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A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for 2017] This article is part of dissertation, our “Business Planning Guide” —a curated list of our articles that will help you with the planning process! Start from the very beginning understanding that your business plan ought to be specific to your business needs and objectives. Every business ought to have a plan, but not every business needs a full formal plan with carefully crafted summaries and antique watermarks paper descriptions. If you don’t have a specific immediate need to dissertation histoire sujet show a formal business plan to all night essay a banker or investor, then you are probably better off doing just a lean business plan , for your internal use only. Dissertation Histoire? To make the best impression on banks and investors, your business plan should be presented in the standard business plan format. Your business plan should present what a banker or venture capitalist expects to see, in essays, the order they expect to see it in. Following a standard business plan outline will keep you on track, and save you from botching your best chance at dissertation sujet getting your business funded. Want to just skip ahead and download our free business plan template? Just click here.
I don’t recommend writing the essay on your career, plan in the same order you present it as a finished document. For example, although the executive summary comes as the first section of a business plan, I recommend writing it after everything else is done, so you know exactly what appears in the rest of your business plan. Likewise, although the dissertation sujet, management summary is usually presented toward the end of a finished business plan, it might be an easy place to start writing. Stein? And some people prefer to start with a mission statement, or strategy summary. Others like to sujet focus on the numbers first, so they start with a sales forecast or spending budget. Stein? Start where you like, and dissertation histoire get going. A healthy business planning process will always involve circling back often to check results and revise as necessary.
If you have the main components, the order doesn’t matter that much, but what’s presented here is the sequence I suggest for essay on your career, a standard business plan. In this article, I will cover the sujet, following: You can click each of the above links to jump directly to that section. See an example of a completed business plan here, and edith stein learn even more about writing a business plan here. Write this last. It’s just a page or two that highlights the points you’ve made elsewhere in dissertation sujet, your business plan. It’s also the doorway to your plan—after looking over your executive summary, your target reader is either going to throw your business plan away or keep reading, so you’d better get it just right. Summarize the problem you are solving for customers, your solution, the target market, the founding team, and financial forecast highlights.
Keep things as brief as possible and entice your audience to learn more about your company. Antique Paper? Describe the problem that you solve for your customers and the solution that you are selling. It is histoire sujet always a good idea to think in terms of customer needs and customer benefits as you define your product offerings, rather than thinking of your side of the equation (how much the essays, product or service costs, and how you deliver it to the customer). Sometimes this part of the plan will include tables that provide more details, such as a bill of materials or detailed price lists, but more often than not this section just describes what you are selling and how your products and services fill a need for your customers. You need to know your target market—the types of customers you are looking for—and how it’s changing. Use this section to discuss your customers’ needs, where your customers are, how to reach them and how to deliver your product to dissertation sujet them. You’ll also need to know who your competitors are and how you stack up against them—why are you sure there’s room for you in this market? Use this section to india outline your marketing plan, your sales plan, and the other logistics involved in actually running your business.
You’ll want to cover the technology you plan on using, your business location and other facilities, special equipment you might need, and dissertation histoire your roadmap for antique, getting your business up and running. Finally, you’ll want to outline the key metrics you’ll be tracking to make sure your business is headed in the right direction. This section is an overview of dissertation histoire sujet, who you are. It should describe the organization of your business, and the key members of the writing services india, management team, but it should also ground the reader with the nuts and bolts: when your company was founded, who is/are the owner(s), what state your company is registered in and where you do business, and when/if your company was incorporated. Be sure to include summaries of your managers’ backgrounds and experience—these should act like brief resumes—and describe their functions with the company. Dissertation Histoire? Full-length resumes should be appended to the plan. At the very least this section should include your projected profit and loss and cash flow tables, and essay a brief description of the assumptions you’re making with your projections. Finally, if you are raising money or taking out loans, you should highlight the money you need to launch the dissertation histoire sujet, business.
Listen to Tim Berry discuss lean business planning: 2.3 Validation of Problem and Solution. 3.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. 3.5.1 Competitors and Alternatives. Essays Stein? 4.3 Location and Facilities. 5.0 Company and Management Summary.
5.1 Organizational Structure. 5.5 Company History and Ownership. 6.3 Projected Profit and Loss. 6.5 Projected Balance Sheet. Cash flow is the dissertation histoire sujet, single most important numerical analysis in a business plan, and a standard cash flow table should never be missing.
Most standard business plans also include a sales forecast and profit and loss statements. I believe they should also have a separate projected balance sheet, projected business ratios, and market analysis tables, as well as personnel listings. I also believe that every business plan should include bar charts and pie charts to illustrate the numbers. Size your business plan to fit your business. Remember that your business plan should be only as big as what you need to run your business. While every business owner should have an ongoing planning process to help them run their business, not every business owner needs a complete, formal business plan suitable for submitting to a potential investor, or bank, or venture capital contest. So don’t include outline points just because they are on a big list somewhere, or on this list, unless you’re developing a standard business plan that you’ll be showing to someone who expects to see a standard business plan. Consider lean business planning— writing a business plan doesn’t have to edith be a long, painful process.
Instead, you can use the dissertation, Lean Planning method to get started easier and finish faster. Lean Planning will help you start your business in all night essay, a way that improves your chances of success. This methodology is baked into LivePlan . Don’t make common mistakes. I’ve seen thousands of business plans, good and histoire sujet bad, and I can tell you that avoiding these common business planning errors will put you far ahead of the on your career, curve. Sample business plans: Over 500 free sample business plans from various industries. Business plan template: This fill-in-the-blank business plan template is in the format preferred by banks and the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). How to dissertation histoire sujet start a business: An easy-to-follow six-step process for starting a new business.
LivePlan: Easy cloud-based business planning software for everyone. This online software includes expert advice, built-in help and more than 500 complete sample business plans. Assignment Services India? Business plan consulting: We’re here to histoire sujet give you the tools to write your business plan on your own. But, sometimes it’s nice to have a professional guide you through the process. Let an expert MBA create a business plan for your business in five business days. It have really helped me a lot, I `m currently busi with starting my own company that will take the world by storm and and internet essay I really need someone who is histoire not scared to invest on me since I don`t have cash. what is the first thing you would do to start a business. what are the highlights of making a business plan? im thinking about antique starting A business. The Small Business Administration has a great tool for people who are preparing to open their own businesses. The Small Business Planner can be found at: http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/index.html. It has a great step by step guide on how to prepare for histoire, and open a business as well as additional tips on writing your business plan. Thanks for this information.
The information and the sample plans really continue to boost my energy and career excitment over starting my new business venture. Histoire? That#8217;s great. We love to hear about someone excited about Entrepreneurship! Good luck to you and your new business! I#8217;m going to join HSBC young entrepreneur Award and they require a outline limited to 1000 words. If I use your outline model, it will be so long, won#8217;t it ? The outline is completely customizable in business plan pro. You can add topics, delete topics, rename topics and antique watermarks paper move topics.
You might also find some of our resources on dissertation sujet, writing a business plan for a competition to be helpful. Specifically: Read Tim Berry’s white paper about business plan competitions. Thank you for your question. Palo Alto Software. Thank God I found what I was looking for. how to watermarks do business plan for spectacles and eyeware company? This is a question we get quite a lot Ashwini. #8220;How do you write a plan for __specific type of business___#8221; We have created the bplans.com website as a resource for people to dissertation get the information they need to write their business plans or help in the course of their business. We don#8217;t write business plans here.
We aren#8217;t a consulting company. We write business planning software that walks you through writing your business plan step by step and essay helps you with the process of planning your business. Histoire Sujet? On the bplans website you can find resources that will help you in creating a business plan for an eyeware company, but most likely, you won#8217;t find a sample plan for antique, that exactly. You#8217;ll find the tools to write that plan yourself. I hope this was helpful, and good luck in your venture! Very good guide i#8217;m doing a business plan course and I found it very helpful I am useing it and its helping a lot very greatful for your site. Regards and best wishes for sujet, the future from Malta. THE BUSINESS PLAN SAMPLES GAVE ME A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES NEEDED IN ORDER TO PREPARE MY BUSINESS PLAN FOR A HALFWAY HOUSE DRUG REHABILITATION PROGRAM THAT I PLAN TO START. THANKS!
Thanks for antique paper, briefing on business plans.Learned something from you.Surely i will visit again for more information. If you do a search on the bplans.com website for SWOT you#8217;ll find several articles on the subject. Hope that helps! You can search on the bplans.com website for some examples of dissertation, complete business plans. Hope that helps! Thank you for average prothesis, your assistance it has really made my work easier.I wish there were avenues for people to send in their questions on the subjectfor help as to how to prepare a business plan of a specific nature. Dissertation? There are several resources, some even here on assignment writing, this website. You can locate the Expert Advice tab at the top of the page or by histoire sujet doing another Google search for forum#8217;s designed to assist people looking for average wage prothesis, specific help. There are also consultants you could look into, like Masterplans. Thanks a great deal for dissertation histoire, your guidelines on choice, writing business plans.
This site is 100 times better and histoire sujet educative compared to other publications. I would be grateful if you could send me a copy or draft of any real life small/medium size business plan for writing, any income generating business in the retail industry. Very helpful thanks#8230; I#8217;m in preparation of a Business Plan for a small scale enterprise for a financial company catering financial products and services. Any creative and sujet innovative ideas are encouraged for my creation of Business Plan. I just started an LLC and my biggest hang-up in prothesis, writing my business plan is dissertation sujet my financial forecast. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated! I am looking into it along with a partner to start a company that imports stand-up comedians to a certain area. This company will be based on only two persons putting money into the company and be working on a very low budget. I have been looking over the sample plans but none of them seem to fit to what I am looking at.
Is there anybody out there who could point me in the right direction on how to make my business plan for essay career choice, such a small agency? It would be great if you knew of a good template that I could go by. Any help would be great. Thanks and good luck to you all out histoire, there. All Night Essay? There are many free sample business plans available here at bplans.com, browse through the dissertation histoire sujet, list and you should find something that suits you. This is writing services india more of sujet, a question than a comment. Essay On Your Career? The business plan outline is very helpful, but #8230; it#8217;s usually conceived for those who want to start a new business.
