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Secrets to writing a great essay | INTO Study Blog
Blogger Jobs: How to Apply For a Blogger Job? Is applying for secret, a job as a blogger the write a well essay same as applying for any job? Yes#8230;and no. Blogging is about writing, however, as we found out in Blogger Jobs: What Are They Looking For?, working as a blogger is so much more. Let#8217;s look at secret good essays, where to about family, find blogging jobs and how to apply for one. Where to Look for secret to writing, Jobs for Bloggers. The following are some of the most useful and easy to access sites for blogger jobs, with most of these specifically for bloggers only. What to do Before Applying for a Blogging Job.
Before you apply for a job as a blogger, you should do the following, in about family, addition to the tips provided in secret to writing good essays, What Are They Looking For? Know Thy Industry: Apply only for write a well essay, blog positions in industries and markets in essays, which you are an expert and passionate about. Don#8217;t waste people#8217;s time unless you really know the subject matter well. Research the Company: If a link is essays about midnight soccer, given or some specifics about the company, research it. To Writing Good? Find out who they are, what they do, what they#8217;ve done online or not, and what they need. The more you know about the write thesis statement essay company, the more you can direct your application to their specific needs. CV Ready and Updated: Have your CV/resume up-to-date and ready to email. Have it in secret good essays, the following forms: text, HTML (for pretty email), Word document (older versions), and papers, PDF . All versions, save text, should have easy-to-read clickable links to secret good, your blog(s), work samples, guest blog posts, and other linkable sources. Have Five Samples of essays about, Your Work: Put together a minimum of five published samples of to writing good essays, your work.
Many think they can just send links, but the companies want these printable. Scaffolding? Put the examples in Word document and PDF for easy emailing as an attachment. It can be a single file or five separate files. Secret Good Essays? Keep file sizes to write an essay yourself and your family, a minimum. Be Easily Found: Provide at to writing good essays, least two email addresses (in case the first one doesn#8217;t work), at scaffolding writing, least one phone number, and as many online communication methods as you can such as Skype, GTalk, Yahoo, Jabber, Twitter, etc. Secret Good? Put this information on every file and communication to link you with the papers on ocd sample work and correspondence. A Written Introduction: Write at least five different versions of a one paragraph introduction to secret good, your blogging job skills. Go through each one carefully to make sure it represents your very best writing skills, and presents you in the best light, spelling out the reasons you are worth hiring. Use action verbs and descriptions and get right to the point.
Make these of varying lengths from 50-150 words. Write Essay? Use these as a base reference for responding to initial job correspondence. These are the make-or-break sales pitches to convince them to take the next step towards hiring you. How to Apply for a Job as a Blogger. The first contact you have is to writing good, through the blog job listing. Homework? Typically, you respond as a comment to the listing or via email.
Some will have very specific instructions on how to apply. Follow them exactly. This is not the good essays time to write, be creative. The first impression you offer will be with your first correspondence. Make it the best you can do, an example of your blogging style, professionalism, and concise writing skills. To Writing Essays? Get off on a well organized the #8220;write#8221; foot by proving your writing and communication skills with the first contact. Using the written introductions you#8217;ve honed to secret essays, perfection, customize them, if needed, towards the specific job listing. Include keywords that prove you are an expert in the subject, and make it #8220;actionable#8221; make them want you. Don#8217;t brag or exaggerate.
Be specific and get to the point immediately on why you are the one for the job with the experience to writing assignments, back up that statement. Many times, bloggers will just include a link to their blog with the recommendation to #8220;check it out!#8221; While the hiring company could do that, and they will, it doesn#8217;t make a good first impression. You start proving to the company that you are worth of hiring from your first words. While going through many blog job listings, I found too many responses to the position poorly written. I good writer and secret good essays, want to work as blogger but never blog. I know business, your business, to write definition essay, weel, so to me I think I be good blogger. Hire me. Sure, this person might not be fluent in English, but the job requested quality English writing skills. To Writing Essays? I saw many responses to blog job listings saying, #8220;I#8217;ll blog about anything and I have#8221; poor self-introductions, not a professional approach. These companies are looking for midnight, experts in their field, not a jack-of-all-bloggers.
If they are, they will say so, but most aren#8217;t. Be specific, helping them see immediately that you have the skills they want. A good example for a blogger job on fashion would be: Owner of 42 pairs of designer shoes, I#8217;m fashion obsessed. Since 2006, I#8217;ve published 800 articles on fashion no-nos and do-dos, covering clothing, shoes, purses, hair, and make-up on Clothes Horse, my fashion blog. From the perch of secret essays, my Ferragamos and Manolos, I#8217;ve worked as a buyer in the fashion industry for the past 8 years with a view from the term papers on ocd inside out and to writing essays, outside in. Yourself? I would be an to writing good, excellent addition to your fashion blogging team. Direct, to the point, fun, confident, energetic, but also specific, it shows familiarity with brands and the industry. Write An Essay About? It immediately establishes a history of work experience in the industry as well as long term blogging experience. Just like any job, you must provide a resume/CV and to writing, samples of your published writing and multimedia.
You will probably be asked if you Twitter, Skype, and use other popular online communications and social networking services and tools. Letters of scaffolding writing, recommendation or personal and professional references may also be requested. After the first contact, the process of being hired continues in the traditional process. If they like what they see, they will contact you to continue the interview process. If they don#8217;t, they may or may not respond. It is appropriate to make a second request, after a length of to writing essays, time has passed, but it is bad manners to nag them. The odds are that other than a few phone calls, all of the correspondence will be done online. Unless the company is nearby, you will not be flying in to meet with the staff, nor will they come to you. Whether you get the job or not, this is an opportunity to build relationships for the future, and about midnight soccer, set a high quality standard for other bloggers you meet. Thank them for the opportunity, and consider surprising them with a written thank you note for taking the time to consider you. Little personal touches can make them reconsider or at least consider you for other job possibilities in to writing, the future.
In a few days, I#8217;ll talk about midnight how much companies are willing to secret to writing good, pay bloggers to blog, and then an article about what businesses need to know about hiring bloggers. The author of soccer, Lorelle on WordPress and the fast-selling book, Blogging Tips: What Bloggers Won#8217;t Tell You About Blogging, as well as several other blogs, Lorelle VanFossen has been blogging for over 15 years, covering blogging, WordPress, travel, nature and travel photography, web design, web theory and development extensively as web technologies developed. Nice tips and good advice. Okay Lorelle, you crush me again this time. Thanks! Blogging is better done as a business rather than a job. It is easy to set up your own blog and write for yourself rather than someone else. Still, if the pay is to writing essays, good, why not go for a blogging job.
I was working at this company where I was being paid $200 weekly plus 10% commission, I have not worked there in about a month and I have not yet received full pay for the time I was there. They still owe me over scaffolding assignments, $6oo. I am planning on taking this to to writing, small claims court. Can I charge interest on the amount that I have not received? I believe you must contact a legal expert or lawyer for that kind of answer. Lorelle, fyi I aggregate writing jobs including blogging jobs on scaffolding writing assignments m-w-f not unlike Deb Ng, but somehow we often come up with different gigs. Re #5 Be easily found amen to which I would add make sure your contact info is easily found on your own website/blog amazing how often freelance bloggers and writers forget this one.
Thank you for your information, actually I have a deep wish someday full time logger can be a professional profession and we can proud like we are a doctor. Secret Essays? These blogging jobs is useful and very well. I like these jobs. i am sick of dumb f*k people making hiring decisions. About? i am over qualified for the sh*t i apply for and yet still live in my parents house. their businesses will always suck because successful people aren#8217;t at the top. we don#8217;t play games. we just know our sh*t and most of us will never see a check until we monetize our own work. but, what do you in to writing good, the mean time with no gas money or food? we#8217;re at the bottom waiting for a f*king paycheck from a dunce using 1950#8217;s hiring material to pick a candidate who has no ranking success online yet thousands of references and homework, a long term working history. idiots. I want to apply for a blogging job. Blogging is cool awesome if some of you are making a living at it!
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How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for Ambitious
How to essays, Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on homework the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on to writing good essays a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the about yourself family, market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and to writing good essays, Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes.
Finally, the homework, plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of essays, business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan.
Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Write Essay. Indeed, judging by good all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the youporn homework, truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to secret good essays, 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans?
The answer is relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to soccer, intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for to writing good essays, more than a year—are an an essay about and your family act of imagination. To Writing Essays. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections.
Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the writing, figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in secret to writing essays, software, the impact of using various distribution channels. Youporn Homework. The model should also address the essays, break-even issue: At what level of about yourself family, sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan.
Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs.
Nor is secret to writing essays it a guide to brain surgery. On Ocd. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and to writing good, what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward.
An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and write essay, a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together?
The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. To Writing Essays. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of write about, project governance. To Writing. However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in thesis statement essay, excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved.
What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the secret essays, case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the write an essay and your, new venture doing relative to to writing good essays, projections? What decisions has the about midnight, team made in response to essays, new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes?
Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the good essay, help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. To Writing Essays. Why weren’t they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the term on ocd, framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. To Writing Essays. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the about, top to the bottom. The team’s members have skills and secret, experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing.
Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an write good attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to essays, create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is writing assignments understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the good, impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the scaffolding assignments, other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. Secret Essays. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know?
Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and assignments, personally—in the to writing good, past?
What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team?
Are they prepared to writing, recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to secret good essays, make the essay, inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience. How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times.
A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of to writing good essays, product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is about midnight soccer known because the secret to writing good essays, real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is run by about midnight people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say.
But the secret essays, fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of good definition essay, such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to secret good, understand the about family, product that they’re talking about in essays, the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the people—exhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the youporn homework, venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on secret good essays two questions: Is the write an essay about yourself and your, total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is to writing good often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for term, a share of a mature or stagnant market.
Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. To Writing Good Essays. In the midnight soccer, late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Secret. Dozens of companies jumped into essays about soccer the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for good essays, managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Write. Selling a product to OEMs is complicated.
The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of good essays, competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. Write Organized Essay. The industry is secret subject to major shifts in technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. Write About Yourself And Your Family. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Secret To Writing. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is homework like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and secret good essays, running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply.
Also, customers pay in advance of write, receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of secret essays, Bloomberg and First Call put the essays soccer, disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer?
How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and secret good, deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to papers on ocd, make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. To Writing. The second step is to term papers, make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case.
And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the secret to writing, venture will still manage to papers, make enough of to writing good essays, a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for term papers, that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in secret to writing, detail how the write good thesis, company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. To Writing. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the writing assignments, insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for to writing good, example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to write an essay about yourself and your family, customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come.
That strategy works in essays, the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is homework as fickle as it is secret to writing essays unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an good definition essay electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the secret good, dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an write thesis essay empty can of secret to writing good essays, dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities.
The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the a well organized essay, dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for secret good essays, value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to essays midnight soccer, invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to essays, be made in yourself and your, inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on to writing essays the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product. That’s fine, as far as it goes.
A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the writing assignments, equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the secret, cash flow implications of write about yourself and your family, pursuing an opportunity: When does the secret to writing good, business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is essays midnight required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come.
Even if the answer is secret essays “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the term papers on ocd, new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. Good Essays. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship.
Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and write organized essay, tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of secret to writing good, those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. Youporn. The world of invention, for essays, example, is fraught with danger. Write Statement. Over the to writing good essays, past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for homework, use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems.
Few of to writing good, these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the papers, inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the secret to writing good, customer. Youporn. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of secret good essays, malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to write an essay and your family, take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT.
Some of the industry consolidations going on secret today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and write about yourself family, take them public at secret to writing good a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is good thesis definition a viable and secret to writing, potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. Thesis. It is secret to writing not a question of whether, only when. And Your. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to to writing good essays, build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission.
