
How to essayer, Get Started as a Freelancer. Getting started as a freelancer is as easy as visiting one of the freelance sites to find work, and networking with your current sphere of influence to find your first client. Here#39;s steps to building a freelance career: 1. Decide what you#39;ll offer. Common freelance work includes writing, web design, graphic design, photography, marketing, social media management, bookkeeping and more. 2. Determine your target market. Who needs what you have to economy, offer? Decide if you#39;ll specialize within a specific niche of your service (i.e. copy writing or WordPress web design) or within a specific market (i.e. writing for Realtors or web design for authors). Tu Peux! This is the time to decide your brand and unique selling proposition. Write A Well Organized! 3. Create an tu peux online portfolio. Start at challenge 2011, LinkedIn, a social network all about career networking.
Build a profile that promotes the tu peux, benefits you have to offer. Consider setting up a website, which will offer you more customization and flexibility than LinkedIn. Science! 4. Set your prices. Make sure you charge enough to cover your overhead, time to essayer, do the work, as well as to earn a living. 5. Start reaching out to find clients. Use your network to help you connect with potential clients. Consider using a freelance site, such as Freelancer.com or Upwork (formally eLance and Odesk) to find work. While they may pay less than you want, it can be a great way to china, get experience, testimonials and referrals. Freelancing is a fast and affordable way to get started working as your own boss from essayer, home.
With that said, there are pros and cons, and success comes from those who plan their business and essays economy china deliver high quality work.
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. many countries encourage participation, but provide limited mechanisms to allow user feedback. When questions about tu peux participation are discussed and presented in plans there seem to titanic movie be a tendency towards understanding openness in terms of access to, and gathering of information through the building of infrastructure, better availability, the use of open standards, securing universal accessibility, etc. This becomes evident when the European governments are elaborating on essayer the implementation of e#150;government (Commission of the and technology essay European Communities, 2002) within the European community, as well as when American authorities discuss similar issues (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003). Aspects of openness regarding how the public should become more able to #147;analyse and utilize#148; this information do not seem to be considered as important as those concerning access and availability.
Commercial information providers have another relationship to the quality and tu peux, sustainability of information. They always have to consider whether the presentation of information is going to brigham young narrative essay sell their product, and if it is going to improve the customer#146;s experience of the tu peux essayer product in narrative which they have decided to invest their time and/or money. From a strictly commercial point of view it does not matter if the quality of information in low, inaccurate, or even false, as long as the production costs are kept down compared to the revenue. Commercial actors are therefore encouraged to design systems facilitating openness by tu peux essayer the fact that a large number of science and technology introduction, people are willing to produce information for free through participation, being both producers and consumers of information. These systems may be organised as large communities with tens, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of users, or the users may be organised in tu peux essayer a large number of small groups where the members have closer ties. Small groups may also exist within a large community, as in economy china the physical world, and may provide information on a more personal level.
Information with personal qualities interests users, but these qualities may be difficult to achieve . From the point of view of the vendor the different ways of organising a community are of less concern if there is a large number of users who produce and use information on a regular basis, and as long as the work moderating and managing this information is kept to a minimum. When talking about openness, commercial vendors tend to tu peux essayer use the term as part of their strategic thinking to introduce #147;pervasive media environments#148; (Berman, 2004), not necessarily in terms of introduction, empowering individuals or technology#146;s democratic potential (Rushkoff, 2003). An interesting observation is that education is somewhere in the middle, being obliged to handle all aspects of openness, from a strictly authoritative approach, where the essayer learners are given access to one understanding of industrial safety, specific information, to an approach where the tu peux essayer learners are expected to explore, re#150;contextualise and produce information on their own. When media change information providers are affected most significantly by whether they are able to build new relationships to their previous customers/consumers  who now become potential contributors in a participation culture . Civil services will still be restricted by concerns regarding quality of information, issues that are more complex than the considerations made by individuals writing weblogs, online newspapers providing discussion boards, or vendors facilitating online communities, etc. There may be numerous reasons why the economy china different actors do what they do; I would like to emphasize the increasing differences between how information is created and distributed in various parts of society. These differences were not as evident before as long as most public information was produced centrally by state authorities or the press, and distributed to consumers through technical solutions that did not provide any significant possibilities for tu peux essayer feedback. To summarise some of these approaches to openness: From an official and public service point of view information providers want openness biased towards information access. One tends to encourage participation, but this is understood as mechanisms facilitating feedback , not as tools making the public producers of content . From a commercial point of view information providers also want to dupont challenge facilitate easy access, but these actors also have strong interests in encouraging openness with users acting as producers of content. These actors are more likely to develop an understanding of the #147;quality of information#148; with a bias towards information#146;s ability to appeal and engage an audience. Some approaches to openness in communication.
The complexity of openness in communication systems range from technical issues, like how information is mediated and distributed, via economical concerns, to tu peux a number of social issues that may influence the availability, use and a well organized, the potential impact of information in tu peux society. Therefore, when trying to make classifications of science and technology introduction, communication, one should not alone look at the technical properties of technologies, or how they are related to time and space, or solely on the basis of information content. These are all important aspects of any technology, but do not provide a vocabulary capable of describing some important features of digital networked media: the different ways in which the users become both consumers and producers of information (Jensen, 1998). Tu Peux Essayer? Online networked computers, accompanied by digital cameras, small sound recording devices, techniques for dupont essay challenge positioning, mobile phones etc. all have the potential of tu peux essayer, enabling groups of various sizes and individuals to participate actively in the production of information in numerous ways. When looking for a classification that includes different aspects of openness these features of #147;new media#148; have to be considered. Open vs. closed content.
Mayer (1997) building upon earlier work #151; presents a classification of common computer media applications which focuses on the computer#146;s characteristic semiotic nature and its #147;capacities for symbol manipulation#148;, and the #147;responsive context of reception#148;. In the titanic table below, content scope, temporal, and tu peux, spatial attributes are compared, and demonstrate how these characteristics can be used to differentiate between various computer media. The model provides a useful approach to a distinction between open and closed content that is consistent with existing terminology used in traditional media studies. However, this classification fails to grasp the processes related to essay safety how this content came into being, or how it is used. Another perspective on openness is essayer, provided by Benkler  who defines three different layers of essay titanic movie, communication, a physical layer (wires, cable, radio frequency spectrum), a logical layer (software, protocols), and a content layer (text, images, sound etc). Lessig (2001) uses Benkler#146;s layers when discussing how different communication systems influence on our abilities to act as users instead of mere consumers of information. Tu Peux Essayer? The table below is an a well extension of the tu peux essayer model presented by Lessig . Lessig discuss 1, 2, 3 8, and uses #147;free#148; vs. #147;closed#148; where I am using #147;open#148; vs. #147;closed#148;: Speakers#146; Corner and Madison Square Garden are two of the movie examples used by Lessig.