My question is for advice on what to do with a business plan for revitalizing a dormant business in the tourist industry in Indonesia. Dissertation Histoire? Here are the particulars: an Indonesian firm owns two big river boats that used to take tourists (mostly from edith, Europe and Japan) on river explorations. Dissertation Sujet? That has stopped because of financial mismanagement. I now have the writing services india, opportunity to dissertation sujet revive this business, but it needs investment for rehabilitating the essay career, boats, reviving the dissertation sujet, market, adjusting what is and can be offered to wage prothesis tourists, etc. I have no own capital, but the expertise to run something like this. It needs investment which can be in dissertation, the form of children and internet essay, direct investment or a loan from a bank. WHAT WOULD BE THE MAIN POINTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN that I couold show to histoire private investors or banks? I can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Calculating the value of children, your business is histoire sujet vital if you are trying to find investors, apply for a loan, or sell your business to all night essay a potential buyer.
The Premier Edition of Business Plan Pro includes detailed valuation tools that can help you determine a solid business valuation and create a professional investment offering. Showcase the true value of your business with more advanced spreadsheets that describe the sources and uses of cash for any new or existing business. Business Plan Pro Premier Edition is recommended for an existing company. The premier edition has advanced financials and histoire can can forecast out up to ten years and in essays edith stein, detail for up to two years. Make sure you maximize the full value of your business by using this option, which is only available in the Premier Edition. Hope that helps! Palo Alto Software. business plan is a guiding principal to the entrepreneur because it explains the journey of the organisation from the dissertation, day of start and how it will carry on with its activities. with the prothesis, recent competition organisational running needs to be systematic and this can be done with help of the business plan. in order for the organisation to succeed,its like some body traveling and he needs vehcle for traveling and so applies to dissertation sujet entrepreneur he needs the vehicle which is the business plan. Hi, excellent article about business plans, I#8217;m currently starting a new business and writing the business plan is essays edith one of the starting points for dissertation sujet, me to secure investment.
Also the fact that you say that you don#8217;t necessarily need to follow the structure reassures me, as I won#8217;t be needing to but felt a little unsure about doing so. Career? I am a painter and dissertation histoire sujet have been in the painting business for about twenty years. I was instrumental in assignment india, the starting up of the first paint company I worked for. The steps were very basic and we made a lot money#8230;. The tools of the traid were purchased and we advertised our serviceses by canvesing neighborhoods and dissertation leaving our business cards. Now I would like to start this buissness for myself and I neeed to know how to write an effective business plan and/or a proposal to acquire more funds to start up. I have purchased some of my equipment and a van, however, I still have some very cost oriented obsticals to watermarks overcome and I need some help. Anyone who has been in dissertation histoire sujet, this business knows that the painting business is antique paper very lucrative and can be rewarding on many levles. I am not only good at what I do, I also like it.
Is there really help out there for the minority start-up businessman? Im starting my own buisness, but right now I dont have. the dissertation sujet, capital to fund my project. Writing Services? it will be a beauty supply based buisness and dissertation histoire sujet the. All Night Essay? area I found to run it will be perfect for dissertation sujet, this project. it has other buisnesses being built in this area, and wage prothesis the customer potential is great. Here is a great resource for getting the capital you need to start your business. Another great resource can be your bank. Ask them about a small business loan. How to Get the Financing for Your New Small Business: Innovative Solutions From the Experts Who Do It Everyday. Author: Fullen, S. Hello John S. Histoire Sujet? Brown, Sr., Busines Plan Pro does a great job of helping you write a business plan for start-up funding. Average? Palo Alto Software.
Dear Sharon Fisher, We have resources built into Business Plan Pro to help you get funding. For example, some businesses choose to dissertation histoire sujet start by bringing in investors for start-up funding, while others go to services india a bank for a business loan. Business Plan Pro has resources built in for both approaches (the SBA loan application for histoire sujet, bank loans, the Venture capital Database for investment sources). Palo Alto Software. Essays Edith? i am want to establish to dissertation sujet our own buisness in kashmir . plese suggest what plan suit for me .when i have not such fiancial position to develop a big buisness . I want to all night essay set up a business of dissertation histoire sujet, providing my clients with a door to door service of automobile Oil / Lub change while they are relaxed at home or office. Can some one help me with a Business / Marketing Plan. I need a professional Plan to convince my bankers for finance and also possible investors interest in the project. SOS email@example.com. Honestly, you may not find a sample plan that will exactly match your business model. You may find several that are close or related. What is important is that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans.
You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and services market research information. What is important is that Business Plan Pro will work to dissertation sujet develop your own plan, for your specific business. Writing? The Windows software package Business Plan Pro is an excellent tool for developing a business plan. I hope this was helpful! Palo Alto Software. I wish you could create a downloadable page in histoire sujet, application form style. It is always worthwhile to take time assessing your business plan before you commence a new project or company: mistakes which could prove costly in practice can be eliminated painlessly on paper!
Remember that a Business Plan and your Marketing Strategies Plan are quite different, and don#8217;t forget your cashflow forecasts, profit and essay career loss projections, start-up capital, ongoing capital, buy-out plans and expansion plans, bank financing and sales training! Setting up business on paper is quite a venture! Wow#8230;This has helped me out so much on my business plan. Your guide-line helps#8230; Hi, I#8217;m writing a business plan for Business class, and it is a prety rough task. Easy for me because my plan is based on dissertation sujet, averages and edith similarities between businesses. In my textbook though, it is mentioning things that are needed in dissertation histoire, a business plan, but I am finding it really difficult to average wage see what is the most important information to take from the paragraphs. Another thing is, I am pretty confused on how to start writing a business plan, and sujet how it should look. I can#8217;t find any samples of business plans! I can only find outlines. Career Choice? I really like this outline the most because it goes into detail, but I#8217;m thinking that each different headline would have to be a different paragraph or page.. or is it points?
I#8217;m lost, please get back to me, thanks! it seems to be helping me. Business Plan Pro includes 500+ sample plans. Dissertation Histoire Sujet? Realistically you may not find a sample plan that exactly matches your business model. You may find several in your industry that are close or related. It is important to paper understand that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans. You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and market research information. Business Plan Pro will guide you through the process with a flexible outline of about four dozen topics organized into chapters, topics, and dissertation histoire sujet subtopics, with links to the proper tables and charts. Each topic has a split screen option that explains what should be covered, and where to find the information. Essay? With the click of a single button, you may view an example of sujet, what that topic will look like in the finished business plan. I hope this information was helpful.
Palo Alto Software. Quite helpful am going to essays edith have a try for dissertation sujet, my very important business plan, lets see how it goes and prothesis will report back immediately. Dissertation Histoire? I need a business plan for a ongoing patchwork shop can anyone help me thanks in advance. Just a small question, I#8217;m 20 and want to buy a business for 200k what chance do i have with the bank? i would like to start a corier business where do i start or get same help to.make business plan. Children And Internet Essay? i found this bussines plan is helpfull for me to pepare my bussines plan. Histoire Sujet? I think u should offer a sample on how to write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. I think u should offer a wide selection on how to write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. Are there plans that can be used by the debt buying / collection industry?? I am on the works of starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about our culture and stuff.
I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and where to run my business.My main goal is to children teach children about races and histoire we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into my heart and made me reach out to so many different races.And to me, all races are vone. I am on the works of and internet essay, starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about our culture and stuff. Dissertation Sujet? I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of edith, how and sujet where to essay career run my business.My main goal is to teach children about races and we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into my heart and made me reach out to so many different races.And to me, all races are one.
Fantastic, CJ! Good luck!! Palo Alto Software. My daughter has started her business successfully. Dissertation? Anyone of you who could use a great website, professionally developed should take a look at the link provided (www.imarkcomm.com) and discuss your needs with her. Her designer is awesome, her translator is great and her client#8217;s websites successfully generate the average prothesis, traffic necessary to succeed. My wife had 4+ experience in medical billing. Dissertation Sujet? she as team leader in all night essay, one of the leading medical billing in chennai. currently she left job. she want to doing business in sujet, medical billing. I am also support her. please give suggesion to stein me for start a medical billing business with less investment. Hello Tim, I#8217;m looking for a business plan for my vision which is helping women, women from jail, battered and hurt, how would I write a business plan for this. Im impressed the summary will assist me especially because i am sourcing funding from my local bank in Nairobi Kenya. I do not have any examples but I have viewed a few different business plans that are in different industriess and vary in size.
A Business plan does not have to be a huge task although the bigger the business, the histoire, more in depth the business plan should be. I have heard of people that have written their bp#8217;s on cocktail napkins. If you are just starting out and want to work from home to begin with write down your plan. Essays Stein? You aren#8217;t going to dissertation histoire just sit on your couch and have work fall in your lap, are you? How are you going to wage prothesis get the work? Do you already have customers lined up?
How much money are you going to have to invest? Do you need to dissertation histoire buy equipment? Are you going to have to hire help? These are some of the basic questions that you can write down and the answers are your business plan. Maybe you could start by essays edith stein writing the answers to the questions above and histoire then sit down and ask yourself some more questions and on your career then answer them. After you have compiled a list of dissertation histoire, questions and answers organize them by antique watermarks paper using the Outline. The bottom line you can#8217;t use someone elses business plan. It has to be for you and dissertation sujet your business alone. Someone else may have answered all of watermarks paper, those questions differntly.
Be unique. If you find you just can#8217;t figure it out, hire someone to do it for you and if you do figure it out maybe you could open a business that writes business plans for other people. Oooh that sounds like a good idea I gotta go! I have something I want to histoire sujet write:) Geek in essays edith stein, the Woods. sir, iam vishnu doing btech in college of engg perumon,kerala,india.i have ablog named as above.iam very much interesting in business field.so u pls give me some business articles and histoire i will post that in edith, my blog,in that way i can understand others abt wat business they will look like. all in all i have no plan for this, in fact i searchin also for plan. I have been writing business plans for sujet, a while now, for children, myself and others. Wondered if any one knows about dissertation sujet Greek business plans, as I have to convert mine to the market I live in, which is Greek spaeking. If any one Knows please email firstname.lastname@example.org. where does the all night essay, SWOT anyalsis fit in? Under Market Anaysis or Strategy? i need to start up a training fascilitie for training technical personell for two companies and a comprehensive repair and service workshop. Sujet? no capital but willing and good technicians to venture in with me. please help i have the training college but have to watermarks paper sumbit businees pplans to take over the fascilitie. please help me. with a good business plan.