For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the write about yourself and your, new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to secret to writing, observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is term like chess: to to writing essays, be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people.
That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter. Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and write yourself, the ugly that the secret good, venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. Write Essay. At one level is the secret to writing essays, macroeconomic environment, including the scaffolding writing assignments, level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the secret good essays, opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company.
And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. Youporn Homework. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for essays, new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of term, capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in secret to writing good essays, context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. About Midnight Soccer. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in good essays, multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for essays about midnight, installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular.
Conversely, U.S. Secret To Writing Essays. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in writing assignments, the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of secret good essays, evidence related to context. First, the essays about midnight soccer, entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. To Writing Good. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is write an essay yourself and your fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the to writing good essays, framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future.
That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the write good definition essay, opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to good essays, change over time as a company evolves from papers start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics.
High finance they are not, but I have found both of secret essays, these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the term, amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the secret to writing, investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. Good Thesis Essay. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the to writing essays, cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the assignments, world of new ventures is to writing good essays populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and about, a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in secret to writing essays, the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs. The second picture complements the first.
It shows investors the youporn homework, range of possible returns and the likelihood of secret to writing, achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of assignments, money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is secret to writing essays a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Thesis Definition Essay. Is the to writing good essays, new venture drilling for write an essay about yourself and your family, North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to to writing essays, be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds.
Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the youporn homework, probability of secret to writing essays, a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against write good thesis definition essay, the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to secret to writing essays, predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of risk and write good statement, reward they are assuming with a new venture.
All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. Secret Essays. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the and your family, responsibility of management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the to writing essays, likelihood and implications of problems. One of the term on ocd, great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk.
As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context. Secret Essays. What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for youporn homework, an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers.
A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to to writing essays, hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. Essays About Midnight. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Good Essays. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk.
Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the good statement definition, end of the process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the to writing good essays, business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. There is an a well organized essay old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. Secret To Writing Essays. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal.
That is essays about midnight soccer a topic for another article in to writing, itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Write A Well Organized. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Secret To Writing Good. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. Essays Midnight Soccer. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the secret to writing essays, degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns.
That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. From whom you raise capital is essays about midnight soccer often more important than the terms. Secret Essays. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and on ocd, motivate team members.
They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of essays, going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes. That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to write good thesis statement definition, behave destructively. They are written on a pile of secret to writing good essays, papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point.
A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the scaffolding writing assignments, disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about essays capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out soccer how much money they will need and to writing good, when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the youporn, new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Secret Good. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Assignments. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the to writing good essays, new venture actually requires and in what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes.
I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. Scaffolding Writing. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Secret To Writing Good Essays. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the good statement definition, supply of opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the to writing good essays, entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Essays About Midnight Soccer. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from to writing essays risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by essay hiding the fatal flaw.
For in the final analysis, the essays, only one being fooled is the youporn, entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and secret to writing good, Microsoft. Youporn. Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure.
But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in to writing good, fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable. William A. Term. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.
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How to write better essays: nobody does introductions properly
The “Eumenides” of Aeschylus: Whole-Hearted Patriotism #038; Moderated Modernity. Aeschylus’ Eumenides is a play about an to writing, institutional innovation and a paean to the goddess of the city. It is an account of the origin of Athens’ Supreme Court and a love poem to Athena and essays soccer, her people and places. This poet, however, loves for essays, cause and with a thoughtful passion. This people, the ”Attic folk,” schooled by their divinity, have the wisdom to domesticate dread and to innovate moderately.
My aim will be to flesh out and on ocd, give precision to these notions, in sum to delineate the idea of a reverent revolution. I ought to confess at the outset that I love this play, but that Greek tragedy, as a genre, is alien to me. In his youthful work, The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (1870), Nietzsche propounds a stark opposition between Socratic and tragic culture. He writes: ”And now one must not hide from oneself what is hidden in the bosom of secret essays this Socratic culture: an optimism that deems itself limitless.” (Ch. 18) I recognize myself as a minor instantiation of the Socratism that Nietzsche fears and homework, despises, this—I might say, American—optimism that wants to nullify deep tragedy by secret to writing good, the light of reason and neutralize fate by homework, the devices of ingenuity. When I read a Greek drama, I immediately fall to considering how its “tragedy” could have been forestalled.
I think to myself: “What little bit of good sense could have circumvented this mess?” Moreover, I feel my way into the inwardness of the tragic heroines and heroes and find myself repelled by their super- and secret to writing good essays, sub-human lack of what one might call life-intelligence. A few years ago I was having lunch with a colleague, Jonathan Badger, who had just lectured on Sophocles’ Antigone, and expressing to him my view of that tragic heroine as a teenage monster. He showed me that it was actually obtuse to regard her as a sixteen-year-old girl with an authority problem. An Essay And Your. She is not a fiercely rebellious teenager but a human token designed to be caught in secret good essays an ultimate, unresolvable clash of term on ocd fearfully fundamental forces, a cosmic rift—here the one between family and city, between blood and politics. Secret To Writing Essays. Tragedy, he was saying, is not about characters in situations but about catalysts of sub-rational and super human clefts in a world in which no man, woman, or girl can do the right, the saving thing.
I saw his point. One reason, then, that this drama, the Eumenides, speaks to me lies in write yourself and your what it is not. It is not a tragedy of the unresolvable impasse, of the unavoidable fatality. It is surely a drama, since drama is Greek for an eventful deed. But it is also a pragma, an affair practically handled, whose outcome is not all-round cleansing by devastation, but a future of good daily living. Socrates, who is, according to Nietzsche, the late-coming destroyer of deep-delving dark tragedy, was a boy of eleven when the Eumenides was first shown. Secret To Writing Good. Perhaps he was in the audience; I don’t know if children were allowed in, but he was a great theater-goer in later life. This much can be said: His severe critique in the Republic (383B) of the tragedians, including Aeschylus, can’t stem from this play. For it is quite literally the apotheosis, which means the “deification,” of good sense.
Aeschylus invests this drama of youporn homework sweet reason, of moderation triumphant, with exhilarating solemnity and participatory splendor. I mean that precisely. Whereas in most tragedies the audience looks on and reacts, perhaps recoils, at to writing good essays, the fate of kings and youporn homework, heroes, in this play all Athens is on stage: The spectators see themselves as part of the play. And whereas in most Greek tragedy the audience faces fearful and pitiful depths, in this play it is secret to writing good essays carried to joyful heights by an act of prudence that subverts tragedy. Write Definition. The final tone of the play is that of a city led by a goddess whose wisdom is touched with glory. So now I have broached the matter of the first part of my subtitle: Except for a brief prologue in to writing good Delphi, where lay the omphalos-stone, the navel of the world, the Eumenides is set in Athens, where, it will be shown, resides the world’s wisdom. In Delphi the scene is the sacred enclosure of Apollo’s temple; in Athens it is Athena’s temple on the High City, the Acropolis, and youporn, then on the rock facing the Acropolis, Ares’ Hill, the Areopagus.
This Athena, the Athena of the secret to writing play, is Athena Polias, the City-Athena, the Democratic Athena. She is writing not, to be sure, the protagonist of the drama, which is secret to writing a choral band; she is, however, its chief individual actor. I don’t know if there are any other plays in which a divinity is the sole main character; it is, to say the least, a remarkable moment in stagecraft. Athena is on stage together with her people, the “Attic folk,” the Athenians, first with a few, then with the whole town. These people are named from their city, and their city is named from youporn homework, its goddess.
But here is a wonderful fact: As in English, so in Greek, Athens is a plural: Athenai, “the Athenas.” I will return to this name, but now I want to point out that no other great Greek city I can think of is thus named from its divinity-not Sparta, nor Corinth, nor Argos at the center, not Syracuse in secret good the west or Miletus in the east of Greater Greece. The play is scaffolding not, strange to say, named after its chief actor, its choral protagonist. In fact—a curious and significant fact—it is not named after anyone actually so called in the play. There are no “Eumenides” in the Eumenides. Let me draw back here to place the play Eumenides in to writing its trilogy, the Oresteia. The Agamemnon is the first of the three. It is a model tragedy in the familiar sense. The hero, just returned from the an essay and your family conquest of secret good Troy, is killed by his wife Clytemnestra. She has her reasons; it is an about, open question whether she assassinates or executes him. I am reminded of that fine movie, Witness for the Prosecution, which ends with the secret wife stabbing her iniquitous husband in the courtroom; Charles Laughton, playing the winning but unwitting Queen’s Counsel for term, the defense of the guilty husband, who will now defend the wife, terms that deed not a murder but an execution.
The second play, the Libation Bearers, is a bridge drama. The exiled son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon, Orestes, returns clandestinely to to writing essays kill his mother. Again it is an an essay about yourself and your, open question, the question for secret to writing, the final play, the Eumenides, whether his deed is polluting matricide or rectifying revenge. In this middle play, a band of creatures called the Erinyes appear and pursue Orestes as a mother-killer. Or rather they don’t appear, for although they are on stage, they are visible only to Orestes, “dark-gowned and twisted round with swarming snakes,” while to the women bearing the drink offerings they are mere “notions.” (doxai, L.B. Papers On Ocd. 1049-51) Hence, some interpreters have thought that they are extrusions of Orestes’ guilty conscience. If so, they are matricidal-guilt phantasms only secret to writing good, while the mother’s blood is not yet dry. In the last play they have material lives and are plain to scaffolding sight, to hearing and even to smell—they exhale stink (Eu. 53).
The first two plays are set in Agamemnon’s kingdom, Mycenae, which in the fifth century was part of Argos. Now, in the Eumenides, the scene shifts from Argos to good essays Athens via Delphi. I observe here that this final play of the trilogy will have none of the assignments practically prescriptive features Aristotle ascribes to tragedy in his Poetics, the very features the Agamemnon has to perfection: no colorably good human being of high station with a tragic flaw, no so-called unity of time and place, no audience purification by pity and fear. (Ch. To Writing. 13, 5, 6) Instead the play’s occasion, Orestes, is a small-gauged victim of circumstance, the protagonist divinities are beyond human flaw, the scaffolding play includes the world as its venue and covers months or years in its time. It might even be said to qualify, before the event, Aristotle’s claim that poetry is more serious than history because the historian only tells what did happen while the poet tells what might happen. (Ch. 9) Now this poet so fuses, in his mythopoetic drama, what did and to writing essays, what might happen that the opposition between history and poetry is in effect canceled. For the Eumenides is organized a revised story of an origin, of secret to writing a founding, not a speculation about essays about midnight what might in to writing general happen, but a story about what might in particular have happened. So, indeed does most imaginative writing, but this drama gives a mythopoetic account of the founding event of a real institution, the Areopagus, the High Court of Athens. Youporn. It is intended to give the meaning of the good Court’s present. This is thesis statement essay not factual history conjectured from good essays, evidence by research but the dateless past recovered through a vision of its present consequences—not fact but nonetheless, or better, therefore, truth. I shall try to explain myself later.
The present point is to emphasize how uncanonical this play is in its melding of history and poetry—surely a new genre. And that brings me back to its name. Eumenides is the title by which the play was known in antiquity; there is essays soccer some agreement that it was Aeschylus’ own. I’ll suppose that it was, since that leads to a thought-provoking and secret to writing good, so perhaps intended consequence. The play-going city, virtually every male citizen and writing assignments, resident, knew well who these Eumenides were. They had a sanctuary at the “Hill,” in Greek, Colonus, a mile north of secret to writing essays Athens-center. Write About Yourself Family. It was the place where in Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus the patricide Oedipus will be said to have found refuge and release, as will the matricide Orestes on Ares’ Rock, the Areopagus. These divinities were also known to have a more central home, in the cleft beneath the Areopagus, facing northeast toward the Acropolis. And they were called variously the Awe-inspiring, the August Ones.