At Speakers#146; Corner (1) anyone who wants to public performance get access to the park (the physical layer), he may do a presentation of essayer, his own choice (the logical level), and he is free to chose what to and technology present (the content level). Tu Peux? One may, however, argue that this openness become a theoretical possibility to most people, not being able to visit Speakers Corner when they have something they want to say, or not being among the relatively few constituting a #147;public sphere#148; where private people come together #147;as a public and articulating the write needs of society with the state#148; . However, communication will always be limited by both physical and social/psychological constraints, and for practical purpose we will only tu peux, be able to talk about this complete openness within limited communities, though never in the world at essay, large. In an arena like Madison Square Garden (2) an individual will have the same possibilities as at Speakers#146; Corner, save that the building has to be rented. That is because the access to the physical level is tu peux, restricted by the owner of the infrastructure needed to give a performance. In the telephone system (3) a user will have to dupont challenge pay for access to the system and he has no influence on how the essayer content is mediated at the logical level. But the system is a well organized, open on the content level making the users able to say whatever they want, as long as the system does not discriminate between different users on tu peux essayer the basis of the information they are communicating. Writing by hand (4) is an example of a technology that do not imply any restrictions to the content, and where the physical level is fully accessible, at lest for most practical purposes. The only brigham young narrative essay, restrictions to what the tu peux essayer users are able to write a well organized essay express is found on the logical level as limitations implicit in written language.
An example is writings shortcomings when it comes to describe movement in any fulfilling way. One may also argue that the use of recordable media like CD#150;R, DVD#150;R, and hard disk recorders, MP3 players etc. Tu Peux? can serve as examples of (4), even though the access to the physical level is restricted by the need of specific hardware. However, given that in large parts of the world such recording devices are relatively cheap and essay industrial, easy to purchase, this limitation do not imply any practical restriction that prevents these people from using recording devices. Tu Peux? The most severe limitations to the use of digital recording technologies are found on the logical level where DRM systems applied in software and the implications of dupont essay 2011, copyright laws are some examples. Lessig argues that the Internet (5) is an example where the physical layer is completely controlled by governments and commercial vendors. Most of the content is protected by copyright laws, Benkler  uses Los Angeles Times v. Free Republic (Carney, 2001) as an example. However, on the logical level the Internet has been open, as long as protocols and software traditionally have been openly documented, as well as shared and used without severe restrictions, and developed by essayer collective efforts.
Because of this openness Internet technology has been transferable to numerous infrastructures, making the communication facilitated by essay industrial safety these technologies difficult to control by introducing restrictions at the physical level. However, this may change from a number of reasons. Trusted computing , referring to tu peux the embedding of end#150;to#150;end validation of the titanic origin and integrity of data into computer hardware and system software (Kay, 2006), is one of several technical solutions that alone, or in combination with other technical and legal solutions, will limit users#146; abilities to produce, back up, copy, and distribute content in ways they find opportune (Walker, 2003). A perhaps more common example of how closeness is introduced on the logical level is the use of special applications like Flash to tu peux essayer present content on the Web. Instead of making autonomous Web pages that can be linked to, and accessed one by one Flash applications usually close references to different content on a server.
Personal Video Recorders (PVR) (6) are perhaps not the best example where only the content layer is essays economy china, closed, as long as when they are used to essayer record television programs the logical layer will be controlled by the broadcasters, and a number of restrictions may be implemented in hardware. However, I am using PVRs as an example to be able to introduce the possibility of technical restrictions taking full control over the presentation of essays economy, media content, in extreme cases even over perception. A concrete example is Philips solution for #147;preventing a viewer from switching from a channel when an advertisement is being displayed on the channel#148;, and if the program is recorded on a PVR the technology #147;prevents a viewer of a recorded program from fast forwarding the tu peux recorded program in order to organized skip past advertisements#148; . . Tu Peux Essayer? individuals will become accustomed to 2011 the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. AWhen the physical level is open and there are restrictions to tu peux essayer both the content and the logical level we are experiencing an instance of surveillance (7).
Writing this sitting in and technology essay Volkspark Friedrichshain I am thinking of what Speakers#146; Corner would be like in former East Germany: Most people would have physical access, but would be unable to speak freely or make performances of their own choice. Aspects of surveillance introduce several questions about essayer power relations, not only between the producers and consumers of information, which will be discussed later, but also to 2011 an increasing degree those who the essayer communication is about. An example is services like gawker.com/stalker (at http://gawker.com/stalker/ that re#150;mediates parts of gossip#150;journalism, now in the hands of the public. But the potential in #147;surveillance#148; goes much further, and is one of the main reasons why Google fund the building of free WiFi systems, making them capable of providing plateatic advertising (advertisements targeted by geographic location). The surveillance potential in different technologies may cause an erosion of dupont essay challenge, of privacy with the result that individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. Examples are: when they are travelling; sharing files or communicating on tu peux the Internet; they are using their cellphones; in education. In addition to intended use technologies almost always have a #147;function creep#148; that occurs when technical features, designed for a specific purpose, ends up serving many other purposes (Hoepman and Jacobs, 2006). Being accustomed to a general idea that privacy is not available, people may become less able to recognize new, potential threats against essay titanic, privacy. Tu Peux? Even if such threats are identified the precedence of already accepted solutions will make it increasingly difficult to define and articulate other, alternative solutions that respect privacy.
Cable TV systems (8) are designed to provide a great deal of industrial safety, information from vendors to the consumers, resembling broadcasting. All three levels are restricted: the consumers do not own the wires into their homes, programming is controlled, and the use of the content is limited by copyright, or by technical restrictions (see Personal Video Recorder). Essayer? Cable and ADSL are also technologies used to provide many with broadband access to the Internet, building an asymmetric relationship between information providers and information consumers to essay 2011 a technology (the Internet) that originally treated all actors as peers. Users with unrestricted Internet connections are already a privileged class being able to set up their own servers, create new services, establish true peer#150;to#150;peer connections with other sites, etc. By introducing technical solutions to make online computers more easy and secure, like NATs and firewalls, new technologies reproduce the traditional relationship between #147;publishers#148; or #147;broadcasters#148; and tu peux essayer, their #147;consumers#148; or #147;audience#148; (Walker, 2003). Being able to describe how the safety different layers of tu peux essayer, a communication technology influence the essay industrial production, distribution and use of information is important to an understanding of openness . However, even though Benkler discusses how regulatory choices influence the #147;consumer#150;producer relationship#148;, the model does not provide a vocabulary that considers how users are affected as producers or as consumers of information on different levels. A comprehensive understanding of openness in communication should be able to classify different media according to how they influence relations between producers and consumers, an approach taken by Bordewijk and van Kaam (1986) when explaining the future development of #147;tele#150;information services#148;. Tu Peux Essayer? They presented a model with four communication patterns describing the relationships between information providers and information consumers. Rather than emphasizing different media#146;s technical characteristics, genres or content Bordewijk and van Kaam answer two initial questions about the #147;provider#148; and essay, the #147;consumer#148; of essayer, information: Is the transmitted information owned by dupont essay 2011 an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer? Is the transmission and use of the information controlled by an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer?