We have established an dissertation histoire sujet, IT company in watermarks paper, India. Our focussed technology is histoire sujet Oracle Apps ERP. We have a good development centre in India and also offices in USA. Can anybody help me in preparing a Road Map for our business for the next 3 years? Thanks. One thing I notice is that a lot of these people asking for help with business plans have trouble with their grammar and communication skills. These are VERY important for a business plan. On Your Career? A business owner should be able to clearly communicate what their business does, why they are a good investment opportunity, and how goals will be reached. I#8217;m not trying to destroy anyone#8217;s dreams, just inject a dose of dissertation histoire, reality.
Ive read an article on entrepreneur#8217;s website about Creating a Sales Forecast by essay on your choice mr Berry. It also mentions that you can find an histoire, existing product similar to your product and antique paper looking at histoire their sales and base your sales on that. But, how and where would I find info on how much sales units a similar product in the industry has? Is their a website I could go to in order to find this info? Thanks for services, the info, as a rapidly growing company any help with procuring investment and customers is histoire always welcome, your newsletters have helped me in more ways than one and nudged me in the right direction, and i am indebted, as you have certainly helped my business grow. when experiance get in one folder in antique, an organized way it gives knowleges for histoire sujet, other who do not have experiance for the situation. Assignment Writing Services India? what i have got here is this. Sujet? i have no experiance in business planning before, but know i`m with enormous knowledge about planning because of children essay, bplanning. This Site Really help my Business Reports. I want to start up my own business and need to write a business plan for histoire, a medical diagnostic company but i don#8217;t have a clue as to how to go about edith stein this. pls can you help?
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If you have any experience in this industry. Thanks.. firstname.lastname@example.org. thanks#8230;the info was really beneficial for average, me#8230; HI.I AM VERY INTERSTED ABOUT ISSUE OF SETTING UP BUSINESS PAN.DONT LET PEOPLE KNOWN WHAT YOU WANT TO ACHIEVED BUT LET PEOPLE SEE WHAT YOU HAVE ACHIEVED BECUSE THESE PEOPLE MAY BE DIFFICUTIES ON YOUR WAY. I need a business plan for a simple laundry shop can anyone help me thanks in advance.guide me.. mail to me email@example.com. I really want to histoire sujet run a restaurant for all night essay, my own. However i am afraid to run it in a bad situation of Global Crisis.
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I have an assignment to outline a review of revenue, but I am totally lost and confused. I have no idea of how to essays edith do this. I need the information to broken down to dissertation histoire me in kindergarten terms. Please, I am begging please help me. The Biz Plan Truly enriching does act as a guide path for the Start ups.
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literature surveys Monoterpenes are important constituents of many essential oils and are used extensively as flavouring agents in the food industry. Citral and linalool, both acyclic monoterpenes have been shown to dissertation, cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver of rats (Jackson et al. ,1987; Roffey et al. Antique Watermarks? , 1990). Peroxisome proliferators like clofibrate and many other hypolipidaemic agents when given to rodents result in an increase in the transcription of genes for proteins involved in peroxisome ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and in dissertation histoire the morphologically detectable proliferation of peroxisomes Reddy et al. , 1983; Hawkins et al. , 1987). This phenomenon was also observed in rodents fed a diet rich in antique paper long-chain fatty acids but with a smaller response (Neat et al. Dissertation Histoire Sujet? , 1980). These agents have been shown simultaneously to enhance transcription of the gene for cytochrome P450IVA1 and children and internet essay, increase the cellular content and activity of sujet this enzyme (Gibson et al. Writing? , 1982; Gibson, 1989). Based on these findings and studies conducted on a diverse number of hypolipidaemic agents, a correlation was proposed between the ability of various agents to induce cytochrome P450IVA1 and cause peroxisome proliferation (Sharma et al. , 1988; Lake et al. , 1984). A number of mechanisms were proposed to explain this correlation. Sharma et al. (1988) proposed that the dissertation histoire sujet induction of cytochrome P450IVA1 by hypolipidaemic agents increases fatty acid w-hydroxylation and the formation of fatty dicarboxylic acids which cannot readily be metabolised by the mitochondria, therefore, the peroxisome is presented with a substrate overload which adapts by proliferation in order to chain shorten these dicarboxylic acids for subsequent mitochondrial metabolism. Reddy et al. have proposed that peroxisome proliferators exert their effects by a ligand-receptor mediated mechanism (Reddy and Lalwani, 1983; Rao and Reddy , 1987; Reddy and Rao, 1986; Lalwani et al. , 1987) which causes both the average wage prothesis induction of peroxisome ?-oxidation and transcription of the gene coding for the enzyme. Histoire Sujet? Peroxisome proliferators are structurally diverse, therefore, a receptor theory could only be possible if: the receptor binds to a ligand conformation which is structurally common to all night essay, different peroxisome proliferators, the receptor has different binding sites for different classes of peroxisome proliferators, there are different receptors for the classes of peroxisome proliferators but all leading to the same effect.
Recently, a mouse receptor (mPPAR, for mouse peroxisome proliferation activated receptor) has been isolated that is activated by dissertation peroxisome proliferators (Issemann and Green, 1990; Dreyer et al. , 1992). Lock et al. (1989), link inhibition of the mitochondria into the correlation. Administration of children and internet essay DEHP results in sujet a transient accumulation of small droplets of neutral lipid in the liver (Mann et al. , 1985; Mitchell et al. , 1985) which disappear when the assignment india peroxisomes are induced. The long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LCDCA) are also able to stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA in isolated rat hepatocytes in culture (Lock et al. , 1989). In some cases, a correlation does not exist (Roffey et al. , 1990). Roffey et al. found that whilst citral induced peroxisome proliferation and cytochrome P450IVA1, linalool caused induction of peroxisome enzymes but not cytochrome P450IVA1.
Lazarow et al. (1982), observed that while bezafibrate does induce peroxisome ?-oxidation enzymes it does not elicit peroxisome proliferation in histoire sujet rat. Virtually all agents that induce proliferation of peroxisomes also induce hepatomegaly (Grasso and all night essay, Hinton, 1991). Studies with fenofibrate (Price et al. , 1986), trichloroethylene (Elcombe et al. , 1985) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (Mitchell et al. , 1985) have shown that peroxisome proliferators and liver growth correlate and are dose-dependent. Dissertation? The liver enlargement and watermarks, increased enzyme activity regress on cessation of treatment (Elcombe et al. , 1985). There is increasing evidence that prolonged treatment with peroxisome proliferating agents results in damage to hepatocytes and to an increase in cell turnover. Cells in mitosis are particularly susceptible to dissertation histoire sujet, damage. It is thought that persistent tissue damage and cell regeneration may lead to tumour formation. Peroxisome proliferators, in addition also stimulate cytosolic hydrolase (Meijer and assignment india, DePierre, 1987) in mice which may form diols from fatty acid epoxides due to the action of sujet H 2 O 2 . They inhibit glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity (Ciriolo. However, the assignment writing india peroxisomes of other animal organs and plant tissues lack this core, and so they are difficult to distinguish from the many other membrane-bound vesicles seen in electron micrographs unless histochemical staining (for example catalase) is used. One feature of peroxisomes is that they are inducible and, therefore, an administration of the hypolipidaemic drug clofibrate to rats leads to a tenfold increase in histoire sujet number of peroxisomes per liver cell. On Your? In certain yeasts grown on methanol, the dissertation histoire sujet peroxisomes can occupy almost the whole volume of the watermarks paper cytoplasm.
Peroxisomes are involved in dissertation lipid degradation and biosynthesis. A ?-oxidation pathway similar in function to that of mitochondria is present in peroxisomes. However, the peroxisomal pathway differs from that of mitochondria in several important respects: mitochondrial acyl-CoA oxidation is dependent upon the presence of carnitine, since the wage formation of acyl carnitine catalysed by carnitine acyl transferase is an absolute requirement for histoire sujet the transport of the fatty acid moiety through the inner mitochondrial membrane. A carnitine dependent transport system for acyl-CoAs does not exist in peroxisomes, it can catalyse the degradation of very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20 or greater), it does not act on short fatty acids (C 6 or less), the first enzyme in the pathway is an FAD-linked acyl CoA oxidase, rather than the FAD-linked dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial pathway, the first reaction is coupled to the formation of essays H 2 O 2 , the other enzymes are distinct gene products specific to the peroxisome. In the peroxisome ?-oxidation pathway, a fatty acid (usually C 8 - C 22 or more) is activated to an acyl-CoA derivative by dissertation sujet an ATP-dependent acyl-CoA synthetase located in the peroxisome membrane. All subsequent reactions take place in the peroxisome matrix. The fatty acyl-CoA is reduced with the watermarks paper utilization of oxygen to trans-2-enoyl-CoA, yielding hydrogen peroxide; this reaction is catalysed by acyl-CoA oxidase, the dissertation histoire rate limiting enzyme of peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Essays Edith Stein? The next two reactions are catalysed by histoire sujet a bifunctional protein possessing the activities of enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The final reaction of ?-oxidation is carried out by 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase which cleaves 3-ketoacyl-CoA into acetyl-CoA and essays stein, a saturated acyl-CoA with two carbons less than the original molecule. The newly formed acyl-CoA then re-enters the ?-oxidation pathway. Each removal of dissertation two carbons results in the generation of one molecule of hydrogen peroxide.
The components of the peroxisomal ?-oxidation system differ significantly from enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation with respect to their molecular and catalytic properties. For example, peroxisomal ?-oxidation does not require carnitine and is not inhibited by children and internet potassium cyanide. Isolated rat hepatic peroxisomes contain two carnitine acyltransferases in the organelle matrix (Markwell et al ., 1973, 1976, 1977; Moody and Reddy, 1974), carnitine acyltransferase and a transferase for medium-length chains such as octanyl carnitine. Their substrate specificity suggests that the C 2 and C 8 acyl-CoA products of hepatic peroxisomal ?-oxidation are converted to the corresponding carnitine derivatives and then passively diffuse out of the histoire peroxisomes into the cytoplasm. Thus peroxisomal ?-oxidation may provide acetyl units for other cellular synthesis, or the acyl carnitine products may be further oxidised in the mitochondria.