People were evidently mindful of the literal meaning of Eumenides, an adjective formed from eu, “well,” and secret to writing, menos, “disposition.” They were the Well-disposed Ones; as Sophocles will say: “because they receive the suppliant out of their well-disposed hearts” (O.C. 11. 39, 89, 486). These gracious goddesses are thought of with respectful and even with affectionate trust. I will venture a comparison. Youporn. Although refugees like Oedipus and Orestes aren’t exactly “huddled masses,” yet I am reminded of Emma Lazarus’s poem inscribed on the main entrance of the Statue of Liberty, which announces that she receives those “huddled masses yearning to good essays breathe free.” Just so the Eumenides represent the capacious, burden-removing and, I might say, diversity-welcoming aspect of Athena’s city—as we will see. Now these well-disposed ones were on the playbill, or whatever apprised the theatergoer of the write good dramatic fare for the day. And behold! the creatures that form both the chorus and the character confronting the secret good protagonist have the very opposite name. They are called the Erinyes, and sometimes speak as one in the first person singular through their leader, one Erinys. (e.g.
951) They too don’t act as does the usual tragic chorus; for example, the youporn homework old burghers of Argos in the Agamemnon are sidelined to ineffectual, mildly wise commentary. But these are a fierce lot. Everyone knew them as well. In English they are called the “Furies.” Their Greek name may derive from eris, “strife,” but the facts are lost in the mists of age. The Eumenides appear as a trinity, an august threesome, but the to writing essays age-old Erinyes are a band, better a pack, of twelve. They are horror incarnate, frightful and disgusting, dressed darkly in rags, with rheumy eyes, foul breath and snakes through their hair. Apollo’s Pythian priestess, who opens, the play is soon seen running out on all fours from their sight, which is Gorgon-like, but even more, bitch-like. When we first see them they are asleep, panting and slobbering in their dream of hunting their victim down: Catch, catch, catch-mark him! (130) The oldest manuscript of the play that we have, the Medicean Codex of the later tenth century, includes a life of Aeschylus which claims that he did yet another unheard-of thing: By letting the Erinyes “loose without order into the orchestra, he so scared the people that infants expired and women miscarried.” I don’t think infants and pregnant women were in fact in the theater, but as I imagine it, the effect was—how shall I put it?—participatory. The business of the Furies was the opposite of the releasing Eumenides. They held the about midnight world bound in the constraints of order and justice.
In the Iliad they check Achilles’ grieving horse when he bursts, unnaturally, into human speech. (19.418) Heracleitus says that “the Sun will not overstep its measures; if he doesn’t [control himself], the Erinyes, the helpers of justice, will rout him out.” (Fr. Secret To Writing. 94) Clearly these dreaded beings guard the rightful courses of homework nature. Such natural order is called justice, dike. These guardians of dike are born of secret to writing essays Earth in Hesiod’s Theogony (184) and of Night in Aeschylus’ Eumenides, of obscure darkness in write good statement either case. As the action developed, the secret good spectators began to understand that they were witnessing a terrific conversion: The Erinyes were turning before their eyes into Eumenides. Good Statement Essay. They were transformed in bearing and garb—most significantly, as we will see—but also in number, although the play does not say so.
Had I been the choregos, the secret to writing good producer, of the play I would have had the transformation include the fading away of the youporn twelve-pack Erinyes into the threesome Eumenides; the Eumenides would in fact, make a terrific movie script. However it was staged, it was a grand transfiguration—except that the new name was never uttered. Secret Essays. Why not? Something near enough is said of them in the play: The reformed Erinyes are given the term papers on ocd adjective euphrones, “well (or kindly)-minded.” These frightening faces, Athena says to her citizens, will be of great profit to you, if you, being kindly-minded, honor them, the Kindly-minded. To Writing. (euphronas euphrones, 992) As I imagine it, all of Athens, sitting there in enthralled solemnity, was meant to experience a dawning recognition: “But these transfigured horrors are our Kindly Ones, our Well-disposed deities, our Eumenides, that live on the other side of the hill not far from this theater!” By the end of Aeschylus’ century, the write an essay yourself and your family name Eumenides is simply a euphemism for Erinyes—very likely Aeschylus’ doing, but not in secret good his spirit. Scaffolding Writing Assignments. For in his play, the Erinyes really do disappear and are transformed into the Eumenides. Essays. Athena and her people know how to turn the dreadful females into the Gracious Ladies, how to make the write and your horrors holy. That is Aeschylus’ trenchant patriotism: to see Athens as a sovereignly assimilative power, her goddess as supremely, grandly ingenious—and something else, something beyond that I will consider later; it has to do with the secret fact that the Eumenides, if no longer horrible, are terrible still: the frightening faces. The learned name for any causal account, and thus for Aeschylus’ mythical history, is aetiology, from aitia, a “reason or cause,” and logos, a “rational account.” Temporal aetiology accounts for homework, present situations and institutions through their beginning. Primal times are explanatory times; to recall them is to recall the good essays present to its sense of write essay itself. Aeschylean aetiology, however, is not done by essays, what we call archaeology or history, the unearthing of buried artifacts or the researching of old documents.
It is rather the projection backward into the timeless past of an originary vision, of the origin as it appears now to the mytho-poetic sight. Nowadays mythmaking has a bad name, especially among professional historians. Write Statement Essay. It is an accusation. For example, there is a well-known book entitled Inventing America.  In its Prologue, the secret to writing good author, Gary Wills, analyzes Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” of 1863. “Well, now,” he says, “that is a very nice myth,” a “useful falsehood,” and a “dangerous thing.” It is a reprehensible piece because, among other things, in thesis statement definition essay the exalted biblical language of secret “four score and seven years ago” Lincoln traces the birth of the nation back to 1776 and so to the Declaration of Independence and to its self-evident truth “that all men are created equal.” Wills, however, thinks he knows that this date of origin is deceitfully false. It was not until the final ratification of the Constitution in 1789 that we became a nation, and essays about, thus our conception was not in an idea but in all sorts of secret practical manipulations, messy and even unholy. What is more, Wills likes better that view of youporn homework our country which sees it as the product of secret to writing practical compromises than that which envisions its birth in a whole-hearted ideal because such ideals are never “straight-minded,” to borrow a word from the Eumenides. They always have, he thinks, a subtly pernicious hidden agenda, in good statement definition essay Lincoln’s case the establishment of a “civil religion,” which made us falsely feel that we could save and redeem the world. I cite this book only to secret to writing good essays sharpen by contrast the contours of both Aeschylus’ and term papers on ocd, Lincoln’s kind of patriotism, which does not consign its country’s present to secret to writing good ever-disputable, secular historical fact, but derives it from a primal act that contains timeless truth. Scaffolding Writing Assignments. Such origin-myths given a definite temporal dimension to presently active principles; mythopoetry is the art of putting a past event behind the secret to writing good present situation. This is scaffolding assignments truth-telling of a high order and has nothing in common with the falsification of facts—which Aeschylus did not have in any case. I doubt a mean-minded deceiver could produce a founding drama of such grandeur.
It is time to say what, in general, I take to be the difference between falsified fact and good, mythologized aetiology and wherein the term deep truth of the latter lies. Georges Clemenceau once said, when asked how historians might judge German guilt for World War I: “This I do not know. But I know for to writing essays, certain that they will not say that Belgium invaded Germany.” For the reverse is a brute fact and its denial a brute falsification. On the other hand, an idealized account of the originating event, the ideal founding of a current institution—especially if it is endangered—is not a subversion of fact, but a revelation of homework truth; namely, of the true meaning and the ideal function deeply embedded in that institution, as the secret to writing good essays civic poet discerns it. It is not a refashioning of the historical past for the benefit of the term present but a penetration into the present for the recovery of the primordial plan. How, in to writing good essays particular, can we tell feckless disregard of facts and mendacious skewing of history—in short, shameless propaganda—from sound-minded mythopoiesis? Strangely enough, language usually tells. Aeschylus’ Greek seems to me an essential element of his patriotic passion.
It is as far as any diction can well be from what will one day be the crude formulas of propaganda; it has the ring of truth. The marvel is that any of his Athenians understood him, for his language is so high and scaffolding writing assignments, subtle, so grand and flexible, so archaic and neologistic, so bold and secret to writing, complex that most of us who suppose that we knew at scaffolding writing, least a little Greek have to puzzle the text out to writing essays laboriously with recourse to every aid available. I will give a few examples of write family his word-making, poetry practiced on essays, the very elements of language: bdelyktropoi, “of a loathsome turn” (52); palaiopaides, “elderchildren” (69); dysodopai pala, “of-a-rough-and-rocky-road” (387); brotoskopon “man-watching.” (499) All these words are so new and sound so ancient; this diction is term magnificent without being grandiloquent—though, to be sure, the secret to writing essays reverently irreverent Aristophanes displays Aeschylus and Euripides in statement essay Hades hurling eleven-syllable masses of “tight-riveted words” at each other. Secret To Writing Good. (Frogs, 824) The Athenian audience, at any rate, loved it in all its stiffness and inventiveness, and they seem to term on ocd have caught the hyper-intricate choral meters and savored the gorgeous staging. For the secret Oresteia won first prize. Write An Essay About Family. Aeschylus wrote between seventy and ninety plays—we only secret good, have seven—and won first prize twenty-eight times; some of these were posthumous, since after his death the people of Athens decreed funds toward the revival of his plays. The Eumenides was first performed in 458 BCE, and it was rooted in about soccer the present of that year. There are at least four references to the current situation. To begin with, when Athena first appears she says that she has heard Orestes’ call from far-off Troyland, where she had been taking control of territory assigned to her by good essays, the Greek victors.
Not only is she presenting herself as a divinity with far-flung possessions, but to the Athenian audience, she must have been heard, in write thesis essay these early days of the to writing good essays Delian League that would turn into Athens’ empire, as asserting dominion over the cities of the Troad, a claim Athens was then in fact pursuing. Again, when the Erinyes finally accept Attic domicile they are re-robed onstage in “scarlet-dyed vestments.” (phoenikoba ptois… esthemasi, 1028) As they had been promised, they become “fellow-dwellers,” metoikoi in Greek. (869, 1011) These “metics,” resident foreigners, something like our green-card holders, were just at this time being recognized as of major importance to scaffolding writing Attic prosperity. They participated in the great civic processions dressed in scarlet robes. Aeschylus is secret to writing essays expressing the inclusiveness of Athena Polias’s city, or, put less amiably, he is endorsing the expansionism of post-Persian Athens. A third topical reference lies in Orestes’ grateful oath, pledging Argos to perpetual peace and alliance with Athens (764), a matter of essays soccer considerable current importance to a city embarking on just that audaciously expansive foreign policy. The fourth case I will mention concerns the Areopagus High Court, whose founding is the central event of the Eumenides. The old oligarchic Areopagus Council, the historical court, had recently been stripped of its expansive powers, powers of law-enforcement, punishment, censorship. In the democratic reform that occurred just a few years before the production of the play (463-61 BCE), these had devolved on popular institutions.
Aeschylus, evidently a moderate democrat, here appears to endorse this reduction of the court’s brief to cases of secret to writing good murder, since he represents Athena as instituting it for just that purpose. Aeschylus himself was deeply engaged in youporn homework the city’s life, and secret to writing, it was a factor in his fame. The year after winning first prize for the Oresteia, in his late sixties, he left Athens for papers, Sicily, probably to execute dramatic commissions, and died there soon after at seventy. Secret To Writing Essays. The people of Gela, where he was buried, set him a grave marker with an inscription calling him Athens’ pride and term papers, noting that he had fought at Marathon. But he had fought also at Salamis, the secret to writing other of Athens’ two great single-handed battles against the Persian invaders. At Salamis the Athenians fought in ships under the papers on ocd view of Xerxes the King. Eight years later, in 472, a very young Pericles was the producer of Aeschylus’ Persians, which takes place in Xerxes’ court at Susa after the Salaminian defeat and is the grandest case of empathy for a vanquished enemy that I know of.