Answering who delivers the information, and tu peux essayer, who controls access to and use of information is represented as a matrix with four #147;ideal information#150;patterns#148;. It is important to write organized essay note that these patterns are #147;ideal#148; in a sense where they are supposed to be used as analytical tools. In reality no media can be understood as being part of only essayer, one of these patterns: Bordewijk and van Kaam use the terms #147;information service centre#148; and #147;information service consumer#148; instead of #147;sender#148; and #147;receiver#148;. Like Benkler#146;s model, one distinctive mark of the narrative essay typology of tu peux, communication patterns is that it is defined independently of the technical design of the media, the essay 2011 form of presentation, and the content of information. But where Benkler is inspired by the topology of computer networks the communication patterns are derived from social power relations.
Focus is on the flow of information between different actors ignoring the essayer different quantitative and qualitative aspects of the information content (Jensen, 1996). When discussing openness the communication patterns must therefore be used with other aspects of openness in mind. Bordewijk and van Kaam came up with their model years before the write a well organized essay invention of the essayer Web; their four communication patterns only take into account #147;centre#148; and #147;consumer#148;. This is hardly surprising, given that their main interests were the future development of broadcasting and telecommunication systems. However the model does not take into consideration new aspects of essay 2011, digital networked media that facilitate users as producers of information. These perspectives call for an extension of both axes of the model: I am therefore adding information produced by users as a collective and distribution controlled by users as a collective . In the following model my understanding of #147;distribution#148; goes beyond the ability to control the tu peux essayer infrastructure (corresponding to Benkler#146;s physical level) used for distribution. One also has to consider the essay industrial users#146; ability to decide when and how the content is re#150;edited, re#150;used, or just consumed. The use of #147;collective#148; also needs some initial explanation. Collective does not necessarily mean that individuals are organised in definable groups; on the contrary, individuals forming a networked collective using digital media will often be loosely organised.
One can even describe this organisation, or lack of such, as autonomous individuals #147;out of control#148;, not connected by a hierarchical chain of command. Instead their activities are results from a multitude of simultaneous actions whose collective pattern are called networks, complex adaptive systems, swarms, collective systems, etc. . The members of such collectives are highly connected in a peer network, but without answering to an organisation, or a centre of control. Each member acts individually according to some basic rules and tu peux essayer, given situations in their local environment . When taking the collective into consideration the model forms nine different communication patterns: Transmission occurs when information is produced by a centralized information service which also controls when information is distributed to the users. The flow of information runs in one direction only, from the centre to dupont 2011 a number of autonomous users. Tu Peux? All users are treated in the exact same manner when it comes to distribution, receiving the essay information simultaneously. The information can either be previously stored by the information service, or it may be offered #147;on the essayer fly#148; at the moment of distribution. Most media based on transmission are characterized by access to large amounts of stored information. Only a tiny fragment of this information is distributed to users at essays economy, a given time, and always in ways that ensure that users are receiving the same information simultaneously.
Individual users in the transmission model have no other choice that to receive the information provided at a given moment in time. Tu Peux Essayer? Communication based on transmission may therefore be referred to and technology as #147;one#150;way#148; or #147;one#150;to#150;many#148;, emphasizing that the tu peux essayer communication channels have no possibilities for feedback. This information-pattern is typical in introduction essay traditional broadcast media like radio and television. Transmission is the tu peux communication pattern with the strongest bias towards closeness. Still, the content may be fully accessible, communicated by using open standards, and even possible to manipulate through interaction. Nevertheless, the pattern is heavily restricted, as long as the information centre exclusively chooses when to grant access to users. However, the brigham young essay use of video recorders is an example of how new technology changes an existing communication pattern by giving users more choices to control the distribution of information.
The most telling examples of transmission today are found in streaming media solutions on the Internet where the ability of users to record can be heavily restricted. Registration occurs when information is produced by individual users, but a centralised service then takes control of the information by collecting and storing it. Users may provide information by request from the information centre, or the user may give information without any previous request. As long as the information is produced by users the division of power seems to be reversed from #147;transmission#148; and #147;consultation#148; patterns. However, the tu peux information centre has exclusive control over what users are able to register by essays economy providing interfaces where information is produced. An example is the use of polls where the tu peux essayer owners of Web sites give their users opportunities to answer questions by selecting between predefined choices. It is movie, also important to remember that the information centre in tu peux essayer most cases collects information with a purpose, and does not facilitate openness in the sense of giving communicating parties equal opportunities.
In registration patterns the essay initial information producers are not able to control the information after it is registered by the information centre. The centre has exclusive control of tu peux, storage and may use this control to re#150;arrange and re#150;mediate the information and write a well, use it in other communication patterns, or to facilitate such patterns. Bordewijk and van Kaam use (tele#150;)opinion polling, shopping systems, etc. as examples of registration by request. Examples of registration without request can be systems made for surveillance, logging of computer systems, etc. Services offering storage of photos where the users are given few possibilities may also be characterised as registration without request. The registration pattern can also be said to be present in relationships between the makers of software, that is publicly available, and users. Most users are not able to make their own software, or they are finding it more convenient to use software made by others. These users are limited to the possibilities build into software and essayer, illustrate that production of digital media objects are often assembled by selecting from ready#150;made functions, or from media material provided centrally. All authoring and editing software comes with a large number of these predefined functions, and science introduction, additional functionality may be added by using #147;plug#150;ins#148; which makes third#150;party vendors able to tu peux incorporate new functions into a program#146;s interface .
This selection among predefined functions is only registration when the new information is stored by a central service, but to an increasing degree this is brigham young narrative, happening with online services that provide the tu peux essayer same functions as standalone programs. Google is the write essay most obvious example of a successful commercial approach based on the principle that information is accessible, and, to an increasing degree, produced online (Google, 2005). Tu Peux? Questions about selection are important when discussing openness and control, and essay, makes evident one of the limitations in tu peux the model: there is no pattern that covers situations where information that is controlled by a centre (the program manufacturer or the service provider) and used by individuals to make products that they are able to essay store and control. Selecting performed by individuals when producing and re#150;mediating information that is stored locally has to be understood as a combination of essayer, several patterns. Commenting occurs when the collecting and storage of information is centralized, but some of the information is provided by a number of users. The central service controls the initial information, but individual users are able to provide additional information that may even contradict the original.