The question to be addressed is, why is there the need for all night essay the carnitine acyltransferase, if the fatty-acyl-CoA can passively diffuse into dissertation, and out of the all night essay membrane? Mention has not been made of acylcarnitine translocase which functions as the carrier for acylcarnitine. If it is obligatory that the fatty acyl-CoA be converted to acylcarnitine products, then a carrier behaving like a translocase should exist at the membrane. Inhibiting either the acylcarnitine transferase or the translocase should inhibit fatty acid uptake by mitochondria, overload the peroxisome with substrates for its ?-oxidation pathway, inhibit either the acylcarnitine transferase at the peroxisome or the translocase which then cannot transport products out, therefore, there will be swelling of the dissertation histoire sujet peroxisome since the essay fatty acyl-CoA can easily diffuse into the matrix, and as a homeostatic mechanism result in peroxisome proliferation in order to compensate for dissertation sujet the overload, leading to a futile cycle, since the products cannot be transported out, unless a mechanism comes into play to make the membrane more permeable, leading to diffusion of not only the products (fatty acids) but also H 2 O 2 . The cytochrome P450IVA1 is a member of the cytochrome P450IV isoenzyme. It is also called a fatty acid w-hydroxylase because it exhibits a high preference for hydroxylation of the terminal (w) methyl group over career, the thermodynamically favoured internal (w-n) methylene groups. The relative strengths of a methyl (-98Kcal/mol) and a methylene (-95Kcal/mol) C-H bond makes it thermodynamically more difficult to insert an oxygen into the C-H bond of a terminal methyl group than the adjacent methylene group (Kerr , 1966). The oxidation of fatty acids by cytochrome P450 enzymes not specifically designed to sujet, carry out w-hydroxylations yields primarily w-1 and w-2 hydroxylated products (Tanaka et al. , 1990). The fatty acid w-hydroxylase represents approximately 1-2% of the cytochrome P450 in uninduced rat liver microsomes and 16-30% after induction with clofibrate (CaJacob et al. , 1988). The preference for w-hydroxylation may be due to a limited substrate access to the ferryl oxygen at the active site. Some differences have been found between the all night essay members of the P450IV family in relation to histoire sujet, substrate specificity and their tissue expression.
The liver P450IVA1 is active in the w-hydroxylation of lauric acid but does not metabolise prostaglandins, whereas the lung P450IVA1 catalyses the w-hydroxylation of several prostaglandins but not lauric acid (Tamburini et al. Assignment Writing Services India? , 1984; Matsubara et al. , 1987). Dissertation? The liver P450IVA1 exhibits a narrow substrate specificity by metabolizing both lauric acid and arachidonic acid relatively well (Bains et al. , 1985) but not the prostaglandins (Matsubara et al. Writing India? , 1987). Using the histoire sujet method of essays edith rationlization by molecular modelling of the substrates by Bains et al. it could be possible to see if the dissertation sujet cyclic monoterpenes could be a substrate for P450IVA1, which I doubt. Some of the acyclic monoterpenes like citral are substrates because of their linear conformation which could be arranged in either trans (neral) or cis (citral) conformations. Edith Stein? They can easily be superimposed unto the structure of lauric acid and arachidonic acid. The cyclic monoterpenes might possibly be substrates for the P450IVA4 since this enzyme prefers the prostaglandins which have a central cyclopentane ring. If metabolism or some favourable reaction conditions does open the dissertation histoire sujet ring of the cyclic monoterpenes, then it could be possible for them to become substrates for the P450IVA1 (wishful thinking).
Twenty eight cyclic terpenes were studied using COMPACT computer graphic studies and none was found to be likely substrates for assignment either P4501 or P450IIE (Lewis et al. Dissertation Histoire? , 1992). The cyclic monoterpenes are members of a class of compounds called the terpenoids which are biosynthesised by the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Theoretically the terpenoids are derived from the five-carbon isoprene unit (the running horse). The isoprene rule, states that all terpenoids are multiples of the isoprene unit (i.e. C 10 , C 15 , C 20 , etc.), although this is not strictly obeyed by natural products. Acetyl-CoA is the source of all the carbon atoms in Terpenes. ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl-CoA is converted to mevalonate in all night essay a 2-stage reduction by NADPH catalysed by ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Histoire Sujet? In the children second stage, mevalonate is dissertation sujet phosphorylated by paper ATP to form several active phosphorylated intermediates. Dissertation Histoire? By means of a decarboxylation, the active isoprenoid unit, isopentenylpyrophosphate is formed. Paper? The next stage is the condensation of a molecule of isopentenylpyrophosphate and dissertation, 3,3-dimethylallylpyrophosphate to form Geranyl pyrophosphate. Earlier chemists hypothesized a direct participation of isoprene in the in-vivo synthesis of terpenes. This hypothesis was supported by the possible formation of on your career choice dipentene from two isoprene units by dissertation histoire sujet a simple Diels-Alder process and by all night essay the wide occurrence, amongst essential oils, of dissertation histoire sujet compounds with the dipentene structure.
Dipentene found this way is antique racemic. It is particularly abundant in turpentine oil. Its two optically active forms (+)limonene and (-)limonene are found respectively, in citrus fruit oil (oranges and lemons etc.) and peppermint oil. Other dipentene derivatives are widely distributed in nature. An objection to this early postulate, however, was that ISOPRENE itself did not appear to be present in nature and sujet, could only be obtained by the pyrolysis of certain monoterpenes. The monoterpenes can occur in: acylic monocyclic bicyclic forms as hydrocarbons and as oxygenated derivatives such as; alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, ketones, oxides and esters. Possible pathways for the formation of the cyclic monoterpenes in the project.
An interesting stereochemical feature of many terpenes is the fact that both enantiomers (optically active isomers) exist in nature. In some cases, a plant species produces only one of the enantiomers, whereas, a different species may produce both. As with many other natural product compounds that exist in enantiomeric forms, such as alkaloids and amino acids, the physiologic responses elicited by each isomer can differ. For example, (+)carvone has an odour of caraway, whereas, (-)carvone produces a spearmint odour. These observations lend support to the stereochemical theory of olfaction which proposes that different kinds of olfactory receptor sites are in the nose. Odorant molecules could lodge on these sites and would have shapes and sizes (varying in stereochemistry) that were complementary to the shape and stein, size of the particular receptor. A proper fit at the receptor would be required to initiate a nerve impulse that would register in the brain the perception of the odour. Spearmint or ordinary garden mint consists of the dried leaf and dissertation sujet, flowering top of Mentha spicata . It has stalkless leaves and flower-clusters in a slender spike. Spearmint oil is prepared steam distillation of Mentha spicata or of Mentha cardiaca and paper, should not contain less than 55#37; of sujet carvone.
Oil of spearmint contains from 45 to 60#37; (-)carvone, 6 to 20#37; of alcohols, and 4 to 20#37; of esters and terpenes, mainly (-)limonene and all night essay, cineole. The optically isomeric form of carvone, (+)carvone is found in oil of dissertation histoire caraway and oil of dill. Carvone when present in all night essay a plant appears to co-occur with limonene. Peppermint consists of the dried leaf and flowering top of Mentha piperita . It has almost hairless leaves and histoire sujet, oblong heads of flower-clusters. Peppermint oil is the essay volatile oil distilled with steam from the fresh overground parts of the flowering plant of Mentha piperita, rectified by distillation. Contains not less than 44#37; menthol. American peppermint oil contains from 50 to 78#37; of free (-)menthol and from 5 to 20#37; combined in dissertation various esters such as the acetate. It also contains (+)menthone, (-)menthone, cineole, (+)isomenthone, (+)neomenthone, and (+)menthofuran. The biogenetic arrangement for the various species of Mentha is as follows: Peppermint oil is a common flavouring ingredient used in chewing gums (Greenhalgh, 1979), toothpaste, confectionery and pharmaceutical products. A short-term oral toxicity study on male and female rats for 28 days demonstrated that peppermint oil causes brain lesions at all night essay doses of dissertation 40 and 100mg/kg bw/day which was confined to choice, the white matter especially of the cerebellum (Thorup et al. Sujet? , 1983a).
Since peppermint oil consists of all the compounds mentioned above, further studies were carried out to identify the culprit, and also find out if the oil or any of average prothesis its components is mutagenic because of its extensive usage. Pulegone and menthol were inverstigated in dissertation sujet rats (Thorup et al ., 1983b), by gavage for 28 days. Pulegone at 80 and 160mg/kg bw/day caused histopathological changes in liver and in watermarks the white matter of the cerebellum. No signs of encephalopathy was observed in rats given menthol. The toxicity of menthol was studied on four different in vitro systems (Bernson and dissertation sujet, Pettersson, 1983) covering organ, cellular and subcellular levels. Antique Watermarks? 0.5mM menthol caused osmotic swelling and leakage of mitochondrial membrane on dissertation histoire sujet, isolated rat liver mitochondria. It was suggested that menthol causes a deterioration of biological membranes. The acute oral LD 50 value was reported as 3300mg/kg ( Opdyke, 1976). In a different study, peppermint oil, menthol, menthone and pulegone were investigated in-vitro for assignment services their mutagenic potential in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test. Peppermint oil, menthol and pulegone were tested on salmonella tester strains TA 1537, TA98, TA1535 and TA100 at concentrations of 800, 160, 32 and dissertation, 6.4µg per plate and did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties. Menthone on the other hand gave mutagenic responses with TA1537 (dose level 32 and 6.4µg per plate without S9) and with TA97 (dose levels 800, 160, 32 and and internet essay, 6.4µg per plate without S9 and dose levels 160 and 32µg per plate with S9).
Thus it was concluded that menthone is mutagenic in the Ames Test (Anderson and Jensen, 1984). An in-vivo 28 days test on male and female rats was done with menthone at dose levels of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg bw/day. Cyst-like spaces were seen histopathologically in histoire the white matter of the cerebellum of the two highest dose groups ( Madsen et al ., 1986). Average Wage? The no-effect level for pulegone was 20mg/kg bw/day; menthol 200mg/kg bw/day and menthone lower than 200mg/kg bw/day. From an earlier study by Parke and dissertation histoire, Rahman , (1969) that terpenoids caused an induction of the drug metabolising enzymes, Madyastha et al ., (1985) tested the effects of choice pulegone on cytochrome P450 and histoire sujet, found that pulegone when fed to rats at a dose of 400mg/kg once daily for 5 days destroyed cytochrome P450 and haem but the all night essay reaction was reversible since discontinuation of treatment returned the enzyme levels to control levels within 4 days. This effect was restricted to dissertation sujet, pulegone alone since there was no significant loss in cytochrome P450 when the rats were pretreated with menthone or carvone. Since the three compounds are structurally similar, it was concluded that an exocyclic double bond allylic to a ketone as seen in pulegone may be the structural feature neede for the destruction of cytochrome P450. Ketone alone as seen in average prothesis menthone or endocyclic double bond allylic to carbonyl function as in dissertation histoire the case of carvone, do not cause haem linked destruction of cytochrome P450. The reduction in the level of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 and haem was accompanied by massive hepatotoxicity with an increased serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and a decreased glucose-6-phosphatase ( Moorthy et al ., 1989).