The time of his life as a whole and to writing good essays, of this, his last recorded winning play, was altogether the high time of his city. Scaffolding. When he was five years old, the Pisistratid tyranny was overthrown in favor of the Athenian democracy to which we might well be said ultimately to owe our own political being. When he wrote the Oresteia, the Persians had been ejected from secret essays, Greece for over two decades, and the perils of Attic imperialism were looming, though yet avoidable. When Aeschylus left Athens in 457, the rebuilding of the mighty old temple of Athena Parthenos, destroyed by the Persian occupiers of the Acropolis and papers, rebuilt with tribute money paid by Athens’ client states to the Delian League, money meant to protect them from the Persians, and in fact soon to be stolen by to writing, the Athenians—this ominous and writing assignments, glorious Periclean project was yet ten years off. So also was the restoration after the Persian sack of the Erechtheum, Athena Polias’s house, being talked of but very far from even being begun. This precinct, alluded to in the play (855), was Athena Polias’s special seat, where was housed her primeval statue of olive wood, the one that will play a role in the drama, the one that miraculously survived the Persian burning of the secret good High City.
And it was here that the testimonials of the contest between her and Poseidon for the possession of Athens were shown, a salt pool struck from the rock by the sea god and by it an olive tree sprung up from the scaffolding writing rock at the behest of the city goddess. It may be that the olive tree was a witness to Athena’s trumping wit, which won her the city: A salt pool is put to real use as brine in which olives are marinated to make them edible. As I imagine it, Aeschylus felt his city to to writing good be at a cresting time, with some depths of danger and more heights of a well hope looming. 458 BCE was a time of crisis for Athens —krisis in the Greek sense, a time for secret to writing good, judgment when a provident poet-lover of his country would be inspired to foresee the glories and driven to forfend the disasters of the future. I want to observe here parenthetically that, while even a sketchy knowledge of current events—sketchy, that is, compared to what any Athenian spectator would know as a matter of essays midnight soccer course—could serve to make the play’s strong footing in the real present more pointed, a perceptive reader is likely to sense this too, albeit impressionistically. Essays. The play speaks for itself, as do all great works.
Besides the astonishing language and the expansive spirit of the drama, the town folk who sat there took in astonishing new interpretations of the world they knew: the origin of the Delphic oracle as well as of the names both of the Areopagus and of the Eumenides, the comparative stature of their goddess and Delphi’s Apollo, the origin of their claims on Argos’s loyalty. But again and again, and above all, they saw the write definition essay magisterial management of their city’s affairs by their goddess, the maternal virgin goddess, the secret essays peaceable warrior goddess, flexible and firm, the child close to writing her Father who is the highest, the universal divinity. I imagine them, as they participated in this climactic drama, infected with Aeschylus’ kind of patriotism. There are, as I said, different patriotisms, unsound and sound. There is “chauvinism,” bigotry and exclusiveness, born of poverty of spirit and clumsy anger. Secret Good. And then there is write an essay about yourself a liberal patriotism based on moral consanguinity. Thus Lincoln says that those who adopt the moral principle of secret to writing good essays “that old Declaration of Independence” can claim to be “blood of the blood.” And there is also a community of customs and soccer, friendly feeling. And last but not least there is the secret good land itself; the hills surrounding the city of Athens are sung as “violet-crowned” (iostephanoi) and the continent of America is sung for its “purple mountains’ majesty.” But first and above all there is a founding wisdom. Thus the third stanza of ”America the Beautiful” qualifies patriotism:
America, America, God mend thine every flaw, Confirm thy good in brotherhood, thy liberty in law! Thus, too, Aeschylus’ patriotism is first and finally focused on his citizens’ moral virtue: They are “sound-minded [or in the usual translation ‘moderate’] in write organized good time” (sophronountes en chronoi, 1000); this is the most exalted praise their new co-dwellers know to give Athena’s people. With this quotation I come to the drama itself as an exemplar of the second part of my subtitle: “Modernity” means literally “just-nowness,” from Latin modo, “just now.” This literal meaning suggests one defining aspect of modernity—there are others—that fits the Aeschylean re-visioning of secret to writing good Athens’ goddess. In this sense, modernity is an ever-recurrent moment in human history; it is the write organized mode of rationality practically applied. A given situation goes from onerous to insupportable and secret to writing good, human ingenuity finds a—usually radical—device for bettering man’s estate in the here and now, an write an essay about and your, impatiently swift solution; this modernizing reason is bent on rectifying the secret good essays condition just now. It doesn’t care what cosmic balances, what ancient restraints, what natural bonds may be disturbed, disrupted, abrogated. Such enlightened reason is about soccer bright-eyed and light-headed in its universalizing impulse and in secret essays its disrespect for the ancient obstacles.
It is the impatient, with old naive Nature, and wants to supplant her with new, sophisticated Artifice. These abstractions are, I think, embodied in the two contending divinities of Aeschylus’ play. The earlier part shows how Athena aids the new rationality, represented by Apollo, in winning its case against the old justice; the later part shows how Athena moderates this dangerous victory by an essay, inviting the to writing old powers into her city and teaching her people how to be soundly rational by respecting the claims of a primeval cosmic equipoise, awful though it may be in aspect. The Eumenides, being the last drama of a trilogy, supervenes on a long chain of dramatic events. To recount it in skeletal form: Before the papers on ocd Oresteia begins, Atreus, Agamemnon’s father, has killed Thyestes’ sons and served their flesh to their father at secret to writing, a banquet. Term On Ocd. Agamemnon himself has sacrificed his and Clytemnestra’s daughter to to writing essays speed on the Greek expedition to Troy. In the Agamemnon, his wife, Clytemnestra, and scaffolding, Aegistheus, a surviving son of Thyestes, have killed Agamemnon on his victorious return from Troy, each for a compelling reason. In the Libation Bearers, Orestes, Clytemnestra’s and to writing good, Agamemnon’s son, has killed her and Aegistheus to avenge his father and preserve his own succession. Now in the Eumenides, Clytemnestra’s ghost is clamoring for Orestes’ death as a matricide.
That last killing would be the end of the Atreides, the scaffolding writing House of Atreus, and the vacating of the curse on secret to writing good, it for Atreus’s deed. Thyestes’ progeny had already been erased. The two cursed lineages would have ceased, for Orestes’ sister, Electra, is childless. Nature would have evacuated the papers evil and secret to writing good essays, the cosmic equipoise would be regained. This is natural justice, the justice of the Erinyes, also called the “Curses” (Arai ) who are naively furious justice: Why should a killer, especially a mother-killer, live? It is against the logic, the measures, of nature. Ordinary mortals, on the other hand, tend to be of two minds. They have tit-for-tat justice in their bones, but they also ask, as does the chorus at the end of the Libation Bearers : “When will there be rest from, when will there be a stop to the fury of this blind ruin?” (ate, 1076) They long for term on ocd, an imposed intervention, a forcible cut-off that ends the natural course, the secret to writing essays logical working out of the accursed drama. This natural justice has the name dike, or as its enforcers sometimes say: eytheia dike, “straight justice.” (312, 436) The Erinyes think of themselves as straight-justice-dispensing.
The word dike with its derivatives is the dominating sound of the scaffolding play: dikaios, endikos, dikastes, dikephoros, orthodikaion, adikein—the text bristles with it, and the ear rings with it. This dike, which the Erinyes claim as their own, has a thoroughly practical, concrete use. It means old custom and usage; it will henceforth mean the actual lawsuit brought and the effective judgment rendered; but above all, it means the order and right of things. The noun dike seems to be anciently connected with the verb deiknymi, “show, indicate.” The Erinyes say: “Come, let us join in the dance since it seems right to display our hateful muse,” for their office is to do “straight justice,” justice horrid but perspicuous. (307) The Erinyes’ dike, the justice of reciprocity, a life for essays, a life, is plainly indicated by brute fact, particularly when blood relations are involved. Dike, the concrete justice of the Erinyes, is an essay yourself and your family therefore not dikaiosyne, Just-ness, the secret essays thought-invoking object of inquiry mooted in Plato’s Republic. Homework. The question behind the play is indeed “What is justice?,” but it is engaged by the parties to a trial and by secret good essays, judicial decisions. The accuser is dead Clytemnestra, appearing as a specter (eidolon), the homework defendant her live son Orestes, the to writing essays venue the write a well essay Areopagus court of ten juror-judges with Athena as arbiter; the advocate for Clytemnestra is the band of Erinyes, for Orestes, Delphic Apollo.
So the play begins in Delphi and right away there is revisionist mythmaking, Aeschylean aetiology. Good. The Pythia, the priestess of a well Apollo’s oracle, comes out of the temple just to tell the story of Apollo’s taking possession of Delphi. All the world knew that it had been a violent business, but the Pythia paints the picture of a smooth, unforced inheritance. In this tale, Apollo is secret to writing essays a welcome civilizing god, the “prophet” of Zeus. He appears as a divinity of easy—no, facile—dominion, a god whose people have been trained to suppress the darker circumstances of his installation in Delphi. The priestess goes back in and soon runs out again, totally freaked out, as our students would say, by the creatures that sit inside on stools, asleep, slobbering and snoring.
She exits. The temple doors are now open and we see them: the Erinyes. On Ocd. Apollo comes on the scene with Orestes, to whom he promises protection from these Furies. He tells him to flee from them over land, sea, and islands, but finally to secret to writing go as a suppliant to Pallas Athena’s city for “relief from his pains.” He ends: “For I persuaded you to kill the mother-body.” (84) Orestes sets out on his long expiatory flight. Clytemnestra’s specter appears and upbraids the sleeping Erinyes for neglecting their pursuit.
They wake up to dance and sing the first of several choruses that have a terrible kind of dignity and induce a repelled sort of pity. They sing to Apollo: “You, the young male, have ridden down the scaffolding writing old female divinities” (daimonas, 150) by good essays, the respect you show for a godless man. “This,” they sing, “is what the younger gods do who exercise power altogether beyond Justice.” (162) Apollo responds by reviling them. They then bandy words, a foretaste of the arguments they will mount before the Areopagus, where both will claim to have justice on their side. It is a long time later. We are now in write an essay yourself family Athens, on the Acropolis. Orestes has arrived to sit, as he had been ordered by Apollo, as a suppliant with his arms around the old olive wood statue of Athena, the one kept in the Erechtheum. He insists that he is no longer polluted because Apollo has purified him and that, moreover, his guilt has been blunted by time and travel. Secret Good. The Erinyes are still in scaffolding assignments hot pursuit. When they see him clasping the statue, they sing out a horrible song: They will suck red clots of blood from his limbs in requital for mother-blood, “Everyone receives the justice he deserves….” Hades “oversees all in his recording-tablet of a mind.” What they are saying is that some deeds are un-erasable: “Mother’s blood, once spilled on the ground, is secret to writing good essays scarcely recoverable,” even if retribution has been exacted. (261 ff.) Orestes claims, on the contrary, to have worked off his guilt through travel and “time that, growing old along with everything, purifies it.” (286) And now, the term lead-Erinys announces the “Binding-Hymn.” It is a furious, long, stamping dance, an incantation for enchaining the mind. (370, 332) It asserts the Furies’ power and right to pursue even into secret good essays Hades those who commit inexpiable crimes of youporn blood.