The commenting pattern also implies that the information provided by individual users is accessible by other users. Commenting can therefore be considered as more open than the registration pattern because information is not hidden after it is and technology introduction, stored by tu peux the central service. Where registration normally will be limited to selecting between pre#150;defined alternatives most instances of commenting make the individual producers able to formulate their opinions with their own words, perhaps even provide some additional media material by essays uploading or using hyperlinking. However, those providing information though the commenting pattern are not able to revise their texts after it is posted, similar to how information is controlled centrally in the registration pattern. Commenting appears in online discussion- oards, weblogs, and a number of tu peux essayer, other online media that makes it possible to dupont essay 2011 display feedback in the same context as an tu peux original information element. Normally this pattern does not include response where additional information are controlled, or changed by an editor, unless the content is a violation of law or considered as spam. Pure commenting are unmoderated responses where the economy china information provided by others is essayer, presented without delay in addition to the original information that initiated the response in economy china the first place. Consultation occurs when information is produced and owned by a central information service, but where individuals are able to control which information they receive and when this information is tu peux essayer, delivered.
The consultation pattern always depends on information which is stored before the moment of distribution. Essay Titanic Movie? In other words, this communication pattern is always asynchronous. Consultation offers some flexibility in favour of essayer, users, but it requires some specific activities on their behalf. The users have to request information by performing activities defined by the information centre. The label #147;interactivity#148;  is often used to characterise this process, ranging from clicking on specific hyperlinks to the users#146; movement and achievements in computer games. One can argue that these techniques represent a potential democratisation of the use of media by empowering users in new ways. However, interactivity is also used to and technology introduction essay describe systems that are no more than collections of information which can be accessed at a time which the user finds convenient. These systems thereby belong to the same pattern as newspapers and essayer, books. Discussing openness one can even argue that many so#150;called interactive systems are much less open than printed books: for essay safety example, cybertexts (Aarseth, 1997) are controlled by a computer, where users can do no more than select between pre#150;defined options since the overall structure is hidden. Even if the functionality of a given program is available, most users will not be able to make qualified judgements about how information is tu peux essayer, presented. Communication based on consultation is often #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;one#148;, found in what Jensen calls #147;electronic memories#148; (Jensen, 1996).
Examples are FTP, World Wide Web, and a number of online services providing stored content. The consultation pattern also include various forms of printed media, CD#150;ROM, DVDs and videotapes. Dialogue occurs when individual users are able to dupont essay participate actively in essayer both the production and distribution of information. Essay Safety? The information and the time of tu peux, information exchange are totally controlled by young narrative essay the users, and essayer, the means of introduction, production and distribution are shared equally between them. Information in the dialogue pattern is normally not stored before it is tu peux, communicated, but it may be stored by one or several users during the communication process. The flow of information runs in several directions and essay safety, cannot be controlled by one user alone. When communication is mediated the connections between users will often be provided by an information service centre. In these cases the centre represents a technical facility which typically serves several consumers, and tu peux essayer, the centre does not intervene in essay challenge 2011 the production or in the time of distribution of information. Dialogue may be referred to as #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;many#148;. This pattern is typical in oral traditions where those communicating have to essayer meet physically, but the dialogue pattern also apply to mediated communication. The telephone system is a typical example: users decide who they want to safety call, when to make the call, and what the tu peux conversation is going to young be about, while the system operates like a #147;black box#148; routing the telephone calls between users without interfering with the information that users communicate.
Dialogues do not have to tu peux be synchronous and instantaneous. The dialogue pattern can include ordinary mail, fax, e#150;mail, etc. Essay? Similar patterns also occur on a number of different services on the Internet, from Usenet discussions, via a wide range of commenting functions to tu peux open chatrooms. Collaboration occurs when information is produced by a number of essay, individuals organised as a collective, and distribution is controlled at an individual level. A communication system facilitating collaboration allows users to use and revise content provided by others without any prior consent. The information in the collaboration pattern has to be stored before it will be accessible to other users, and this storage is normally done by a central service. This service may be taken down and essayer, users may lose content, but as long as the system is essay, up and running all users are treated the same.
Wikis and, to some extent, the development of open source software exemplifies collective efforts where collaborative patterns occur. Note that a great deal of software that is essayer, sold under the umbrella #147;collaborative tools#148; does not necessarily facilitate a collaborative pattern. In a collaborative environment individuals do not have exclusive control over content they make available, every user has the same possibilities to make changes, add new or additional information, or even delete content provided by essay others. This does not cause any substantial problems in tu peux essayer wikis where malicious behaviour or mistakes may be corrected easily, and and technology essay, only affect autonomous nodes without severe consequences in tu peux essayer related nodes. Essay? However, even though most users have the tu peux essayer same privileges some users have access to additional functions. In a wiki this will be system operators and administrators at different levels who are able to make changes to software, carry out write, sanctions against misbehaving, etc. When collaborating on large software projects there are also differences in the status of users, because minor changes in tu peux one part of a program may cause unexpected failures in other parts. There has to be some centralised revision control with the implementation of new code . Since software is made for a relatively specific purpose there also has to be a consensus about the core functionality. Consequently software projects have to implement some kind of hierarchy where some users are given privileges that make them capable of making decisions that other contributors have to follow. Challenge? In other words, neither a wiki, nor a software project can be organised following collaborative patterns only.
Because users in a collaborative environment are able to tu peux revise and re#150;use each other#146;s work they have to make an agreement stating that copyright law shall not be applied to shared information. In software development there exist numerous such agreements and licences (Free Software Foundation, 2006) that potential contributors have to accept to be allowed to participate in a project. When working with other kinds of content, like text, images, and audio files, Creative Commons is the most widely used licensing regime, providing six different licences (Creative Commons, 2006) that make content creators able give others opportunities to collaborate using their content. The two communication patterns #151; collaboration and dialogue #151; are often closely connected: dialogue is necessary to foster many of the social processes which make collaboration possible. Discussions about the functionality in open source software are a good example, where many are involved, but the final decisions are made by relatively few, privileged members of the community. Collaboration differs from commenting because new content can be produced by users revising each other#146;s work as well as adding new material. Syndication occurs when information is produced by economy an information centre, but individual users are able to take control over the information and re#150;use it for different purposes. Syndication is well known from traditional media. Both television and tu peux, newspapers pay for the right to science introduction essay use information provided by news agencies and they often use this information quite extensively without substantial editorial changes, adding it to information they produce themselves. However, the latter is more like the communication pattern sharing, while a precise understanding of syndication does not involve any changes in essayer the information content by others than the the central service creating the content in the first place.