A significant decrease in amino pyrine N-demethylase was also noticed after pulegone administration. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital potentiated the hepatotoxicity caused by pulegone, whereas, pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene protected from it. It seems, P450IIB is converting pulegone to a reactive intermediate which then is responsible for these observed effects. Menthofuran (II) a metabolite of pulegone was found to be responsible for at least half of the hepatocellular necrosis caused by pulegone ( Thomassen et al ., 1988). Another study have indicated that another metabolite, unsaturated -ketoaldehyde (III) is the ultimate chemically reactive metabolite ( McClarahan et al ., 1989). When menthofuran (II) was incubated with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH and essays, O 2 , the -ketoaldehyde (III) was formed (Madyastha and Raj, 1990). The allylic alcohol readily undergoes intramolecular cyclization followed by dehydration to menthofuran.
It was proposed that the -ketoaldehyde (III) formed from menthofuran (II) contributed to the toxicity mediated by pulegone in dissertation histoire two ways: the -ketoaldehyde can covalently bind to the macromolecules resulting in toxicity. it acts as a precursor in assignment services the formation of a putative ultimate toxic metabolite p. cresol (VIII) (Madyastha and histoire, Raj, 1991. Limonene is a hydrocarbon monoterpene. It occurs in career citrus fruits, mint, myristica, caraway, thyme, cardamon, coriander and dissertation, many other oils. d-Limonene, a major component in many essential oils of citrus fruits is rapidly absorbed from the essays gastrointestinal tract and dissertation histoire, rapidly eliminated with no significant accumulation in the rat (Igimi et al ., 1974). It is converted in man and in average some other species of animals into two glycols, one of which is d-limonene 8,9-glycol as the major metabolite, and the other d-limonene 1,2-glycol as the minor one (Watabe et al ., 1981). d-Limonene exposure to air formed limonene oxide which caused skin sensitization in rabbits but not d-limonene (Karlberg et al ., 1991). Out of many terpenes, d-limonene was found to sujet, be one of the most effective agents to solubilize cholesterol (Nishimura, 1972) and has been developed as a preparation to dissolve cholesterol gallstones by essays stein infusing into the gall bladder and / or the bile duct. The effects of d-limonene on lipids and drug metabolizing enzymes in Rat livers were studied (Ariyoshi et al ., 1975) and after a single oral dose of d-limonene (200-1200mg/kg) no effects were observed on liver triglyceride, microsomal protein, cytochrome b 5 , and the drug metabolizing enzymes.
Glycogen content was slightly decreased at doses higher than 800mg/kg, and cytochrome P450 and d-aminolaevulinic acid synthetase activity was slightly increased at 1200mg/kg. After repeated treatment (400mg/kg/day) for 30 days, the relative liver weight and hepatic phospholipid content were only slightly increased, and liver and serum cholesterol were decreased 4 and dissertation histoire, 8#37; respectively of the phospholipid fatty acids, palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were increased and stearic acid was decreased. Assignment Services? Aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase were increased 26 and 22#37; respectively, and cytochrome P450 and b 5 were likewise increased 31 and 30#37;. The d-ALA synthetase activity, the rate limiting enzyme in porphyrin biosynthesis was increased after single treatment with d-limonene at 1200mg/kg but not affected after repeated treatment for 30 days. This may partly be due to the rapid turn-over rate of d-ALA synthetase itself (Tschudy et al ., 1964; Bonkowsky et al ., 1973). d-Limonene was found to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against chemically induced mammary ( Elegbede et al ., 1984; Maltman et al ., 1989), lung and histoire, stomach (Wattenberg and Coccia, 1991) cancer in rodents.
When fed during the promotion/progression stage of mammary carcinogenesis, limonene inhibited the prothesis development of tumours induced by dissertation either 7,12 dimethylethylbenz(a) anthracene, which requires metabolic activation to its carcinogenic form or nitrosomethylurea, a directly acting carcinogen. Dietary limonene non competitively inhibits avian and rat liver HMG-CoA reductase activity and thereby reduces serum cholesterol levels and affects other aspects of mammalian isoprene metabolism as well ( Qureshi et al ., 1988). Wage? In mammals, mevalonic acid is metabolised to dissertation histoire sujet, many isoprene species i.e.haem, cholesterol, tRNA's, ubiquinones etc. Cells treated with lovastatin (a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase) cease to grow and do not completely resume growth when cholesterol, ubiquinone or dolichol is added to the medium ( Goldstein and Brown, 1990; Maltese, 1990). Isoprenylation of proteins like low molecular weight, ras like GTP-binding proteins including p2 ras is career required for cell growth and histoire sujet, division.
Limonene significantly and selectively inhibits isoprenylation of ras-like small G-proteins while having no effect on the isoprenylation of several other proteins (Crowell et al ., 1991). The mevalonate pathway produces isoprenoids that are vital for diverse cellular functions, ranging from cholesterol synthesis to growth control. Several mechanisms for feedback regulation of low-density-lipoprotein receptors and two enzymes involved in mevalonate biosynthesis ensure the production of sufficient mevalonate for several end-products. Manipulation of this regulatory system could be useful in treating certain forms of cancer as well as heart disease. The bulk product of mevalonate metabolism, cholesterol is obtained from two sources; endogenously by synthesis from acetyl-CoA through mevalonate and exogenously from receptor-mediated uptake of plasma LDL (low-density- lipoprotein). Mevalonate is also incorporated into non-sterol isoprenoids, as shown on the right.
Mevalonate homeostasis is achieved through sterol-mediated feedback repression of the genes for HMG-CoA synthase, HMG-CoA reductase and average wage, the LDL receptor, as shown on the left and post-transcriptional regulation of HMG-CoA reductase by one of the nonsterol isoprenoids shown on dissertation histoire sujet, the right. Cholesterol --- involved in membrane structure, Haem A and ubiquinone --- which partake in edith electron transport, Dolichol --- required for glycoprotein synthesis and. Isopentyladenine --- present in histoire sujet some transfer RNAs. Growth-regulating p21 ras proteins, encoded by ras protooncogenes and oncogenes, and nuclear envelop proteins are covalently attached to farnesyl residues, which anchor them to cell membranes. Inhibition of mevalonate synthesis prevents farnesylation of these proteins and blocks cell growth. It is possible that the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic action of d-limonene against mammary, lung and stomach cancers may be due to its inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. There is no information as to if other terpenoids espercially the hydrocarbon monoterpenes similar in structure to services india, limonene (even l-limonene) inhibit mevalonate synthesis in mammals. d-Limonene was found to inhibit N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) carcinogenesis of the forestomach and lung of female mice. Dissertation Histoire Sujet? d-Limonene and all night essay, the citrus fruit oils can inhibit the sujet tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NKK-induced carcinogenesis when administered 1 hour prior to carcinogen challenge ( Watterberg and Coccia, 1991). Although limonene can be consumed by rats (Elson et al ., 1988; Kodama et al ,. 1976) dogs (Webb et al ., 1990) and humans Kodama et al ., 1976) without toxicity, male rats alone exhibit nephrotoxicity (Webb et al ., 1989).
Limonene has been routinely consumed by all night essay humans without apparent adverse effects. Animal studies have indicated that this compound can be nephrotoxic under certain experimental conditions. Several studies have reported that the histoire sujet mature male rat treated with d-limonene and a wide variety of hydrocarbons, is the all night essay only species and sex to develop a unique form of histoire nephrotoxicity that is characterized by children essay the following specific triad of changes observed under the sujet light microscope; an exacerbation of hyaline droplet accumulation, which is normally found within the cytoplasm of proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells in male rats, granular cast formation in the outer zone of the renal medulla and multiple cortical changes collectively classified as chronic nephrosis. In order to children and internet, assess if this type of nephrotoxicity occurs in a non-rodent species, the dog was used as a model (Webb et al ., 1990), but was found to be refractory to the hyaline droplet nephropathy observed in male rats. Histoire Sujet? Since this type of d-limonene nephrotoxicity is specific to the male rat, it may be inappropriate for interspecies extrapolation and all night essay, human risk assessment. The cause of this toxicity was attributed to the reversible binding of d-limonene-1,2-oxide, a metabolite of d-limonene to alpha 2µ -globulin (Lehman-McKeman et al ., 1989; Dietrich and Swenberg, 1991) a naturally occurring low molecular weight urinary protein that is found in abundance only in adult male rats (Swenberg et al ., 1989). Histoire? The complex formed is more resistant to lysosomal degradation than alpha 2µ -globulin alone. The reduced degradation of alpha 2µ -globulin-limonene complex leads to prothesis, an accumulation of this complex in the proximal convoluted tubule leading to dissertation sujet, the morphological changes characteristic of alpha 2µ -globulin nephropathy. Because alpha 2µ is a low molecular weight protein it is readily filtered at the glomerulus. Approximately 50#37; of alpha 2µ is absorbed in the proximal tubule and the remainder is excreted in the urine ( Neuhaus et al ., 1981). The proteins undergo endocytosis and are concentrated into vesicles called phagosomes which fuse with lysosomes.
Proteases in the phagolysosomes cleave the proteins at various sites forming amino acids and peptides which are returned back to the circulation. Writing Services India? The function of the alpha 2µ is mainly as a carrier of dissertation histoire lipophilic molecules. Prothesis? The mechanism of protein droplet accumulation is that the protein forms a complex with either d-limonene or its metabolite, making the protein more resistant to histoire sujet, hydrolysis. These form crystalloid protein droplets which is associated with cytotoxicity. The injured cell is released from the basement membrane and sloughs into the lumen where it collects in granular casts in the thin loop of paper Henle or is excreted in the urine. As a consequence of cell death, there is regeneration of neighbouring cells. Dissertation Histoire Sujet? The increased cell proliferation enhances the likelihood of an increase in spontaneous mutational events and stein, also encourages clonal expansion of initiated cells.
The development of alpha 2µ -nephropathy is dependent on dissertation histoire, the presence of wage prothesis alpha 2µ , since strains of histoire rats, like the essays stein NBR (NCl-Black-Reiter) rat which are deficient in alpha 2µ -globulin, female rats and other species that do not synthesize this protein do not develop this disease ( Borghoff, 1990; Dietrich and Swenberg, 1991). Is it possible then that the olefinic bonds of dissertation histoire other monoterpenes when metabolised to essays edith, the epoxides may also bind to dissertation histoire, this transport protein?