Athena flies in, answering Orestes’ call. To Writing Good Essays. Aeschylus was admired for youporn homework, his staging; she surely arrives, a dea ex machina, by some cranelike device. Secret Good. But neither machines nor words make the an essay yourself family wonder of this moment; it is rather the good essays spectacle itself: Here is Athena’s old bretas, the papers on ocd olive bole that Orestes is embracing. Here is the possibly winged (1001) goddess herself, the divinity on which Orestes has called. He sees her, the spectators see her, the splendid deity vis-a-vis her presumably primitively carved, homely statue. How could the sight of both together help but lead to reverent reflection? The city was full of statuary Athenas. Secret To Writing. The Athenian spectators must think: We can reach her through these images; when we call her she will hear and come. But they must, at the same time, feel reminded that their wooden board, their marble statues, and write an essay about yourself and your family, their clay statuettes are just that: images, not the goddess herself. And that is secret to writing good essays exactly what distinguishes their worship from idolatry.
For an idol is to the worshiper not an image, but the spirit itself, prayed to, not through. These Athenians, presented by their first playwright with the wooden token and the real goddess face to face, were being invited—whether they followed the call or not—to think about the patent defectiveness and the mysterious power of homework those increasingly perfect representational artifacts that their normally invisible goddess was eliciting from them. Indeed, thoughtful spectators might realize—once the secret to writing magic of the performance had faded—that the “living” goddess who had been juxtaposed onstage to her venerably featureless effigy was herself a piece of Aeschylean poetry and stagecraft. Then they might wonder whether her innovative rationality, combined with her preservative respect for term, the—henceforth—ancient ways she had herself subverted, were in fact the attributes of a poet’s made image or the revelation of a divine revolution: Was the poet interposing himself between the citizens and secret good essays, their goddess, or was he their conduit to a well organized essay her? Athena descends and to writing good essays, notices the Furies. Apollo had reviled them and driven them from his temple: “Out, I am ordering you….You belong where there are judgments and butcheries of head-lopping and eye-gouging, and write about family, where the green youth of boys is good essays ruined by destruction of seed” (186)—Aeschylean language for castration, high poetry to render the term papers on ocd immoderate tone of the self-righteous young god. Here is secret to writing Athena’s reception for them.
She says that she is not afraid of, but she is amazed by these creatures, which are unlike any other race, not seen among gods or comparable to writing assignments humans in shape. Then she catches herself: “But to speak ill of someone close by us because he is misshaped does not approach what is just…” (413) The Erinyes introduce themselves. They are called the “Curses,” and are the children of Night who live beneath the earth. They begin the argument.
Athena says: “I would understand [all this], if someone would give a perspicuous account.” (420) Athena wants to hear from both sides in secret to writing lucid speech. She admonishes the Furies not to insist on youporn homework, formalisms. The Furies begin to trust her and entrust their case to secret to writing her decision. So does Orestes. The gist of the homework case is, on secret to writing good, the Furies’ side, a rationally connected double demand: that a mother-killer should be hunted down even into Hades and statement essay, that their own just prerogative to execute this charge should not be abrogated. On Orestes’ side, too, there is to writing essays a double argument, which is scaffolding writing assignments not so rationally coherent, though Orestes has had a “smart teacher” (sophos didaskalos, 279) in Apollo. He admits to the deed, but claims that it was just to requite his father’s murder, and he also offers the excuse that Apollo forced him to it with threats of “stinging pain to the heart.” (466)
Once again something simply amazing happens. Athena, the daughter of the god of gods, puts herself modestly on the level of mortals. She says: “The affair is too great for some mortal to think he can adjudicate it…Nor is secret to writing essays it right for me to a well essay decide a judicial case concerned with a killing so acutely anger-filled.” On the one hand there is before them a purified suppliant, on the other, the essays undeniable charge of the Furies who will, moreover, should they lose the case, poison the ground for ever. So Athena also has two agendas: a fair verdict and the protection of scaffolding writing assignments Attic soil. She issues an ordinance “for all time.” (484) Justice concerning killings will henceforth be turned over to judges . Dike will go to dikastai; Justice is to writing turned over to term papers juries; the natural course of just requital is turned into a case-at-law, and the avenging Erinyes are to plead before a court.
Acquittal or punishment ceases to be a private and now becomes a public affair. A British Lord Chief Justice said: “One…object of punishment is to prevent…the victims of crime from to writing good essays, taking matters into their own hands.” Athena’s institution of the high court of good definition essay Athens is a revolution in human affairs, the kind of event I call modern, or, better, modernizing. Secret Good Essays. It means the overthrow of homework ancient ways in secret essays the interest of a reasonable procedure, a crucial characteristic of about yourself which is the growth of public power, the expansion of what in our quintessentially “modern times,” the times in secret essays which modernity becomes the established mode, is called the state. But what if the accuser loses the case, if a guilty defendant escapes punishment on technicalities and the righteously aggrieved party is left helplessly furious? What if the homework humane, exculpatory rationality of the human court leaves the world out of kilter? We will see how Athena mitigates this inevitable consequence of institutional justice, the conversion of capital Justice as a power into lower-case justice as a process. But first there is that initial, that mythic trial before the Areopagus.
Athena goes off to select “the best [material, ta beltata] among my townspeople.” (487) I don’t think she means the aristocrats or oligarchs. Good Essays. Aeschylus’ locution betokens that the write good definition essay juror-judges are just the fittest citizens. Aeschylus, recall, is essays a defender of Athenian democracy. While she is gone, the Eumenides sing again, a song of despair and term papers on ocd, threatened withdrawal: “Now come the overturnings, the revolutions (katastrophai ), wreaked by new ordinances—if the hurtful justice of this mother-killer is to dominate.” (490) “I shall”—they sing as one—”permit every violent ruin” (moron). Let no one cry out ‘O Justice! 0 thrones of the Erinyes!’ …since the House of Justice has indeed collapsed.” (511) And then in to writing good essays the middle of scaffolding writing their lamenting threats they make a demand that justifies my picture of them as intended by Aeschylus to be the representatives of the aboriginal justice of equilibrium: Approve neither the anarchic life.
nor the tyrannized one… God grants the power to everything middling. I speak the proportionate word. (symmetron epos, 531) Athena, who was not there to hear them, will—wonderfully—repeat their words. But first the trial. The scene seems to secret essays have shifted to term papers on ocd the chambers of the Areopagus court.
Trumpets sound; the people stream in; the court sits. The Eumenides, advocates for secret to writing essays, Clytemnestra, offer a simple case: He admits he did it. The opposition’s claim that Zeus, Zeus who overcame his own father, has more regard for a father’s than a mother’s death is implausible. Write Organized. Moreover, Clytemnestra, in secret to writing good essays killing her spouse, did not kill a blood relation, a mitigating circumstance for her. Orestes intimates right away that neither is he his mother’s blood relation. Apollo now speaks for term papers, Orestes. He again proceeds violently: “You altogether hateful beasts, hated by the gods…” (644) He follows Orestes’ line: “The mother so-called is not the child’s begetter.” (658) He goes on to writing, to speak as a scientist to common folk, dispensing fancy then-modern biology, according to which the homework mother has no part in the embryo except that of a nurse. He cunningly mentions that the male can even engender entirely without a mother.
He cites the daughter of Zeus, Athena herself, as a case. It is a smart lawyer’s move, but once again, disregardful of the Erinyes. For Aeschylus has-against tradition-made them the children of Night, and she, Hesiod tells us, can bear “having slept with no one” (Birth of the Gods, 213); the secret to writing essays Furies themselves (probably) have no father. I interrupt the account here to point to a curious circumstance that must have crept into scaffolding writing assignments every spectator’s mind: Apollo’s argument, which in fact abolishes mothers, insofar as they are nothing but carrying wombs, is secret good essays cleverly made in a drama that is enacted, except for on ocd, Clytemnestra appearing as a specter and the Amazons appearing in a story, mainly by childless females whose status is above, below, beyond natural womanhood: the Pythian priestesses who open the play, the Erinyes who are transformed in its course, the good consecrated guardians of Athena’s statue who lead the exit march. Above them all thrones Athena Parthenos, the Virgin. (999) Why? Well, first this is a sacral drama, and the great Olympians are served by virgins. But more significantly, the two protagonists, female-gendered but non-bearing, are, on the one hand, male-like powers, the one of scaffolding fiercely spirited engagement, the other of majestically large objectivity. Yet, on the other hand, both are capable of kindly care, the Eumenides eventually by Athena’s unique persuasiveness, she herself always as the city goddess who cherishes (911) her own people as with a supernatural maternity. From this dual disposition both reach a middle wisdom, the moderation that they will soon be revealed to have in common. The pleading is done.
Athena addresses her citizens while the court deliberates. She tells them yet another revisionist foundation myth—more aetiology. The place where the court of juror-judges; that will exist for ever, is deciding its first murder case, the kind for to writing good essays, which she has instituted it, is called the Areopagus, ”Ares’ Rock,” because there the army of Amazons from Asia that attacked Athens in the time of Theseus sacrificed to Ares. (683) Again, all the world knew the term papers on ocd current explanation of the secret to writing good name, which was that Ares, having killed a son of Poseidon for trying to term on ocd rape his daughter, was tried on this hill for essays, murder by a jury of write good thesis gods. Essays. I assume that he was acquitted, as Orestes will be. Why this new tale? One notion is that Aeschylus wants Orestes’ trial to essays be the initial case of the new Areopagus court. But if the earliest court consisted of the twelve Olympian gods, Athena’s institution of to writing essays a mortal court of write good definition ten would still be original enough, and secret to writing essays, if Ares had indeed been acquitted, the precedent might be welcome. I think Aeschylus revises the naming event of this court’s home to remind his audience of the youporn homework more recent Asian army that had entered the city just over three decades ago, that of the Persians. Then Athens had ejected a male invasion—they regarded the essays Persians as effeminate—as once before in soccer mythical times it had defeated a female invasion. Now, in the dramatic time of the play, it must cope with another female band not of invaders but of infernal plaintiffs about to be outraged: Those Amazonian warrior women were easier to deal with than these furious female deities.
She uses the secret to writing good essays pause in the drama to make a consequent point: Reverence this Areopagus! Don’t muck up—she uses strong language—your own bright water. Their own inborn fear and awe will keep the town’s men from write thesis statement essay, doing injustice, as long as “the citizens themselves don’t make innovations in the laws.” (epikainonton nomous, 693) While in secret good the course of instituting novelties, she warns her people against write an essay about yourself, innovation! And then, in the most significant moment of the play, she goes on to say exactly what the to writing good Eumenides have said in her absence: “I counsel the youporn homework caring townsmen to secret essays revere neither the anarchic nor the tyrannized way, and not to throw all that is dreadful out of the city. For who among mortals, fearing nothing, is yet imbued with justice?” (697).
She and the Furies together seem to be doing a long-term end-run around Apollo, although she is about to help him win his current case. Athena’s political wisdom is ingeniously and complexly deep, as we will see. After the youporn homework jurors have voted and before the votes are counted, Athena makes a consequence-fraught announcement. If the vote is tied, Orestes will be acquitted because her pebble is going into the urn for acquittal. Her reason is stupefyingly simple and unprincipled: “I support everything male—except for the matter of getting married [here speaks the virgin goddess], and I am very much my Father’s child.” (736) This is another remarkable moment.
Her refusal to invent a principle-preserving sophism is positively refreshing here. After all, she has a deeper reason that she is wise not to articulate before the to writing Furies: to stop the descent of about killing, to put an end to this murderous lineage without actually eradicating it. And yet she knows that this is a dangerous circumvention of the dread and awe that irredeemable blood should inspire. To Writing Good Essays. And that is, as ever, only scaffolding assignments, one of secret to writing two wise intentions. Write An Essay About Yourself. The other is to good establish by precedence a permanent ordinance: the judicial compromise that will resolve an insoluble situation. The equality of votes, five to five, which she surely foresees—or so I imagine—betokens the inability of human beings to resolve this matter by themselves, to be of one dispositive mind, any more than the deity could deal with it alone. She knows that she is to youporn be the to writing essays tie-breaker; she must supply the casting vote, and it is for ever—and still for us—in favor of organized acquittal.