On the Internet syndication normally refers to the distribution of banner advertisements, and #147;feeds#148; from a site indicating new content (like the latest posts from a weblog). The degree of user control varies from full text feeds in XML, that other services may re#150;mediate in multiple ways, to solutions where content may be included, but not changed. File sharing systems are another example of how the syndication pattern becomes facilitated on the Internet. File sharing systems distribute data, or parts of larger collections of data, to a number of users who then provide this data to others. Sharing occurs when content produced by individual users is distributed and re#150;used by science introduction essay a number of others. The sharing pattern is tu peux, similar to syndication with one important difference: in the sharing pattern information initially is produced by individual users. Note that sharing is not necessarily a communication pattern that all the actors approve, as long as information may be distributed through a sharing pattern without the original creator#146;s consent. The re#150;use and re#150;editing of economy china, information may be an aspect of tu peux, sharing, but the sharing pattern differs from collaboration because there are only introduction, individual users who take part in the production and editing of information.
Creators of tu peux, weblogs often use the sharing pattern this way when they create new posts by using citations and links found at other sites. Essays China? However, when looking at how information may change when shared between large numbers of blog creators the tu peux essayer pattern changes and essay, becomes more like collaboration. Some actors are always considered to be more authoritative, or more trustworthy that others, and when information are edited by these users others are likely to treat this information in ways which may have some of the characteristics of syndication. It is also possible to argue that authority causes behaviour that resembles the transmission pattern (Shirky, 2003). There are numerous examples of essayer, how information is shared among online newspapers and young narrative essay, blogs, where the exact same citations, phrases, and references are used on hundreds of tu peux essayer, sites. When the creator of a new post only makes a citation, without making any changes to the initial information, the communication pattern that occurs is only distinguished from syndication by the fact that the original producer no longer has the ability to and technology make changes to the cited content.
Transclusion (Nelson, 2000) of tu peux essayer, media material, typically used to #147;hot#150;link#148; images and multimedia files or by displaying an external site within a frameset, are also examples of the essay industrial safety communication pattern. These examples are made possible by the Web, and the Internet#146;s #147;openness#148; on Benkler#146;s logical layer, which makes content creators able to identify autonomous elements and address them directly. Emergence occurs when both production and distribution of information are collective processes. No centralised unit or individual user are able to fully control the creation or re#150;editing and tu peux essayer, distribution of information. Actually emergence is characterised by an explicit absence of control and systems facilitating emergence are those which come closest to full #147;openness#148;. It is relatively easy to science and technology introduction design communication systems where emergence is not likely to tu peux essayer occur; if information can only be accessed, not re#150;used, emergence will never happen within a system. On the 2011 other hand is it almost impossible to design a system to explicitly facilitate emergence, simply because these processes always are unpredictable and occurs as a result of social processes.
These processes include contributors with different objectives and essayer, they seldom have a shared understanding about the results of their collective achievements. A Well? As individuals, each contributor may have well#150;defined reasons for what he is doing, but there are absolutely no guarantees that these ideas are shared by others. Emergent communication patterns can only be realised by a close interplay between the cultural use of technical solutions and the development of these solutions. The actors using and developing an emergent system will quite often be unaware of each other, but they will still rely upon tu peux each other#146;s work and they may share a set of brigham essay, socially constituted #147;rules#148; influencing their behaviour. From this follows that a communication system that gives an emergent information pattern in one setting may not cause the same effects when some of the conditions change. An attempt to give a practical example of the emergent communication pattern can be seen in the figure above, an tu peux attempt to create the science introduction title of this paper in colourful letters. The letters are provided by individuals posting pictures to Flickr.com, a service hosting pictures and giving their users the option of tagging their images. Tagging is one approach to tu peux the ordering of information by unorganised efforts, often called folksonomy (Quintarelli, 2005). Some of those who upload pictures of an #147;O#148; choose to tag it with the tags #147;oneletter#148; and #147;o#148;.
When this paper was written 3,408 pictures were tagged this with #147;oneletter#148;. Challenge 2011? Flickr also provides an application interface (API) available for non#150;commercial use by tu peux essayer outside developers (Flickr, 2006), something that made it possible to essays china write a script (Kastner, 2005) which I could use to make the title. The final result is possible because of the contribution from a number of tu peux, people, not connected to each other and with no obvious intentions on collaborating. The communication patterns are limited by the two initial questions: #147;Who controls production?#148;, and #147;Who controls distribution?#148; These questions do not address the different actors' underlying motivation, in science and technology introduction essay other words: which and whose interests benefit from different patterns? Some initial answers to this question may be formulated by using what Michel de Certeau calls strategies and tactics, used in his analysing the nature and politics of tu peux, cultural production within #147;the practice of everyday life#148; . Essay? Strategies are manifested through institutional means of control in what one can describe as more closed systems.
Among the communication patterns presented #147;transmission#148;, #147;registration#148;, and essayer, #147;consultation#148; may be characterized as strategic/more closed communication patterns where the control is centralized. On the other hand, any economic, political, or technological system has to give their users some #147;space#148; for movement, qualities that connotes more openness . Only a completely totalitarian regime will be able to 2011 reserve these spaces for exclusive purposes and these limitations to essayer the application of titanic movie, strategies allow individuals to develop tactics . Certeau describe tactics as individual techniques of knowing how to operate within the processes of a dominating system. Common examples of such techniques are informal communication, improvisations, unauthorized simplification of procedures, unintended usage, etc. Tu Peux? #147;Sharing#148;, #147;collaboration#148;, and essays china, #147;emergence#148; #151; where users are in control #151; are more tactical and open patterns. When designing a communication system one will have to come up with solutions that fulfill multiple purposes. One will never be able to design solely on tu peux the basis of either strategic or tactical needs. Experience from write organized essay, designing and testing a virtual learning environment in primary schools (Hoem, 2006) indicates that most users were satisfied when the designers focused on facilitating communication patterns found in the middle of the tu peux model: #147;syndication#148;, #147;dialogue#148;, and and technology essay, #147;commenting#148;.
This is not surprising, as long as these communication patterns are where strategies and tactics are most likely to merge. In the case of a communication system used in tu peux essayer education this becomes a negotiated solution between the essay titanic different needs of the administration, educators, and tu peux essayer, learners. Communication patterns provide a terminology that can be used to essays economy china describe and discuss openness in tu peux relationships between users. However, research context always influences the deifinition of terms and there are numerous definitions of openness. For example: degrees of openness can be discussed by looking at technical factors that cause interruptions between an information source and those who are going to essay titanic movie receive information. Communication patterns may still provide a useful framework, but emergence would probably not be characterised as the most open pattern is this scenario. The question of #147;place#148; is one essential aspect of openness that has not been discussed in this article. I mentioned some problems of physical access in the introduction, and when introducing Benkler#146;s model, but our relationships to space are perhaps where the most significant changes will come in the next few years. Production and consumption of information was freed from tu peux, some of the restrictions of space by writing, and brought to a state of #147;no sense of brigham essay, place#148; (Meyrowitz, 1985) by electronic media. Today the importance of place is reinforced by the ability to position mobile devices, making it possible to control access to information and objects on tu peux essayer the basis of where the users are in physical space.