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Business Specifications, analyzing the impacts and feasibility, complete the TC0 and TC 1 [Time and Cost]. - Design end to end data flow with the help of BPM and also preparing the screen mock ups and design and. develop the histoire sujet application architecture [Database tables and antique watermarks interface impacts]. - Review the application structure and database design with development and testing teams. - Review the dissertation High Level Design Document [HLD] and Application Design Document [AID] with ATT. - Completing all the on your QPR work [Defect sheets, HLD, AID, WBS, E2E data mapping, baseline approvals, Release. notes, Req. Pro, RMT etc.]. - Provide the support to development by dissertation sujet, reviewing the Application Design document and children testing team by. reviewing the Test Cases during development and testing phase. - Provide the support to ATT users during UAT and also providing the Root Cause of a particular issue. - Completing the FP count activities and also dealing with all type of production issues. - Database Technologies - Oracle, SQLPLUS. - Tools – Estimation, Business Process Modeler (BPM), Rational Requisite Pro, Rational Portfolio Manager, Requirements Management tool (RMT), Rational Clear Quest (CQ), DRTT, Mercury Quality Centre (MQC), Web-based. GUI Testing, Sablime (For Configuration Management). - Transaction Processes – Design of Java Transaction API’s, XML, WSDL, Corba transactions, expertise in. IPV4/IPV6 implementation, Ethernet and Native IP Protocols. - Testing skills – Web based GUI testing, Interface testing, Database testing. - Won “Gerstner Award for Client Excellence” in the year 2007 for the contribution in dissertation histoire sujet client satisfaction. - Completed AIX Certification with 100% marks. Assignment Services India. - Completed OCP (Oracle Certified Programmer) Certification with 98%. - Won ‘Best of Employee Award’ for histoire February 2010 release project work. - Won ‘Outstanding Performer’ Award for October 2010 release deliverables. - Presently working as a Business Analyst in DFG Pvt. ltd. from Jan- 2010- Present. Career. - Worked as a System Engineer [Business Analyst]in WER Services from July-2007- Dec. Histoire. 2009. Average. - Master of Computer Applications (MCA) - B.Sc. from GHJ University. - Intermediate from C.B.S.E. - Marital Status - Married. 9. Business analyst resume sample - Posted by Prateek Bajpai. Histoire. Email ID- ****@gmail.com Contact No. +91-******
class company. Seek to diversify my skills in another industry and as part of a larger. - Combines 6 years of experience in IT CONSULTING. - Proficient in business development and requirement management. - Expert in Business Analysis and Business Analytics. Wage Prothesis. - Expert in Enterprise Performance Management ( EPM ) - Skilled in Churn Modeling and client relationship management. - Acted as a business analyst. - Functional Documentation for histoire sujet reporting dash boarding requirements using Process Flows Business. - Functional documentation of the Planning Budgeting Forecasting work flows. - P L ,Balance sheets and cash flow statements for essays edith stein Planning. - Top down and bottom up planning. - Allocation rules Out-looking. - Manage change requirements, Requirement Traceability matrix. - Presales Business Development for the PB Product suite. - Presales for EAM ( Enterprise Asset Management ) - Acted as Business Intelligence data warehousing Consultant for Project delivery. - Acted as Account Manager responsible generating more businesses. - HR-Analytics Cash flow statement from the account heads. - Manage Quality audit of the projects handled. - Applaude de Accomplice - May 2011. - Nominated to dissertation histoire The Cognizant Hall of Fame for assignment writing services india Innovation Awards 2011 - Bagged “The Prestigious Cognizant Innovation Award 2011” in the Cognizant Innovation Summit (CIS) 2011 sponsored by NASSCOM. - Runners Up Award in Best Process Innovation Category 2011. - Was the best Performer and performed beyond expectation. - Working as Senior Business Analyst in DFG Solutions from Nov 2010 – Till Date. - Worked as Senior Business Analyst in FGH Technology from Mar 2010 – Nov 2010. Dissertation Histoire. - Worked as Business Analyst in RTY Pvt. ltd. from April 2008 – Mar 2010.
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Composition: analyse du sujet - Histoire-Gographie - Les Bons Profs
essays gmat typed Chapter 2: Analysis of Issue. Chapter 3: Analysis of Argument. Chapter 4: About the E-Rater. Chapter 5: Improving Your Writing. Chapter 6: Real Essay Questions. 10 Most Common Errors. The A nalytical W riting A ssessment (AWA) consists of two 30-minute sections, the Analysis of dissertation histoire Issue essay and the Analysis of Argument essay. Essay! You will receive a grade from 1 to 6, which will be sent with your GMAT scores.
Your essay will be graded by dissertation sujet a human grader and an E-rater computerized grading program. Edith Stein! If they disagree, it will be sent to a third human grader. If you do not write your essay in the proper format for dissertation sujet, the E-rater, it could lead to a lower score. Average Prothesis! Throughout the guidebook we have tips on the E-rater and a section exclusively about the E-rater. The good news is that the AWA can be beaten.The essay topics are available for you to review beforehand. The structures for the AWA answers are simple and may be learned. In addition, while much GMAT preparation may appear useless and without any merit beyond test day, the skills, reasoning tools, and techniques you learn for the AWA may be applied to any essay or persuasive writing. These skills will help you throughout business school and beyond.
The Analysis of Issue question asks you to sujet, discuss your opinion toward an issue. You will need to write a well-balanced analysis of the issue the test presents to you. The most common topics relate to general business and public policy issues. Business issues include business ethics, marketing and labor. Government issues include regulatory and social welfare issues. Here is an example of an Analysis of all night essay Issue question:
Does lowering tax rates increase economic growth? Should countries sacrifice civil liberties for safety? Should countries limit free trade to histoire sujet, protect their industry? Graders of the Analysis of Issue essay expect an essay that: Is well developed, logical and essays coherent;
Demonstrates critical thinking skills; Uses varied sentence structure and vocabulary; Uses standard written English and follows the dissertation sujet language#146;s conventions; Is free of mechanical errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization. How do I write a well-balanced essay? Time Breakdown: How to write a coherent 300 word essay in watermarks 30 minutes or less. Structure is the most important part of your essay.
Your essay must be written in a standard format with the sujet standard logical transitions. The E-rater will scan your essay to identify if it has a standard structure. Introduction and children essay conclusion #150; These sections function as bookends to your essay, providing the most basic and crucial points of your essay. The rest of your essay will relate back to your intro. Your conclusion will reiterate these ideas. Number of Paragraphs - To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be four to five paragraphs, two of which will be your introduction and conclusion. Histoire Sujet! In addition your essay will include two to three body paragraphs.
Each paragraph should have two to five sentences (total essay about 300-400 words). The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. This is not a simple approach where you can fill-in-the-blanks. Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a guideline to write a disciplined and focused essay. • 3b: Finding errors. What is an argument? A strong argument tries to persuade the reader to accept a point of view. When writing an essay be sure to include the assignment writing india following in your argument: 1. A declarative statement of idea or opinion. 2. Support for sujet, the statement: including relevant facts, opinions based on facts and/or careful reasoning. When writing an argument is essential to both make a statement and then provide a foundation of evidence to back up this statement.
What is the Analysis of Argument? Analysis of argument questions present a short argument on average prothesis an issue. Sujet! You are asked to edith, analyze the argument and discuss how well it is reasoned. Sujet! You will be looking for flaws in watermarks paper reasoning and weak use of evidence. Dissertation Histoire! You will have to consider the assumptions that underlie the and internet writer's thinking and sujet what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken his or her conclusion. It is your job to come up with evidence that would strengthen or refute the argument, or what changes would make it more sound. How is it different than Analysis of Issue?
On Analysis of watermarks Issue questions you try to argue grand issues such as Should China be in the WTO, or Should parents have vouchers to send children to the school of dissertation their choice. Reasonable people could differ. Let's look at this example: In the first part of the Analysis of Issue topic, the writer tries to persuade you of and internet their conclusion by referring to evidence. Sujet! When you read the arguments in these questions, be on the lookout for assumptions and poor logical reasoning used to make a conclusion. The Question Stem. Question stems will ask you to decide how convincing you find the argument. You will be asked to explain why an argument is not convincing, and discuss what might improve the argument.
For this task, you'll need to: first, analyze the argument itself and essays edith stein evaluate its use of evidence; second, explain how a different approach or more information would make the argument itself better (or possibly worse). They say: Explain what, if anything, would make the argument more valid and convincing or help you to dissertation histoire, better evaluate its conclusion. Translation: Spot weak links in the argument and offer changes that would strengthen them. The Usual Suspects: Common Logical Fallacies. There are seven logical errors that appear commonly in all night essay the essay questions. When writing your essay argument you should explicitly identify the logical flaw. Dissertation! These flaws also tend to occur in the critical reasoning section of the Verbal GMAT, so your preparation here will benefit you when taking the Verbal section.
1. Essay Career Choice! Circular Reasoning. Here, an unsubstantiated assertion is used to justify another unsubstantiated assertion, which is sujet used to justify the first statement. For instance, Joe and essay Fred show up at an exclusive club. When asked if they are members, Joe says I'll vouch for histoire sujet, Fred. When Joe is asked for evidence that he's a member, Fred says, I'll vouch for him.
2. The Biased-Sample Fallacy. The Fallacy of the Biased Sample is committed whenever the watermarks data for a statistical inference is sujet drawn from a sample that is not representative of the population under consideration. The data drawn and wage prothesis used to make a generalization is dissertation histoire drawn from a group that does not represent the whole. Here is an argument that commits the fallacy of the biased sample: ln a recent survey conducted by Wall Street Weekly, 80% of the respondents indicated their strong disapproval of increased capital gains taxes. Antique Watermarks Paper! This survey clearly shows that increased capital gains taxes will meet with strong opposition from the electorate.
The data for sujet, the inference in this argument is drawn from a sample that is essays stein not representative of the entire electorate. Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences) Briefly restate the histoire argument in your own words. Briefly trace the argument's line of all night essay reasoning. Indicate the extent to which the argument is logically convincing. If possible, sum up your arguments in one sentence (or two brief sentences). Here's a sample template for the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals: First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences) The reasoning of the dissertation sujet argument One of the premises of the argument One of the children assumptions of the argument. How to write a 300-word essay in 30 minutes.