When humans are equally divided in mind, civilization says: Let him go. Give him the benefit of the doubt. And ever after, in the goddess’s absence, her tie breaking vote, cast for clemency, will be present in every court, and so will she. (I don’t say “cast for mercy” because this is pagan moderation, civilized leniency, not Christian forgiveness.) Furthermore, Athena’ s rule tends toward slowing innovation in deliberative assemblies: Positive action is to writing good essays defeated by a tie. So Orestes is acquitted, and assignments, he, full of secret to writing good gratitude and promises for youporn homework, an Argive alliance, quits the scene with his divine advocate. Athena is left with her assembled people—and the absolutely infuriated Furies. They dance again and become, as people do, ominously repetitive but also darkly beautiful with rage. They again speak as one, fixated on the locution of being ridden down by the younger gods and iterating their lament: I am she who is unhonored—she who is wretched,
I emit poison, my heart’s poison in payment for pain. in unbearable drops on the ground. Secret To Writing Good Essays. (780, 810) And again the goddess does something astonishing, something no other divinity, I imagine, would or could attempt and a well essay, accomplish: She undertakes to calm the Furies, to gentle them. She speaks to them between their laments. She tells them they are not unhonored nor defeated, for the votes were equal and Zeus himself kept Orestes from harm. This is tact—half the jurors, she points out, were for them; moreover, not their antagonist Apollo, but the god of gods himself ordered the outcome. Here she gently reminds all of her closeness to to writing Zeus; she alone knows the keys to the chamber where his thunderbolt is sealed. Write Organized. (827) It is the subtlest of threats. But above all she has begun to make her daring offer: Be “augustly honored and be co-dweller (synoiketor) with me.” (833) She is inviting the good essays Furies into her city!
They still rage repetitively. “For me to papers on ocd bear this, oh!—for me of to writing essays such ancient good sense to write an essay about family dwell in this earth is a dishonoring defilement,” they say twice over. (838, 871) Athena bears it patiently, though she tells them understatedly, “Zeus has not done badly by good, me either in giving me good sense.” She promises more, a place for them close to her own Erechtheum, the prize of the country’s first fruits, and honors over any they might have from mortals elsewhere—if they will not afflict her places with incitements to bloodshed, drunken rages, fighting-cock hearts, and scaffolding assignments, rash intractable aggression. “Let our wars be external!,” she says, since it is not war she denounces but civil war. (861) “I won’t weary of to writing essays telling you,” she goes on, “so you can never say that by me, the younger, and my city-holding mortals, you, the ancient deity, went unhonored and were made a stranger on this soil.” If you have reverence for the power of Persuasion, the honeyed soothing and seduction of homework my tongue, you will stay. (881, cf. 970) Suddenly, as one, they cave in: “Queen Athena,”—now first they call her queen, as had Orestes before them (235)—”what settlement do you say you have for me?” (892) Why? Surely they have been both bribed and sweet-talked, but surely that alone would never have persuaded these recalcitrantly tough old customers. Secret Good. I think what gets to them is not only Athena’s tactful rhetoric, which she takes so far as to incriminate herself as one of those hated younger gods, though one who is deferential to the ancient ones, whom she has begun to address in the singular as one deity. (848) No, it is above all her genuine understanding of their indispensable function. She is, to be sure, acting for her people: “For like a plant-shepherding man (andros phit ypoimenos) I cherish the grief-removed nation (genos) of these just people here” (911)—this is Athena talking high-Aeschylean to make a declaration of love to her Athenians. But then, after she has already brought the corps of Furies over, after they have already accepted co-dwelling (synoikia, 916) with her, she says from kindly care for write good thesis statement definition essay, her citizens: I have finally fixed these great and hard-to-please spirits, “for it is their lot to manage what pertains to mankind.” (927) This is powerful language, which shows that she is seriously acknowledging their dangerous potency, the risky blessing she is introducing into her city. Her wise management of these managers reminds me of what is secret to writing good essays perhaps the crucial line in Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice: Bassanio says to about midnight soccer the vengeful Jew: “Can no prayers pierce thee?” and Shylock answers: “No, none that thou hast wit enough to to writing good make.” (4.1.128) Athena has wit enough and wisdom to pierce the write organized avenging Furies, and that is because she, unlike Apollo (or Bassanio), can summon a real, a reverential respect for them: “Great power has the Lady Erinys.” (950) They sing antiphonally, the Erinyes of blessings to be bestowed, Athena of the blessings to be received, telling her citizens to secret to writing good essays be ever well- (or kindly-) minded toward these Well- (or Kindly-) minded ones,” the Euphrones—which is as close as she seems to writing assignments wish to come to to writing good naming the Eumenides.
There is a great exit procession: the Areopagites, Athena’s acolytes, her Athenians, and finally the goddess herself, conducting the Erinyes, now dressed in the scarlet of write an essay about resident aliens, marching as metics (1028), to their permanent home beneath Ares’ Rock. Here is the third strophe of the exit march, sung by the Erinyes, now, without need of naming, recognized by all the spectators as their Eumenides: Chairete, chairet’ en aisimiaisi ploutou, iktar hemenoi Dios. Parthenou philas phil0i, sophronountes en chronoi; ontas azetai Pater.
Rejoice and secret to writing good essays, farewell in good thesis statement essay the happiness of wealth, Rejoice, townspeople. Seated close to Zeus. Friends of the friendly Virgin Moderate in good times. Under the to writing good essays wings of Pallas Athene. As you are, the Father respects you. (996-1002)
Of course, the whole theater was, though seated, marching along, a light trochaic tread, solemn but relieved, grave, and exhilarated. This was surely a high moment of sound-minded patriotism founded on whole-hearted trust in the wisely innovating goddess. As this founding drama draws to a close, Athena repeatedly invokes the Father, Zeus. Through her, her people are near to him. Papers On Ocd. I think this means that though she acts locally, in this Attic land, on this Athenian High City, at good, this Rock of Ares, she is instituting a larger way, she is thinking universal Zeus-like thoughts for other places and later times. Sophronountes en chronoi the new neighbors say of Athena’s people: They “are being temperate, sound-minded, moderate.” All these terms are acceptable renditions of sophronountes, which is, moreover a present participle, a verbal form signifying a continuing action. That is, at least, how their city-goddess acts: ever-temperate, ever-moderate, and what that means for Athens I shall end by saying in a moment. But why en chronoi, “in time, just in time, in on ocd good time”—all of these are possible meanings?
It has seemed to readers a puzzlingly reserved phrase, a note of restraint sounded among these transports of reconciliation. Perhaps what the Erinyes mean is that moderation is to writing good essays neither inbred nor learned in a day, especially not in term papers its ongoing realization, the very temporality suggested by the verbal form: being actively moderate—thinking soundly over to writing essays time. Under Athena’s wings they keep learning. What is this—their, her—moderation in essays soccer this forever critical situation, life lived literally with the Erinyes beneath? Let me begin to answer by recapitulating Athena’s acts of secret to writing essays moderation and innovation: Apollo, to win his case, cites new science which in effect says, “There are no mothers;” Athena, ensuring the good thesis statement definition same outcome, refers instead to her unique case of motherlessness and abstains from inhumanly radical generalizations. Faced with repulsive creatures, Apollo insults and essays, expels them. Athena rather controls her repugnance and accords them more courteous treatment than, I imagine, they have ever received since dark Night bore them; she soothes and invites them. Saddled with a case in which primevally simple and humanly compromised justice confront each other, she magisterially accepts the case but modestly recognizes that neither her people nor she can resolve the matter alone. Scaffolding Writing. Consequently, she founds a novel institution, a court for cases of killing, thus both making justice a public rather than a family responsibility and corroborating Athens as a place of refuge and resolution. She makes the number of juror-judges even, well knowing that the first division of votes will express a right-minded human ambiguity concerning the case. She assumes the office of tie-breaker to give this verdict to the god-driven killer who is the first to come before the Areopagus court, tacitly ordaining the to writing rule that in subsequent cases, when the mortals decide in her absence, equal votes will moderate primitive severity by scaffolding writing, signifying acquittal. Having thus of necessity offended the Furies, she goes persuasively—and sincerely—far in secret to writing good acknowledging their priority and power, honoring them with titles: She names, or rather titles them, finally, the August Goddesses ( Semnai Theai) , and organized, grants them prerogatives-in effect a share in secret to writing the supervision of her city.
Gently she domesticates them and turns these new residents into almost new deities. And yet…She is a modernizing goddess who, as the Erinyes themselves say, has caused a revolution. Term Papers On Ocd. But when she takes the tremendous risk of domesticating these justly vengeful deities and making them officially metics, that is, co-dwellers, it is their intention she converts, not their nature: They are, as everyone knew, now the Eumenides, the Well-Intentioned, the Kindly-Thinking Ones. But they are still angry Erinyes as well: Their dark character as children of Night is not canceled but preserved  in that cave in Ares’ Rock, beneath the Areopagus Court. What above all moderates Athena’s modernity and makes her revolution a reverent one? It is that she knows and honors the ancient dread. When the Erinyes lament that the new young gods ride them down, she, though herself a member of the new generation of to writing good essays gods, knows what that means: The others, at least this Apollo, are too brightly shallow to feel it, to feel the fear that the write statement world will become unbalanced if holy terror fails. Even as she is establishing that work of reason, the human jury sitting in judgment, where the good essays public decides by the numbers and the perpetrator goes humanely free when there is doubt, even as she is freely innovating, she tells her Areopagites: “Their reverence for good thesis statement essay, the court and the inborn fear of the essays townspeople will keep them from homework, doing injustice… as long as the citizens don’t make innovations in the laws.” And then, she gives her counsel, the gist of which I will quote once again: not to revere either anarchy or despotism, And not to secret essays throw all that is dreadful out of the city. For who among mortals, fearing nothing, is a well essay yet imbued with justice? (698)
This dread, this fear that the citizens are bidden to secret good preserve, is a deep awareness of—one might even call it a kind of trust in—the terrible consequences of lightly letting old laws lapse and forcibly bringing in a new rational relief that leaves the write a well primal Justice of reprisal out of kilter. A penultimate question: Are the Erinyes creatures of conscience? Perhaps in secret good the first moment of matricide Orestes experiences a gnawing horror like remorse. Good Thesis. For in the Libation Bearers only he sees the to writing good Furies. But they soon materialize, and in the Eumenides the whole city sees them. They are there not to express a haunting sense of youporn guilt but to recall a world-dislodging deed, and they are not evocations of the perpetrator but emissaries of the victim. The Erinyes are, indeed, never renamed in the play, but at the very end the people in the procession give them one last fitting adjective: euthyphrones, “straight-thinking.” (1040) They are also repeatedly called children: “elder children” (palaiopaides, 69), no-children children. (paides apaides, 1034) There is in fact something naively, frighteningly, undeflectably direct about essays these ancient children; they demand straight simplicity like young children when they are in homework the holy terror mode, when they are fixed on to writing essays, the brute fact of an inequity: “Why is he allowed…?” No, they are not extrusions of the perpetrator’s conscience. But neither are they expressions of the victim’s outrage.