Connections between users and objects in physical space have to be coordinated with a number of other connections in virtual space, calling for a more complex understanding of the intersections between these spaces (Manovich, 2006), facilitated by communication systems. How we relate to essay different social situations becomes further complicated when users of networked communication systems have to make a number of tu peux essayer, significant decisions about information. Users will have to make continuous judgements about how they produce information, by where they are, who they communicate with, which devices they use, and so on. Users indeed may want to opt for less open solutions, characterised as restricted with a bias towards closeness. The designers of future communication systems need to be strongly aware of how users benefit from different communication patterns in different situations. Jon Hoem gives lectures at write a well essay, the Department of Art and Media studies (IKM) of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim.
He works with the Bergen University College (HiB) and is doing a PhD on essayer how to use #147;personal publishing#148; as a tool for learning. A Well Organized? His most recent book is entitled Informasjonsdesign for digitale medier . E#150;mail: Jon [dot] Hoem [at] hib [dot] no. 1. Essayer? Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006, p. Brigham Young Narrative? 3. 2. Commission of the tu peux European Communities (CEC), 2001, p. 10. 3. UNPAN, 2004, pp.
18#150;19. 4. Write Organized? UNPAN, 2004, p. 70. 5. Powazek, 2002, pp. 22#150;. 6. Berman, 2004, p. 6. 7. Benkler, 2000, p. 562. 8. Lessig, 2001, p. 25. 9. Habermas, 1989, p. 176. 10. Benkler, 2000, p. 568. 12.
Kelly, 1994, chap. 23. 14. Manovich, 2001, p. 124. 17. Certeau, 1984, p. Tu Peux Essayer? xix. Espen J. Write Organized? Aarseth, 1997. #147;Introduction: Ergodic literature,#148; In: Espen J. Essayer? Aarseth. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature . Titanic? Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, and at http://www.hf.uib.no/cybertext/Ergodic.html, accessed 26 February 2006. Yochai Benkler, 2000. #147;From consumers to users: Shifting the deeper structures of regulation towards sustainable commons and user access,#148; Federal Communication Law Journal , volume 52, at http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no3/benkler1.pdf, accessed 23 April 2006. Saul J. Berman, 2004. #147;Media and entertainment 2010 Open on the inside, open on the outside: The open media company of the essayer future,#148; IBM Institute for Business Value study , at http://www-1.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge510-3569-01f-media-2010.pdf, accessed 25 April 2006.
Jan L. Bordewijk and Ben van Kaam, 1986. #147;Towards a new classification of Tele#150;Information services,#148; Intermedia , volume 14, number 1, pp. 16#150;21. David Carney, 2001. Industrial? #147;Los Angeles Times vs. Free Republic,#148; Tech Law Journal , at tu peux essayer, http://www.techlawjournal.com/courts/freerep/, accessed 23 April 2006. Michel de Certeau, 1984. The practice of everyday life . Berkeley : University of California Press. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006. #147;Interoperability for pan#150;European egovernment services,#148; at http://europa.eu.int/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=24117, accessed 25 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2002. #147;eEurope 2005: An information society for all.
An Action Plan presented in view of the write organized essay Sevilla European Council, 21/22 June 2002,#148; qt http://europa.eu.int/information_society/eeurope/2002/news_library/documents/eeurope2005/eeurope2005_en.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001. Tu Peux Essayer? #147;European governance: A white paper,#148; at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2001/com2001_0428en01.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Flickr, 2006. #147;Flickr API documentation,#148; at http://www.flickr.com/services/api/, accessed 24 April 2006. Free Software Foundation, 2006. #147;Various licenses and comments about them,#148; at http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index_html, accessed 24 April 2006. Global Policy Forum, 1999. #147;The United Nations and civil society: The role of dupont essay 2011, NGOs,#148; at http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/ngo-un/gen/2000/1128.htm, accessed 25 April 2006. Jürgen Habermas, 1989. The structural transformation of the essayer public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society . Translated by essay titanic movie Thomas Burger with the tu peux assistance of Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Jon Hoem, 2006. #147;Strategies and tactics in education: Influence on essay the design of eLogg #151; a virtual learning environment,#148; Digital kompetanse , volume 1, number 2, and at http://infodesign.no/artikler/Strategies_and_tactics_051205.pdf, accessed 14 July 2006. Jaap#150;Henk Hoepman and Bart Jacobs, 2006. #147;E#150;passports without the big picture,#148; at http://www.egovmonitor.com/node/4716, accessed 20 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1998. #147;‘Interactivity’ Tracking a new concept in media and communication studies,#148; at http://www.nordicom.gu.se/common/publ_pdf/38_jensen.pdf, accessed 2 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1996. #147;A new typology of information services,#148; at http://imv.au.dk/tvest/Nr15/3.html, accessed 2 April 2006. Kevin Kelly, 1994. Out of control: The new biology of machines, social systems, and the economic world . Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, and at http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/ch23-d.html, accessed 24 April 2006. Lawrence Lessig, 2001. Tu Peux Essayer? The future of ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected world . New York: Random House. Lev Manovich, 2006. #147;The poetics of urban media surfaces,#148; First Monday Special issue number 4 #151; Urban Screens: Discovering the potential of outdoor screens for urban society, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/special11_2/manovich/, accessed 25 April 2006. Lev Manovich, 2001. The language of new media . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Paul Mayer, 1997. #147;Typologies for the analysis of computer media,#148; Convergence , volume 3, number 2, pp. Dupont Essay? 82#150;101. Joshua Meyrowitz, 1985. Essayer? No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior . New York: Oxford University Press. Theodor Holm Nelson, 2000. #147;Xanalogical structure, needed now more than ever: Parallel documents, deep links to content, deep versioning and deep re#150;use,#148; at http://xanadu.com/XUarchive/ACMpiece/XuDation-D18.html, accessed 24 April 2006. Derek M. Powazek, 2002. Design for community: The art of essay 2011, connecting real people in virtual places . Tu Peux Essayer? Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders. Emanuele Quintarelli, 2005. #147;Folksonomies: Power to the people,#148; paper presented at dupont essay 2011, the ISKO Italy#150;UniMIB meeting, Milan (24 June), at http://www.iskoi.org/doc/folksonomies.htm, accessed 24 April 2006. Douglas Rushkoff, 2003. #147;Open source democracy: How online communication is changing offline politics,#148; at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/opensourcedemocracy2, accessed 25 April 2006. Dag Svanæs, 1999. #147;Understanding interactivity: Steps to a phenomenology of human#150;computer interaction,#148; at http://www.idi.ntnu.no/ dags/interactivity.pdf, accessed 28 April 2006.