Using time appropriately is extremely important when writing essays on the GMAT. You must use your time wisely. Do not dive right in. If you begin writing immediately you will likely find it difficult to sujet, follow your critique all the way through without making mistakes in organization. Instead, take time to think about children and internet what you will be writing and create an outline first.
1. Histoire Sujet! Dissect argument (4 minutes) 2. Select your points (5 minutes) 3. Outline (1 minute) 4. Type essay (20 minutes) 5. Proofread (2 minutes) The problem of poorly trained police officers that has plagued New York City should become less serious in the future. The City has initiated comprehensive guidelines that oblige police officers in multiculturalism and proper ways to deal with the city's ethnic groups. • 4a: Using Strategy. • 4b: International Students.
W hat the E-rater Grades. The E-rater is bot, or a distant cousin of search engine spiders used to analyze and read web pages. And Internet! The E-rater will read your essays and look for phrases that indicate competent reasoning. The E-rater uses a stored battery of hundreds graded essays for each of the 280 essay questions (this is dissertation histoire sujet part of the reason that GMAT essays haven't changed in years, to do so would require re-programming the E-rater). The E-rater has sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and essay on your 6 score essays for each topic.
The E-rater will evaluate your essay in dissertation histoire sujet terms of the all night essay stored essays in the E-rater's database. If the essay you wrote resembles the stored 6 essays in the E-rater's database, you will get that score. If your essay better resembles the 5's in the E-rater's memory, you will get a 5 from the E-rater. That is why it is so important to read the 20 sample essays we have. Histoire! You will see how well written arguments are structured and you will learn the proper style necessary to impress both the E-rater and assignment services the human grader. What the E-rater doesn't grade. The E-rater cannot detect certain things, such as humor, spelling errors or grammar. It analyzes structure through using transitional phrases, paragraph changes, etc. It evaluates content through comparing your score to that of histoire other students.
If you have a brilliant argument that uses an unusual argument style, the E-rater will not detect it. The E-rater does, however, detect spelling and watermarks grammar indirectly. If your transition phrases and logical identifiers (e.g.- therefore, for example) are not properly spelled, the E-rater will not detect them. Dissertation Sujet! Since the E-rater uses the presence of such transitional phrases as an indicator of effective writing, you are indirectly penalized if they are not spelled correctly. Does the E-rater impact human graders? The E-rater potentially puts pressure on human graders. Human graders will create problems if they constantly disagree with the E-rater and force a third, additional grader to look over the essay (this raises costs). In this way, the E-rater acts as a managerial tool to double-check graders and keep them in line. The bottom line: don't rely on your essay being appealing to the human grader. There is essay choice no guarantee that the dissertation histoire grader will give you a high grade to counter a low E-rater grade. Try to follow the E-rater rules.
What are the implications for the GMAT student? You should not try any bold or original approaches in your essay. All Night Essay! The essay should be written in a simple and dissertation organized fashion. If you write a boldly original piece, do not rely on the human grader to acknowledge the quality of your writing. This may not be the place to expound upon how your master's thesis ties in with your GMAT essay. On the essays edith Argument Essay: The E-rater makes more sense on the Argument Essay because it is able to tell if you have identified the argument's logical flaw. The E-rater stores hundreds of essays for each essay question and histoire sujet you should use keywords that correspond the stored 6 essays. When you have identified the logical flaws the writing essay questions, (use our usual suspects section to identify logical flaws), make sure to describe the logical flaws. This way the E-rater is able to detect that you have identified the dissertation correct logical flaws. Pleasing the E-rater:
Make your essay highly rigid in structure. Make it look, in its organization, like other 5 and 6 essays. Clearly demarcate sections using phrases such as for example, therefore, etc.. Use qualifiers judiciously. The E-rater will associate careful use of qualifiers with high scorers. Read our 20 Real Essays essays to get a flavor for how 6 score writing is done. Use the exact terminology we do in the Usual Suspects section to identify logical reasoning flaws in the Argument Section. Errors that will ruin your score with the E-rater (DO NOT): 1. Write an essay in a unique and creative fashion.
The E-rater will be evaluating you relative to other writers, so a unique argument structure will not appear standard and watermarks paper will always backfire. 2. Dissertation Histoire Sujet! Misspell key phrases, such as for example and therefore . The E-rater will not pick this up and assume that you did not use transition phrases. 3. Throw in jokes and other unnecessary commentary. Edith Stein! The E-rater will not detect the dissertation histoire sujet meaning under your writing, only its structure, so making clever comments will not raise your score. 4. Use unusual references that no other business school student would use. The E-rater uses other scorers as a template based on how well you resemble other scorers. Essays Edith! On the Analysis of Issue question, if you do use unusual examples, try to use concept keywords and a tight structure. 6. Use a unique and clever rhetorical device that spices up your essay. Dissertation Sujet! The E-rater cannot detect cleverness and may find an essay like this confusing, redundant or disorganized. 7. Follow Steve Jobs' clever advertising campaign for Apple Think Different . All Night Essay! For the AWA it is Think the Same. You want to write as 6 scorers write.
The Analysis of dissertation Issue section, in particular, is an all night essay exercise in conformity. Write opinions in dissertation histoire sujet the mainstream of intellectual thought. You may have compelling evidence about the essay on your role of UFO's in our daily lives, but your GMAT essay is not the place to introduce this startling news to the world. How international students should tackle the AWA and the E-rater. The conventions for the AWA can be summarized in a single statement: written English requires that each paragraph be developed directly away from a topic (or thesis) sentence or directly towards a topic (or thesis) sentence. Sujet! The former is known as deductive development; the latter is assignment services india known as inductive development. Since this is the case for all English written prose it should be obvious that writers in English have less freedom to wander from the main point of their discourse than writers in other languages. Dissertation! English expository prose style must be direct and to the point even though it is watermarks paper necessary to support each main idea with examples, explanations, and illustrations. Dissertation Histoire! The thesis (or topic sentence) must contain the germ of the idea that permeates the essays edith entire paragraph.
Each example or illustration must be connected to that idea with transitional markers such as for example , thus , or moreover . Your essays should be written in American, not English. Phrases that are more commonly spoken in English (indeed, hence, etc..) are less common in an American writing style. Sujet! Phrases that are commonly spoken in English are unlikely to children and internet essay, be picked up by the E-rater, which picks up phrases used among high scorers (who are overwhelmingly American). Students from the U.K., Hong Kong, India and other Commonwealth nations should adjust their syntax, style and language to better suit the flavor of English used in America. That is the language of the histoire E-rater. Avoid any local jargon or particularly any unusual transitional phrases (e.g. heretofore). Got that mate?
In addition, the human graders are overwhelmingly American and will have an easier time with arguments written in American. The best solution to writing in the appropriate style is to read all of our sample essays. Antique Watermarks Paper! You should also familiarize yourself with American scholarly journals to see how American writers structure arguments. • 5b(12): The Apostrophe. Once you have mastered the material in histoire sujet the previous chapters and have an overall idea of what you want to stein, say in your essay, you can focus on the best way to express it. This part of the E-Rater Guide will develop the sujet skills you need to stein, create well-developed and histoire sujet well-written essays. We have divided the essay on your career choice lessons for dissertation histoire sujet, writing into two parts:
Writing Style: learn to be clear, concise and compelling. Streamline your essay by children avoiding unnecessary sentences. Avoid sentences that do not advance your argument. Avoid asking a question only to answer it. Avoid sentences that announce that you are shifting the topic. Use transitional phrases instead of writing sentences to dissertation sujet, change your subject. FILL: Who should be the next president? I think Mike Dukakis should give it another try.
TO THE POINT: Mike Dukakis should make a second bid for the presidency. Exercise 1: Avoid fill sentences that do not serve a purpose. Condense the on your choice two-sentence groups into one, direct sentence. 1. Dissertation Histoire Sujet! Who was Abraham Lincoln? He was a President of the United States. 2. Patton was a famous general. He was renowned for his ability to surprise the enemy. 3. The twister destroyed three city blocks.
Many buildings collapsed because of the twister. 1. Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States. 2. General Patton was famous for his ability to surprise the enemy. 3. Many buildings were destroyed by assignment writing the twister that destroyed three city blocks. Directness and clarity are valued over wordiness on the GMAT.
Do not use several words when one will work just as well. Dissertation! Many writers tend to essays stein, add excessive phrases like take into consideration in order to sound scholarly. This only makes the text sound inflated and dissertation sujet even sometimes pretentious. WORDY: I am of the opinion that the prothesis said managers should be admonished for their utilization of customer response services. CONCISE: We should tell the managers to improve customer service. What is sujet a qualifier? Why use qualifiers? WORDY : The Hess spy case was a rather serious breach of national security and likely helped the Soviets.
CONCISE: The Hess spy case breached national security and essay helped the Soviets. Clear up the following sentences by eliminating excessive qualifiers. 1. You yourself are the very best person to decide what you should do for a living. 2. It is possible that. Try not to begin a sentence with This, Here is , There is, There are , or It is . These roundabout expressions indicate distance from your position and make your statement less definitive. Weak openings usually result from writing before you think- hedging until you find out what you want to say. WEAK: There are many ways in which we can change our current monetary system. ACTIVE: Joe completed the histoire assignment in record time. Active voice is the preferred essay writing style for the GMAT.
If possible you should always use the active voice, since it is more direct and shows action and essay on your career intent. Statements made in the passive voice are weak because it is difficult to tell who or what is responsible for dissertation histoire, an action. Essay writers should avoid unnecessary phrases as I believe, I feel, and in on your career choice my opinion. The grader knows whose opinion is being expressed and he or she does not need to be reminded. WEAK: I am of the opinion that excessive self-reference may add a level of pomposity to an otherwise effective essay. Redundancy is the unnecessary repetition of an histoire idea.
For example, it is redundant to say a beginner lacking experience. The word beginner implies lack of experience by itself. You can eliminate redundant words or phrases without changing the meaning of the essay on your sentence. Watch out for words that add nothing to the sense of the sentence, because redundancy takes away from the clarity and dissertation sujet conviction of a statement. Here are some common redundancies:
Redundancy often results from carelessness, but you may easily eliminate redundant elements when proofreading. 1. Average Wage Prothesis! Those who can follow directions are few in number. Choose specific, descriptive words when you are making any statement on the GMAT. Vague language weakens your writing because it forces the reader to guess what you mean instead of concentrating fully on your ideas and style. WEAK: Mr. Dissertation Histoire! Brown is highly educated. FORCEFUL: Mr. Brown has a master's degree in business administration. WEAK: She is a great communicator. FORCEFUL: She speaks persuasively.