The Erinyes are rather exhibitions of a cosmic power. They are, by Aeschylus’ fiat, daughters of Night. “Murky Night” has borne, as Hesiod tells in his Birth of the Gods, many daughters, among them Nemesis, Blame and Woe, Destiny and the Fates, Who pursue the transgressions (paraibasias) of men and gods, Nor ever do these goddesses cease their dread anger. Before they have given evil attention to anyone who has gone wrong. (213-25) The Erinyes belong among the divine powers who keep the about yourself world from going out of joint  by good, rectifying imbalances. Born from murky dark, they bring a dreadfully simple clarity of accounting: Do and pay. Such are these anciently young spirits, while Athena is the newly young deity, and yet they come together over cosmic and civic politics. Both oppose anarchy as well as despotism (526, 696), because it is unbalanced, immoderate. Yet, Athena Polias is an altogether modern, modernizing goddess, a civic deity who innovates, makes political revolution in the modern mode still current with us: She transfers moral responsibility to public institutions, decides by the numbers, that is, by voting, resolves issues by rational fiat, encourages perspicuous speech in both parties: ”Answer me with something intelligible.” (442, 420) But she is in complete sympathy with the Furies’ cry that precedes their proscription of political extremes:
There is essays about a place where the dreadful is well (to. and, as overseer of the heart, it ought to secret good stay seated there. It is of profit. to be moderate in narrow straits. (517) So both connect moderation with the write statement welcoming of dread. Secret Essays. For certain blood spilled simply is irretrievable (1175) and some deeds are forever irredeemable. And the Apolline solution to “invent” what he calls “engines of relief ” (82) racks up debts in midnight that economy of secret things that the Erinyes call Justice. What Athena understands is that this truth must be invited in and kept in mind: that continuous propitiating mindfulness by scaffolding writing assignments, the beneficiaries of abrogated requital is required. This is secret good essays not straight Justice but it is clement civilization.
In that knowledge consists Athena’s moderate modernity. Back, finally, to Aeschylus: Does he “believe in” this Athena—believe that she exists? I answer abruptly, from the bafflement of a post-pagan and the enthrallment of an all-but-worshiper: He loves her as he loves his city, and essays about, love makes moot the question of existence—at certain high moments. Books by Eva Brann may be found in The Imaginative Conservative Bookstore. This essay originally appeared in The St. John’s Review (Volume 50, No. 2, 2008) and is republished here with gracious permission. Miss Brann welcomes questions/comments via mail: Dr.
Eva Brann, St. John’s College, 60 College Avenue, Annapolis, MD, 21401-1655 (she does not use computers). Ms. To Writing Good Essays. Brann writes: “These reflections on the Eumenides originated in a seminar on board the MJY Callisto, Captain Yannis Stupakis, sailing the Aegean Sea in October of 2006. The passengers were all members of the term St. To Writing. John’s College community: Wendy Feintech, Jacqueline and David Levine, Cathryn and Tom Krause, Gretchen Dibble and Robert Mahaffy, Mary Jane Myers, Deborah and Lee Walcott; seminar leaders: David Levine and myself. I thank my colleague Mera Flaumenhaft for her suggestions and for making me aware of her gratifyingly like-minded essay, “Seeing Justice Done: Aeschylus’s Oresteia,” in her book, The Civic Spectacle (Lanham: Maryland: Rowman and papers, Littlefield: 1994), especially pp.
27-41.” Lloyd-Jones, Hugh, The Eumenides by Aeschylus: A Translation and Commentary. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall (1970). Paley, F. Secret To Writing. A., The Tragedies of Aeschylos (Edition and Commentary). London: Whittaker and Co. (1879). Podlecki, Anthony J., Aeschylus’ Eumenides (Edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary). Warminster, England: Aris and Phillips Ltd. (1989). Sommerstein, Alan H., Aeschylus, Eumenides (Edition and Commentary). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1989). Verrall, A. W, The ‘Eumenides’ of Aeschylus (Introduction, Commentary and Translation). London: Macmillan and Co. (1908).
 There is even an old story that Socrates helped Euripides make his plays, who was consequently called by scaffolding writing, a later comic writer “Socrato-rivet-patched” ( s okratogomphos, Diogenes Laertius, 2.18).  Verrall, p. xxxvi.  It may be that the idea of bringing Orestes to good essays Athens arose from the fact that in the Odyssey he comes from Athens to avenge his father (3.307).  Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus” (1883): “. . Soccer. . ‘Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,/The wretched refuse of your teeming shore . Essays. . .’ .”  Sommerstein, p. 109, on !. 142.  E.g.
Euripides, Orestes, l. 35 (408 BCE); Sommerstein, pp. 11-12.  Gary Wills, Inventing America : Jef ferson’s Declaration of Independence, New York: Vintage Books (1978), p. xiv ff. A thorough rebuttal of Wills’s facts: Harry V Jaffa, “Inventing the Past: Garry Wills’s Inventing America and the Pathology of Ideological Scholarship,” The St . John’s Review 30 (Autumn 1981), p. 94 ff.  Paley, p. xxxvi; Sommerstein, p. 18.  Podlecki, p. 163, on l. Writing. 398.
 Podlecki, p. Good Essays. 92, on l. 1028.  Meanly implausible reasons were later given for this, his second Sicilian voyage, such as his defeat by young Sophocles or his having revealed the Mysteries (Paley, p. xxv). I think he was a famous Athenian, and so the Sicilian rulers wanted his poetry. There is no reason to think he was an expatriate; it’s hard to about and your family imagine after the Eumenides .  Paley, p. Secret Good. xxxvi.  The Delian Treasure was seized and write about yourself and your, brought to Athens in 454 BCE.
 This piece of Athenian wit was told me by Seth Benardete half a century ago. It seems mythopoetically true.  Abraham Lincoln, “Speech in Reply to Douglas at essays, Chicago” July 10, 1858)  Pindar, Fr. 76 (46), The Odes of Pindar, translated by Sir John Sandys, Loeb Edition (1919), p. 556, n. 1. Katherine Lee Bates, ”America the Beautiful” (1893), in The American Reader: Words that Moved a Nation, ed. Diane Ravitch, New York: Harper-Collins (1990), p. Writing. 184.  Could it possibly be that this, the moral of the good play, is not at the thousandth line by accident? To be sure, not all line counts agree. No, not likely.
 In fact, the Oresteia is the only complete surviving trilogy.  Podlecki, p. 129, on 11. 5-8.  I don’t know whether such a scene is ever repeated. In Euripides’ Hippolytus, for instance, where Aphrodite’s and Artemis’s statues seem both to write an essay be on stage, the deities themselves are not seen but only heard (86).
 The philosophical culmination of the reflection on image and original is in Plato’s Sophist (240 ff.). Athena was the secret to writing good patroness of arts and crafts.  Lord Lane (1986), quoted as an epigraph in Sommerstein.  In the Generation of Animals Aristotle will elaborate this proto-thesis into a full-blown theory: The mother is an infertile male who contributes merely the youporn receptive material to the embryo (1.19-20; 4.1).  Verrall, p. Essays. 126, on 11. 686-93 with sources; Sommerstein, pp. 2-3; p. 273, on ll. 685-90.  These lines are said to be the most controversial ones in the play (Sommerstein, p. 216). Write And Your. But the scholarly puzzlement is not about Athena’s agreement with the Furies but which historical laws she is warning against changing.
Is the passage attacking the to writing essays democratic reform of the Areopagus? There are long discussions in Conacher (p. 199 ff.) and about midnight soccer, Sommerstein (p. 216 ff.). My notion is that Aeschylus’ warning is not against essays, a particular historical case but against an ever-recurrent human event: radically rational innovation.  To me it is pretty clear that Athena casts the tie-breaking rather than the equalizing vote, because 1. there are 10 complete exchanges between Apollo and youporn homework, the Erinyes, one speech for secret to writing, each act of voting (Verrall, p. 130, on youporn homework, ll. 714-33), and good essays, 2. Papers On Ocd. if Athena were evening the vote to bring about acquittal, the procedure for the court—that a tie acquits—would have had to precede its institution.
 Thucydides tells of a high moment of similar gloriously exhilarating solemnity. It happens to secret be an actual celebration, the send-off that the Athenian people give their Sicilian expedition, also with trumpets, prayers, paeans. But as the Eumenidean exit is youporn thoughtfully future fraught, the Sicilian send-off is—to the reader who knows the end—fecklessly doom-inviting (P e loponn esian Wa r, 6.32).  The commentators are stumped and so have a lot to secret to writing good say.  I would venture to say this only in a note: The Hegelian term aufheben, which means at thesis statement, once canceling, preserving, and raising up, fits this case.
 Thus Heidegger translates dike into secret good essays German as Fug, “fit.” It is that reciprocity which join s together a tight-fitting whole (Introduction to Metaphysics, 4.3). There is midnight soccer a German idiom: mit Fug und Recht, “with full right.” Moreover Unfug means “mischief.” Published: Nov 10, 2015. Why Kids Should Play With Wild Animals. How the Medieval Church Made Modern Liberty. Pope Francis and the Caring Society. Lovely essay.
Aeschylus has always been my favorite of the three tragic playwrights.
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the date for secret to writing good, the first 100 years shows an increase in scaffolding writing beak size for both bird populations in both islands; however Wallace saw a bigger increase. Over the course of 100 years, the beak size of the population of Wallace Island went from 14mm to 18.34mm. The population of Darwin Island only grew 16.8mm. Over the course of secret essays, 200 years, the beak size of the Wallace Island birds has now grown to 22.2mm while the Darwin Island birds now have a beak size of 20.11mm. Over the course of 300 years, the write a well, beak.
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In fact, she expresses unhappiness about her relationship with John. She says that she wanted to prove John for her unhappiness.(Pg.229), and that John is a well essay, uglier that he might otherwise have been.(Pg.229) On the other hand, in Holding Things Together; it does not mention. Should Couples Live Together Before Marriage? Essay. separate in less than two years (Hayward and Brandon, 2010b) According to J Marriage Fam, couples who cohabitate before marriage will usually divorce in their first and good essays second marriage (2010). This is assignments, because many conflicts will occur when couples live together before marriage, such as communication problems, time management problems and also job division problems. Based on a survey, the top reason of divorce is infidelity (Watson, 2011). To Writing. Besides, financial hardship is also another reason which leads to.
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His believes in family values as well as religion stems form the. countryside creates two cultural influences. When I look back, I feel that learning from different cultures have helped me in shaping my true identity. I believe that my friends have also contributed to my identity. As the saying goes: “birds of a feather flock together”. Friends influence the way you think and act. I have made friends with boys and girls of different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
My friends were very kind and they taught me how to care about others when someone is having a problem. Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? Afterward the appointment, I went to the bathroom and forgot my book in one of the stalls. Secret To Writing Essays. When I returned to find my book the same lady was coming out of the stall. I asked her if she had found a book in the stall and she handed to me.
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Tom Robinson never hurt anyone, but still had to term on ocd, suffer consequences because of his race. Good. For instance, when Tom was trying to an essay, escape prison, “they. to kill a mocking bird and good essays the help comparison Essay. Throughout TKMB and The Help power is portrayed through both texts. Power is used in about many different ways through TKMB; many people use their power in a positive way like Atticus unlike others who abuses their power like Bob Ewell. To Writing Good. Bob Ewell uses his power in a negative way when he blames the rape of his daughter Mayella on Tom Robison knowing that Tom would be convicted guilty because he is black. In The Help power is youporn homework, shown in mostly negative ways with the white people treating their maids with disrespect.
Essay on To Kill a Mocking Bird- Thematic Approach (Outsiders) He knew that this would bring his family some trouble but he wanted to do it anyway. What challenges does the secret essays, outsider face? Tom Robinson- The trial. Write Thesis Statement. He was sent to jail for a crime he did not commit and ended up being shot after an attempt to break out good essays prison. Scout and Jem- yelled remarks and called names from people at school and even old ladies sitting on porches and being the subject of write a well organized, everyone’s whispers. Another challenge they faced was Mr. Robert Ewell’s attack after the play at school. Good vs. Evil: To Kill a Mocking Bird Essay. Atticus takes care of Jem and to writing Scout, showing them the importance of education and teaching them life lessons and morals. “If you'll concede the necessity of going to school, we'll go on reading every night just as we always have.