United Nations, Department of tu peux, Economic and Social Affairs. Division for Public Administration and Development Management, 2004. #147;UN global e#150;government readiness report 2004: Towards access for opportunity,#148; at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan019207.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003. #147;Implementing the President#146;s management agenda for e#150;government,#148; at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/2003egov_strat.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. John Walker, 2003. #147;The digital imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle,#148; at essay movie, http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/digital-imprimatur/, accessed 24 April 2006.
Paper received 30 April 2006; accepted 17 May 2006. Openness in communication by Jon Hoem. First Monday , Volume 11, Number 7 — 3 July 2006 (Proceedings of the 2nd First Monday Conference, May 2006, Chicago)
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essay oral test (general guide to tu peux essayer an oral exam at intermediate level) The following list is to give you ideas and some vocabulary which may be useful at an oral language exam. personal particulars, ID (identity card), passport, driving licence. how you prove your identity (when do you need to prove it?) permanent address, temporary address, marital status.
personal code number (cp. human rights in data procession) what to do when losing your ID (authority, form, revenue stamp) education, studies, degrees. relatives, relations; getting along with the members of the family; the ideal family image; describe somebody from essay your family (look + character behaviour) Look, appearance, character. figure, face, hair, eyes, (eye)brows, (eye)lashes, complexion, nose, mouth, etc.
behaviour, manner, temper. in the middle/centre/foreground/background, on the left/right (hand side), to tu peux essayer the left/right of . Write A Well? , at the top/bottom, in tu peux the top/bottom left/right hand side corner, in front of, behind, beside, between,; Special family occasions. birthdays, name days, anniversaries, funerals (?), Christmas, Easter. wedding, mother's day, family gathering, garden party, family festival; friends should be few and good - do you agree?
a friend in need is a friend indeed - what's your opinion? describe and characterize one of movie, your friends. have you got your best friend? why is he/she different from others? your favourite kinds of pastime with friends. can a close relative or member of the family be your friend?
friends at school/work and out of school/work - what's the difference? friendship with your teacher(s)/boss(es)? - agree or disagree. friends in different periods of life. the question of tu peux, loneliness. Daily routine (+housework) day's programme, daily habits, evening occupations, regular activities, studying hours, housework, odd jobs around the hiouse. Description of your home.
describe the essay industrial safety, house/flat where you live - do you like it? (dis)advantages of living in a flat or in tu peux essayer a house. describe the people living there. +kinds of a well, flats/houses, housing shortage. Home life (+housework)
family life at home - different members of the family sharing rooms or living separately/on their own - life in a students' hostel, digs/lodgings, bedsitter; house rule, common room, dormitory, landlady, landlord; daily routine at home, housework, quarrels in a family. staying at tu peux, home or going out? The neighbourhood, your village or town. describe the area where you live - do you like it? (dis)advantages of living in science and technology a village or in a large city. describe the tu peux, people living there. facilities, comfort, entertainment, possibilities of going out, work, school, making friends there - as opposed to other places. Traffic, public transport.
giving directions, using a town map; means of transport, kinds of tickets, fares; driving a car; the Highway Code. Weather and challenge 2011, seasons; climate. what's the weather like today? what's the essayer, forecast for write essay, tomorrow? what's the tu peux, outlook for the next few weeks? compare weather in Britain and in your country; why the brigham narrative, English always speak about weather; give examples for different kinds of weather/climate all around the tu peux, Earth; the titanic movie, connection between weather and agriculture. weather/seasons and sports; what's your favourite season? why? what do you do then? connection between weather and clothing; everyday clothing (school/work/home) vs clothes for special occasions;
difference between men's and women's clothes; describe a special set of clothes (worker/sportsman/infant/etc.); what clothes do you like wearing? why? what's the connection between man and essayer, nature? the peace of 2011, nature vs life in a busy town; quiet and pleasant places in tu peux essayer nature; the (wild) world of animals and plants;
describe your favourite plants and brigham young narrative essay, animals and their life; different living creatures: mammals, birds, reptiles, insects; beasts/birds of prey, apes, fish, trees, bushes, flowers; describe an tu peux essayer animal and young essay, a plant, tell about its environment; do people need going out? what do we look for in nature? observing plants and animals (cp. Tu Peux Essayer? 'Nature') describe a place where you like to industrial go. what do you take going on an excursion? the green movement, pollution, industry, chemicals, traffic, smog;
the role of trees and other plants in nature, the disappearing rain forest; why do people cut down trees? how green are you? how do you protect nature? the school you go to; why you chose this school; school atmosphere, friends, teachers, headmaster (appearance, character, their influence on tu peux essayer, you), the image of an ideal techer/student; school programmes, excursion, camps, parties; helping one another vs n. not caring for essays economy, other people, indifference; school life vs holidays. describe the essayer, classroom and the school building and dupont essay challenge, its environment; speak about your classmates and teachers (characters and relations); subjects you study + what you learn, like, dislike; your way of learning as compared with others' Studying, extra lessons. how much/when/where you study; your success in essayer studying; schoolwork, homework, extra work, evening classes, holiday courses; studying methods and tricks; taking exams, writing essays; is studying fun for you?
Education, school types. cr?che, nursery school, kindergarten, elementary/primary school, secondary school, university faculties, departments, degree, postgraduation; connection between education and finding a job. your plans for write a well essay, the future, career ideas; can work be one's hobby? act out a job interview; write your CV (curriculum vitae); describe a worker or employee and tu peux, his/her work and life; occupation, job, profession, different kinds of jobs and places of brigham young narrative essay, work with their advantages/disadvantages; different meals, different habits; laying the table; table manners; special/occasional meals; your favourite food how you make it;
cuisine in different countries; give a recipe; kitchen devices; different ways of essayer, cooking; shopping for titanic, food. indoor/outdoor sports games. water sports, track and tu peux essayer, field events, technical sports. what's your favourite sport/game? why? what sports do they do at essay titanic movie, the Olympic Games? describe the rules of a game; do sports, play games, training, coach, stadium, Olympic Games. indoor/outdoor sports, ball games, track and field events, water sports, winter sports, technical sports. illnesses and their symptoms; hospital, doctor's surgery; dentist.
act out a dialogue at tu peux, the doctor's/chemist's; National Health Service, social insurance, sick leave, first aid, G.P. (general practitioner) stress, tension, breathe fresh air, do exercises, sport, physical education, drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking, AIDS, balance of work and challenge 2011, rest, healthy food; natural therapeutics, preventive medicine. favourite pastime; connection between character and hobby; men's/women's typical hobbies; do-it-yourself movement; clubs; individual vs group activities; funny or strange hobbies; are there people without hobbies?; do hobbies cause any damage.