Notice that sometimes to paper, be more specific and concrete you will have to use more words than you might with vague language (as in dissertation histoire the first example). Essay Career Choice! This principle is not in conflict with the general objective of writing concisely. Being concise may mean eliminating unnecessary words. Avoiding vagueness may mean adding necessary words to histoire sujet, illustrate your point. Edit these sentences by cutting down on vague language: 3. On Your Career Choice! Thousands of species of animals were destroyed when the last ice age occurred. 4. Dissertation Sujet! The secretary was unable to complete the task that had been assigned. Cliches are overused expressions, expressions that may once have seemed colorful and powerful, but are now dull and worn out. Time, pressure and anxiety may make you lose focus, and that is when cliches may slip into your writing.
A reliance on cliches will suggest you are a lazy thinker. Keep them out of your essay by thinking ahead and proofreading. WEAK: Performance in a crisis is the acid test for a leader. FORCEFUL: Performance in a crisis is the best indicator of a leader's abilities. Putting a cliche in quotation marks in order to indicate your distance from the cliche does not strengthen the sentence. Antique! If anything, it just makes weak writing more noticeable. Take notice of whether or not you use cliches.
If you do, ask yourself if you could substitute more specific language for the cliche. International Students: You should avoid any regional expressions. Students from Britain and the commonwealth nations should particularly beware of histoire sujet using local expressions that are not used in all night essay America. Jargon includes two categories of words that you should avoid. Dissertation Histoire! First is the specialized vocabulary of a group, such as that used by a group of people such as doctors, lawyers, or baseball coaches. All Night Essay! Second is the overly inflated or complex language that burdens many student essays. You will not impress anyone with big words that do not fit the tone or context of your essay, especially if you misuse them. If you are not certain of a word's meaning or appropriateness, leave it out. Histoire! An appropriate word, even a simple one, will add impact to antique watermarks paper, your argument. Dissertation Sujet! Ask yourself Would a reader in a different field be able to average wage, understand exactly what I mean from the words I've chosen? Is there any way I can say the same thing more simply?
MBA candidates are particularly prone to using MBA jargon. Sujet! When you go to business school, you will find that MBAs have a language of their own with words such as incentivize or M A. Essay! Indeed, you will find that a large part of the dissertation histoire lasting benefit of business school is learning the proper MBA language so that you will better relate with the MBAs who dominate the business world. For now, however, the GMAT is not the place for MBA jargon or any jargon for that matter. optimize time frame utilize ( use ) finalize (end, complete) conceptualize (imagine, think) maximize originate (start, begin) facilitate (help, speed up) bottom line parameter (boundary, limit) user-friendly (responsive, flexible, easy-to-understand) input/output blindside downside ongoing (continuing) Your essay graders may not be up to essay on your career choice, date on the latest trendy abbreviations. Also, avoid lazy and sloppy statements like. Since you are asked to write an dissertation histoire sujet explanatory essay, an occasional self-reference may be appropriate. Use them sparingly and only when there is children essay no other way to explain what you mean.
You may call yourself I as long as you keep the number of first-person pronouns to a minimum. Less egocentric ways of referring to the narrator include we and one. In my lifetime, I have seen many challenges to dissertation, the principle of free speech. Conversational speech is prothesis filled with slang and colloquial expressions. However, you should avoid slang on the GMAT analytical writing assessment. Slang terms and colloquialisms can be confusing to the reader, Beware of dissertation sujet two common sentence writing errors: Sentence fragment : a statement with no independent clause. Every sentence in formal writing must have an independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and.
RULES FOR SEMICOLONS. 1. Use a semicolon to link two independent clauses. To give a good party, you must consider the lighting; no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. Note that the two clauses are connected in thought, but are each independent grammatically. A comma with a conjunction can stand in place of the edith stein semicolon, like this: To give a good party, you must consider the lighting , since no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. 2. Use a semicolon to separate elements in a list if the elements are long - or if the elements themselves have commas in them. To get completely ready for your party, you should clean your house; make sure your old, decrepit stereo works; prepare a lot of delicious, strange food; and histoire expect odd, antisocial, and frivolous behavior on essays the part of histoire your guests. 3. Unlike commas, semicolons belong outside quotation marks.
One man at the party sat in a corner and read The Adventures of Bob; he may have been shy, or he may have found The Adventures of Bob too exciting to average wage, put down. 1. Use a colon when making a list, when what precedes the sujet list is an all night essay independent clause. CORRECT: There are four ingredients necessary for a good party: music, lighting, food, and personality. A. Histoire Sujet! Use the hyphen with the compound numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, and with fractions used as adjectives. CORRECT: Sixty-five students constituted a majority. CORRECT: A two-thirds vote was necessary to stein, carry the measure. B. Use the hyphen with the prefixes ex , all , and self and with the dissertation suffix elect . CORRECT: The constitution protects against self-incrimination. CORRECT: The president-elect was invited to chair the meeting. The apostrophe is used to assignment services, show ownership. Most of the time, it presents no confusion:
The woman's finger. RULES FOR APOSTROPHES. 1. If the dissertation histoire plural noun doesn't end in -s, add an apostrophe and -s, like above. (This is the easy part.) • 6c. Additional Essays. Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is watermarks there are no surprises. You will be able to dissertation histoire sujet, review all of the potential questions beforehand. 1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0.
These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in essay a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6. Analysis of Argument # 1: Olympia Foods. The author argues, using facts from the color-film processing industry's downward trend in cost over 24 years, that Olympic Foods will be able to cut costs and sujet thus maximize profits in the future. The author bases his conclusion on on your career the generalization that organizations learn to dissertation sujet, reduce costs over time and, since Olympic Foods has 25 years experience in the food processing industry, its costs should have declined considerably. There are two serious flaws in the argument. First, the argument uses a faulty analogy between the color-film processing industry and the food processing industry. Analogies drawn between the two fields are highly suspect because there are many serious differences.
While the all night essay film processing industry faces a relatively simply processing challenge, food producers must contend with contamination, transportation and farm production (much more serious challenges). Thus, it is likely much more difficult to wring efficiency improvements in the food industry. Second, the histoire sujet author uses a sweeping generalization. the author's prediction of margin improvements relies on the optimistic assumption that Olympic Foods' 25 years of experience will automatically result in operational efficiencies. The problem with this is that improvements in processes do not occur automatically over time, they require tremendous effort at continuous improvement and they require potential room for improvement. It is possible Olympic Food has limited room for improvement or lacks the managerial will to improve its operations. Thus, there is no guarantee of antique improved operational efficiency over time. These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6.
I ssue #1: Radio and dissertation TV Censorship. The censorship and regulation of broadcast media for offensive material involves a conflict between the freedom of expression and the duty of government to all night essay, protect its citizenry from potential harm. Dissertation Histoire! I believe that our societal interest in preventing the harm that exposure to obscenity produces takes precedence over essays edith the freedoms of individual broadcasters. Firstly, I believe exposure to histoire sujet, obscene and offensive language and behavior causes people to mimic such behavior. On Your! There is dissertation sujet anecdotal and scientific evidence to support this contention. Look at children and internet essay all the dissertation sujet real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on essays edith your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is there are no surprises. You will be able to review all of the potential questions beforehand.
1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0. We've graded thousands of sujet essays and certain errors occur again and again and again. This is a list of the top ten errors we see on essays. Read through each one carefully. Edith! Avoiding these errors will make your essay stronger. This argument throws in everything and discusses every topic of an histoire issue in one paragraph. Paragraphs are discrete units meant for watermarks, discussing a limited range of ideas. Narrow the scope of dissertation sujet your paragraphs and arguments into manageable, topic-specific units.
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Bac 2016: les sujets et corrigs d histoire-gographie - Bac 2018 - Le
chinese topics essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of dissertation histoire, a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the essay career, context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience.
The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Histoire Sujet? At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the average prothesis, camera, so that upon histoire sujet his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into on your career choice, his paintings. Without the dissertation sujet, photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and assignment writing, substance of country living, and dissertation sujet, the states of the watermarks, mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works.
The photographs that he originally took for dissertation histoire his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness.
He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the edith stein, central wall hanging in dissertation sujet the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of antique watermarks paper, calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. Histoire Sujet? These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only stein ancient traditions persist in the space of sujet, these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and essays, signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space.
Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. Dissertation Histoire? They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. Edith? The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and dissertation, political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in children essay their description with the help of different theories and methodologies?
Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of dissertation histoire, life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to essays, render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of sujet, government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas.
Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the career, City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the dissertation histoire sujet, single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and average, their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work.
According to dissertation histoire sujet, a survey conducted by average, the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by histoire sujet, 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by antique watermarks, the Country (series) However, for dissertation histoire sujet peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and on your, shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to dissertation histoire sujet, ill treatment.
Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of essay on your choice, peasant life in sujet the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the and internet, first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and dissertation histoire, working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in antique paper the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995.
In the 1990s, urbanization in dissertation sujet China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the prothesis, Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on dissertation histoire, the eve of antique, radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world.
For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in dissertation histoire Chinese media and press. They were not the wage prothesis, soldiers, workers, and dissertation sujet, peasants glorified in all night essay government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. Histoire? These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for essay career neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. Dissertation Sujet? They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse.
In terms of children, social background, Lu belongs to dissertation, the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the average wage, artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in sujet times that have passed. Essays Edith Stein? From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Sujet? Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002.
Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to children and internet essay, street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by dissertation, Luo Yongjin in on your career the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties.
Luoyang is dissertation histoire sujet, not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and edith, power, the dissertation sujet, photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in essay on your contrast to dissertation histoire sujet, the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and career, urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the sujet, recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in all night essay China.
The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of dissertation histoire sujet, Industry project refocuses our attention on children essay, the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into dissertation sujet, the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of all night essay, industry as supported by histoire, these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class.
While the images in average wage the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the sujet, workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in wage workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of dissertation histoire, human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of essay choice, “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the histoire, relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and and internet, historical coincidences, modernization in China is dissertation, following a unique trajectory. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society.
The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and children and internet essay, the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in dissertation sujet actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is average, a parallel between the dissertation, growth of watermarks, Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society.
The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.