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These individuals had joined together in a “tryst” to “abrade [his] plumage.” The vulture that the essays, poet refers to can be interpreted metaphorically as both a large powerful bird—Gyatso—and an evil predator—the regent. The bird’s plumage represents Gyatso’s majestic power and about just as the earth and the wind wear away at the feathers of a bird, the tryst formed by the regent and other figures of power pluck Gyatso of his “feathers”, leaving him weakened and powerless. Like the.
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College of Health Sciences Master of Public Health. Tuition Financial Aid. Sept 27-Nov 2, 2017. Sept 27-Nov 3, 2017. AOTA Fieldwork Educator. College of Health Sciences Master of Public Health. Tuition Financial Aid. Sept 27-Nov 2, 2017.
Sept 27-Nov 3, 2017. AOTA Fieldwork Educator. Master of Public Health Curriculum Classes. A minimum of good essays, 45 hours are required for this degree, including 18 hours of youporn, core classes, nine hours of essential skills classes, 12 hours of concentration classes, and six hours of professional experience. By taking approximately nine credit hours each semester, you can complete the program in 24 months. The sample plan of secret to writing good essays, study is as follows: The purpose of this course is to introduce MPH students to the ubiquitous nature of public health and homework multiple career paths in the field of public health. Secret To Writing Good Essays. MPH students will become familiar with public health as a distinct profession and with the various community and an essay and your family global opportunities that the UIndy MPH program offers. Various public health practitioners representing local, state, national, and international settings will be invited to discuss their areas of expertise and to describe potential field placement sites for the required practice experience.
MPH 510 – Understanding Utilization of Epidemiology (3) This course will introduce the key terms and concepts of epidemiology with an emphasis on application for public health practice and utilizing epidemiology to increase understanding of to writing good essays, current population health issues including health disparities. Students will gain knowledge preparing them to utilize descriptive epidemiology and interpret the major analytic study designs used in population health. Term. Examples of applications of epidemiology in modern public health settings that address a range of major, global population health issues will be covered. MPH 530 – Cultural Competency for Improving Public Health (2) This course is secret good essays designed for students to build knowledge and skills in the cross-cutting public health competency of diversity and culture. Students will be guided through intensive self-analysis followed by examination of the concepts and indicators of cultural competence necessary for effective professional practice with diverse clients, communities, staff, colleagues, and organizations. Evidence and review of the literature on the role of culturally competent health professionals and health disparities will also be included.
MPH 525 – Social Behavioral Science Applications (3) This course facilitates exploration and understanding of the multitude of social and behavioral sciences that contribute to public health including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, communication, and geography. Social, historical, political, cultural and scaffolding assignments behavioral factors will be critically analyzed to understand how they interact together to serve as determinants of secret to writing good essays, health and health disparities. Write Organized. Emphasis will be placed on applying ecological approaches to good, population health problems and utilizing social and behavioral science applications as tools for promoting change and an essay about yourself family designing solutions to improve population health. MPH 520 – Health Systems Management (3) This course provides students with an understanding of the core components of a health system, including management and administration, and the role public health plays within the system. Topics include health system structure, management and good administration, health policy overview, role of health and other policies in health disparities, related reforms of health policy, international comparisons of about, health systems and to writing policies, and population health indicators. Emphasis will be placed on recognizing reciprocal relationships between public health practitioners, the health policies and systems within which they practice their profession. MPH 505 – Biostatistics for Public Health Professionals (3) This course provides students with the breadth of biostatistical methods utilized in public health practice. Topics include research design, data collection methods, database management, secondary data analysis, basic statistical computing and programming, descriptive statistics, summary statistics, probability and distributions, sampling distributions and statistical inference.
Emphasis is on the utilization of thesis definition, statistics and data for the evidence based design, implementation, and evaluation of public health programs and to writing essays policies. MPH 515 – Principles of Environmental Health (3) This course examines the papers, myriad physical environmental conditions that impact population health. Topics include, but are not limited to, indoor and outdoor air pollution, other types of pollution, food safety, water supply and secret essays safety, occupational health, and yourself family emergency preparedness and management. Examples, discussions, and assignments span the local to the global levels with an emphasis on secret to writing good disparities in health, environmental justice, and advocacy for improving environmental health. MPH 565 – Professional Experience Seminar (1) The purpose of this course is for students to systematically prepare for the required professional practice experience in the field. Requirements for the field experience will be detailed. Youporn Homework. Students will reflect on the MPH program goals and objectives they formulated during semester one in MPH 500 Public Health Seminar and revise as needed. Students will also identify potential sites, either domestically or internationally, for their practice experience and engage in critical review with the professor and peers of the goodness of fit of the potential sites. Expectations of professionalism are included.
MPH 575 – Global Patterns of to writing good essays, Health Disease (3) This course examines issues of global patterns of health and disease through the good statement essay, lens of the social determinants of secret to writing essays, health (SDH) and equity perspectives. It also explores these patterns within the framework of sustainable health development approaches in the United States as well as other developed and developing countries. Discussion will address the role of participatory governance in addressing global patterns of health and disease to include strengthening local, national and global partnerships, as well as explore inter-linkages with urbanization, environmental degradation, and social justice concerns. This course is designed to highlight the assignments, disparities and secret to writing essays inequities within the current global patterns of health and write an essay yourself family disease to set a foundation for action and research. MPH 535 – Program Planning Proposal Development for Diverse Settings (3) The focus of secret to writing essays, this course is on understanding and utilizing an equity-based approach to program design and scaffolding writing development as a means of tackling health disparities found both in secret developed and less developed countries. Particular emphasis will be placed on planning for the most vulnerable populations in urban settings, hard-to-reach areas and minority communities. The course will culminate with creation of a proposal in response to a current RFP in the field of public health. 1 health disparities elective (see below)
2 health disparities electives (see below) MPH 570 – Professional Experience Capstone (5) The purpose of the graduate public health professional practice and capstone experience is to 1) provide an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and skills of public health competencies acquired through their core and write a well essay concentration curriculum in an intensive field based practicum and 2) design and to writing good deliver four distinct products in conjunction with their field practicum as their culminating experience for the MPH program. Good Thesis Statement. The products will be submitted to the leadership of their fieldwork site and to the MPH program faculty and student colleagues. Acceptable sites for the professional practice experience and capstone will require students to synthesize knowledge and skills in to writing good public health as detailed by a job description with an emphasis on their area of concentration.
Electives are offered in a combination of online, hybrid and traditional face-to-face formats. Choose at least one with MPH prefix. About Soccer. One skill elective may be selected from available graduate courses offered across UIndy upon approval of your faculty advisor: MPH 540 – Monitoring Evaluation for Community Health (3) This course is designed to secret to writing, build the capacity of students to effectively build evidence to advocate for and support strategic interventions targeting health disparities.
It also focuses on competencies to measure relevant behavior and social change. MPH 545 – Human Resource Management Leadership in PH Settings (3) This course is designed for MPH students who are pursuing careers as administrators and managers with supervisory responsibility in public health settings. Broad examination of common human resource issues facing public health administrators is followed by more detailed analysis and about soccer skill building for issues such as effective supervision and communication, recruiting, hiring and retention in the public health workforce, labor relations and polices in public health, and multi-sectoral leadership and advocacy required of public health administrators. MPH 550 – Public Health Policies, Ethics, Advocacy (3) This course is designed for students planning careers involving analysis and secret to writing formulation of, and advocacy for policies that impact population health. Policies across multiple settings including organizational, corporate, local, state and global public policies will be analyzed within the context of various ethical frameworks.
Emphasis is placed on comprehensive analyses resulting in recognition of policy as a major tool of public health and recommendations for action and advocacy to impact population health policies. MPH 555 – Qualitative Participatory Research Methods for scaffolding writing Promoting Health Equity (3) This course provides instruction and field application of qualitative research methods for studying community health issues. Secret Good Essays. Emphasis is placed on participatory approaches and about family working directly with community members. Systematic approaches to collection, analysis, and secret to writing good utilization of qualitative data are addressed while maintaining a lens for health equity.
Students will learn to identify the kinds of health research issues and questions most appropriate for qualitative methods and recognize practical applications for using qualitative and participatory data for assessment and organized evaluation of public health programs and policies. MPH 560 – Public Health Informatics (3) This course provides students with a broad understanding of health informatics and exchange of health information to improve community health. Methods of health information collection, storage and utilization, ranging from secret organizational level to personal health records will be examined. Emphasis is on write definition essay the context of rapidly changing regulations and expectations for improved management of public health and health care through partnership between public agencies, providers and patients. Topics include, but are not limited to, electronic health records (EHRs) and secret to writing good related management systems, current and future uses of aggregated health information for essays about midnight public use such as disease surveillance, and legal and ethical issues associated with use of EHRs for public health.
Choose at least two with MPH prefix. One concentration elective may be selected from to writing good essays available graduate courses offered across UIndy upon approval of your faculty advisor: MPH 580 – Global Issues in Sexual Health, Reproductive Health, HIV/AIDS (3) The purpose of this course is to examine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues including HIV/AIDS at an essay and your family, the population level in developed and secret to writing essays developing countries. Current and scaffolding assignments prevalent health issues, programs, services, and essays policies will be examined through a lens that incorporates social, cultural, economic, political, environmental, and behavioral determinants. Health issues and related interventions, programs, measurement and monitoring, and policies will be covered. Essay. Emphasis will be placed on skill development of program components or policy advocacy materials related to students’ primary interest area in SRH. MPH 585 – Global Perspectives on Nutrition and Food Security (3)
This course focuses on current nutritional challenges affecting health in good essays underserved populations globally including developed and developing countries. Students will gain an about understanding of the epidemiology of malnutrition ranging from good obesity and over-nutrition to hunger and other forms of under-nutrition including food insecurity. The impact of various nutrient inadequacies at different stages of the life cycle and their functional outcomes in terms of morbidity, psychological well-being, reproduction and growth will be highlighted. Essays About Midnight Soccer. The role of world food production, food availability, and supply in relation to nutrition and secret to writing good health will be discussed in the context of socioeconomic development and current political/economic contexts. Term. Emphasis will be placed on the role of secret to writing, public health practitioners in youporn designing and delivering comprehensive nutrition programs and essays policies in a variety of settings. MPH 590 – Health Disparities Inequities in the United States (3) This course is designed for students who intend to practice public health in the United States. Health disparities are approached utilizing the definition as differences in the overall rates of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality or survival rates that are avoidable and unjust. A comprehensive view is write an essay yourself taken with examination of differential health outcomes in the multiple areas where health disparities exist in the United States context: across race/ethnic groups, geographic residence, gender, age, disability, and sexual orientation status. A health equity perspective is utilized to understand multifactorial, root determinants of health disparities such as cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, racism/discrimination, and political factors. Emphasis is placed on practical skills and strategies for public health practitioners to infuse across multiple programs and policies to reduce health disparities in the U.S.
MPH 595 – Population Health Approaches to Non-communicable Disease Prevention Management (3) The purpose of this course is to provide students with the content and secret good essays skills to address the rapid global transition of write a well, non-communicable diseases (NCD) as an international health pandemic. Non-communicable diseases and illnesses, which include diabetes, mental illness, heart disease and stroke, cancers and chronic respiratory conditions account for 60 per cent of all deaths worldwide. These major NCDs will be analyzed from a public health perspective and students will develop evidence based programs or policies for addressing a specific NCD in a specific setting of public health practice of their choice. Secret Good. Current research and write a well organized essay models of prevention and management will also be critically analyzed. Health Pavilion, Second Floor. Indianapolis, Indiana 46227.
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