Books, newspapers, magazines. your favourite writer and his works; different styles in literature; going to libraries; subscription to papers; the role of the press in people's lives; fiction vs non-fiction: newspaper headlines, popular daily papers and essayer, magazines in Britain, quality papers.
Films, videos, television, radio. going to the cinema; the usual cinema show in write a well essay your country/Britain; kinds of tu peux essayer, films; different TV and challenge 2011, radio channels; cinema or TV. Essayer? (dis)advantages; the influence of radio and TV on people's lives; borrowing videos; buying or copying videos? - the question of copyright; your favourite film star/actor/actress/director; is music art or just entertainment? what makes a piece of music good?
the relation between dance and music; music as a background activity; different styles and branches; musicians, composers, orchestras; musical instruments and the way you play/tune them; reading notes; classical vs pop/rock music; theatre vs cinema, the atmosphere of the dupont, theatre, theatre/play description, stage management, different kinds of essayer, drama, playwrights, genres; Shakespeare and the English theatre.
staying at science and technology introduction essay, home or going out? - argue for tu peux, and against; where you or other people usually go in your/their free time; different kinds of entertainment out of home; museums, exhibitions, cinemas, theatres, concerts, ballet, variety shows, clubs, zoo, leisure centre, amusement parks/centres, sports events, puppet shows, children's programmes, parties; argument between children and introduction essay, parents about staying out tu peux essayer, late. the difference between weekend and weekday activities; having a rest or going out? - housework or family programmes? relaxation vs useful kinds of pastime; extra work at weekends;
a typical weekend in England and in your country. Shops and safety, things to buy. different kinds of shops; home delivery; off-season sales; bargaining; small shop or supermarket/department store? - argue for or against; act out tu peux, a situation in a shop. argue for china, or against tu peux eating in a restaurant, pub, caf?, snack bar; takeaway food: comfort at reasonable price; the (dis)advantage of essays china, fast food places and self-service; describe your favourite place to eat; act out a situation in essayer a restaurant; table manners; laying the table; Various services (bank, post office, repair shop, etc) act out situations in dupont essay a bank, post office, laundrette, etc. make a telephone call, post a letter; different kinds of mail;
the English Post Office; the importance of tu peux, having a bank account (if any) summer/winter holidays; frequented holiday places and activities; preparation for a trip, cost estimate, decide on industrial safety, the route, decide what to essayer take, pack; passport, visa, (foreign) currency, travel insurance; your favourite places/preferences. why do people visit places of interest? what are they interested in? describe a typical place for tourism and a typical tourist; arrange a tour at a tourist office (cp. 'Holidays' 'Travelling')
means of transport and their (dis)advantages in travelling; where and how you last travelled; accommodation, hotel, camp site, guest house; passport, visa, insurance; customs control/declaration; tourist office, travel agency, book a trip, package tours; route, places of interest, holiday areas; situations at the airport/railway station/port; rent a car. (cp. 'Holidays' 'Tourism')
arrange your accommodation in a hotel; the importance of facilities and comfort; hotel vs camp site or private accommodation; hotel categories, famous hotel chains; act out a situation with a hotel guest complaining to the manager. Visiting your country. geography and history; guide a tourist in your country, speak about sights and places of interest; customs and traditions, folk art, music. Culture and 2011, civilization. culture: (1) refined understanding of art, literature, etc.; (2) state of intellectual development of a society; (3) particular form of intellectual expression e.g. in art or literature; (4) customs, arts, social institutions, etc. of a particular group o. of people; civilization: (1) becoming or making sy civilized; (2) (esp) advanced state of tu peux essayer, human development; culture and way of titanic, life of a people, nation or period regarded as a stage in the development of tu peux essayer, organized society. your idea of essays economy, culture and tu peux essayer, civilisation; the way you understand art and literature, your favourite style(s); your understanding of dupont essay, history and society; being a member of tu peux, society: role and science and technology introduction, responsibility; social behaviour; human rights and possibilities; cri.
ime and punishment; stages in tu peux essayer man's history and society; the dupont essay 2011, future of mankind. Travelling in essayer Britain or any English speaking country. the United Kingdom/USA: different countries/states and dupont essay challenge, capital cities; parts of tu peux essayer, England/USA; British customs, English vs Scottish/American manners; places of interest in industrial London/New York or any other city. The English language. the importance of learning languages; why you like/dislike learning languages; why you chose the English language; your results and experiences so far;
how/when/where you study (speaking, reading, listening, writing); your idea of the best way of studying a language and tu peux essayer, practising communication; other languages that you have learned; British vs American English; differences between English and your language. Choose a question at random and talk about the topic: 1 About yourself. Who are you and essays, where do you come from?
(your family connections and tu peux, close relations) (holidays and occasions with the dupont essay challenge 2011, family) 3 A day's programme. The best day in my life. (why was a certain day better than your ordinary days?) 4 The place where you live. My house is my castle. (describe your room and the house) How do you come to school?
(means of tu peux essayer, transport and science and technology, how to use them; driving) 6 Nice day, sunshine. Which is your favourite season? (weather forecast, British climate vs your climate) 7 Village or town? Are you satisfied with your present environment? (pollution against tu peux nature, the green movement) 8 Studies at school. Why I (don't) like maths. (your favourite and disliked subjects)
9 Jobs professions. What occupation would you choose as a career? (act out a job interview) 10 Different sports and games. Why I (don't) want to win the Olympics. (give reasons why you like/dislike certain sports)) Cooking or eating out? (your favourite/disliked food and movie, meals; table manners) 12 At the doctor's. I wish I were never ill.
(talking to tu peux your doctor; hospital treatment) What do you usually read and when? (newspapers, literature, your favourite writer) 14 Cinema, theatre. Isn't a live performance better than watching TV? (argue for or against television) 15 At a concert. The band was terrific. (your favourite kind of music as opposed to other styles)
Department store or fashion shop? (argue for or against different kinds of narrative, shops) The soup is too cold. (act out a situation in tu peux a fine restaurant) 18 Telephone, post office. Are you on the phone? (argue for or against phoning vs sending letters) 19 Holiday making.
It's not easy to make a good trip. (packing, hotel reservation, camping, etc.) 20 Guiding a tourist. What should a foreigner know about your country? (sights, places of and technology, interest, geography, history, etc.) 21 Travelling abroad.
Do I need a visa? (necessary documents and arrangements, customs, etc.)