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Essays on speech codes

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apa sociology paper A Hypertext Writing Guide. (for the 5th edition of the APA Manual) 2/21/2007 - Version 5.014. On Speech? This document has been translated into the following languages: German (courtesy Translator Group) Scientific research is a public venture. Therefore, one of the essential skills of the scientist is to be able to communicate ideas and research results effectively. This hypertext guide is an attempt to make the style of writing used in the field of leadership essay psychology clear to essays, you. It summarizes a lot of the material available in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5-th edition) (2001) and is oriented toward undergraduate students. For example, it includes numerous hints to avoid common mistakes students make. Note the examples appear in write music paper a teletype font to distinguish them from the normal text. Finally, the document is organized in an outline format for at least two reasons. First, it should make it easier for students to quickly locate the on speech codes, information they seek. Australian? Second, it should make it easier for an instructor to grade students papers.

In most cases, the student can simply be referred to the outline item that addresses the problem rather than writing the essays codes, comment repeatedly on multiple papers. Note that a checklist version of this writing guide is available. General Topics Typing - Here is a Microsoft Word 2002 document/template that should help you with some of the basic formatting. Your papers must be typed or printed on a computer. Set the typewriter or word processor to double space and keep it there throughout the child study coursework, entire manuscript. Use one inch margins on the left, right, top, and essays, bottom of the page. These margins are wide in order to leave room for reviewer's comments. Leadership Essay Uk? Use normal paragraphs in which the first line is indented five characters for all paragraphs in codes the manuscript except the abstract, block quotes, titles and headings, subheadings, references, table titles, notes, and figure captions. Use a 12 point font. In other words, there should be 10 typed characters per child 1 inch. Single space after sentence terminators (i.e., '.', '?', '!').

Capitalize the first letter following a colon if the clause following the colon is a complete sentence. Make sure the text is left aligned and not justified. With left aligned text, the left margin forms a straight line and the right margin is ragged. With justified text both the left and right margins form a straight line. Do not hyphenate (split) words at the end of a line. Finally, just staple or clip the finished product (do not bother with fancy folders, etc.). Writing in essays codes General You must use complete sentences. The first sentence of a paragraph must be independent (able to stand on its own). For example consider While these studies are important, there is.

This sentence would be correct in the middle of a paragraph, but as the first sentence, it should more appropriately read, While studies of the effects of whatever on whatever else are important, there is. Try not to use slang (e.g., . put a damper on. Citing Apa? ). Do not use contractions. That is, instead of it's , use it is codes . If you are doubtful about the spelling of a word, do not guess. Look up the correct spelling in an appropriate reference source (e.g., Merriam-Webster.com). Proofread the copy that you submit and do correct minor typographical errors, formatting, spelling, or even the wording, with a pencil. These corrections are inevitable and will communicate that you are serious about your work. Style Details in internet essay General Study this handout. When in doubt about a detail, check with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . Assume you are writing the essays codes, paper for submission to a scientific journal. A lot of the formatting details can be learned by australian film essay, carefully modeling another APA journal article.

It would be a good idea to essays on speech, acquire a few fairly recent articles, because the format was revised in 1995. Try the Psychological Record or The Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society . Both of these journals publish relatively short articles that are not too complicated. Avoid excessive use of the persuasive war on iraq, terms I , me , and my , as well as the phrase personally speaking. Avoid the use of sexist language. On Speech Codes? For example, consistently referring to film essay, a person as a him or he when it is essays on speech codes just as likely for the person to be a she or a her , is sexist. However, using (s)he or him/her all of the essay, time can also be awkward. If you phrase it right, you can often use the word person instead. Avoid using 'empty words' or words which serve no purpose. For example, In the Smith (1990) study it was found that. should read more like Smith (1990) found that.

Generally speaking, use past tense in the abstract, introduction, and method. Results and codes, discussion sections can be in the present tense. Get friends to read it. Dissertations Apa? If they cannot understand it, then it needs work. If you cannot get a friend to read it, then try to read it yourself making believe that you are naive. Abbreviations When abbreviating any terms, spell them out the essays on speech, first time (in both the abstract and again in the body of the citing apa, manuscript, if need be). For example, The Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) was used to. Do not use too many abbreviations. Codes? Whereas one, two, or three can be helpful, four or five can be confusing.

You will often see the following Latin abbreviations used: The order of the sections of the manuscript are as follows: Title Page See an example title page. The manuscript page header is the first thing that appears on the title page. It consists of the film essay, first two or three words of the title and is followed by the page number. It is on speech codes used by the editors and reviewers to identify the pages of the manuscript. It is placed in the upper right hand corner of term paper all pages of the manuscript (except for any figures). Thus, the manuscript page header should appear as the first line of the essays on speech, title page, right justified with the number '1' either double spaced below it or 5 spaces to the the child study 1, right of it. If you are using a word processor, you can have it put this manuscript page header on all pages automatically. The running head comes next and is no more than 50 characters (including punctuation and essays on speech, spaces). It typically consists of a couple of key words from the title. Type this running head flush left and in all capital letters. For example, Running head: ABORTION ATTITUDES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS (note that the 'R' in australian essay running is capitalized, but the 'h' in head is not).

Choosing a title. The title should summarize the main idea of the paper in 10-12 words. Essays? A good recipe to work with when reporting the results of an experiment is (Dependent Variable) as a Function of film (Independent Variable) or The Effects of (Independent Variable) on (Dependent Variable) . Another option is to use the main finding as the title, for on speech, example, Prenatal Alcohol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats . With other types of research you should try to include the variables of interest in the title (and be careful not to imply causality). Also, it is a good idea to child study 1, include the species if you're working with animals or some details about the type of population if you're working with humans. Essays On Speech? When typing the title, center it on the page and capitalize only the first letter of important words. On the next double spaced line is the author's name and on the next double spaced line is the institutional affiliation. For the purposes of this class, I would also like you to include something like In partial fulfillment of the requirements for child study 1, PSY389, Instructor's Name, and essays, the Date . Abstract The abstract page is Page 2. Center the word Abstract on this page, then begin typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). Type this section as a single (double spaced) paragraph in persuasive iraq block format (i.e., do not use indentation). The purpose of this section is to provide a brief and comprehensive summary of the study. It is very important because it is all that many people will read. It should include a brief description of the problem being investigated, the essays on speech, methods used, the privacy essay introduction, results, and their implications.

It should be accurate (do not include information here that is essays on speech not in the body of the manuscript), self-contained (spell out abbreviations), concise (120 word maximum), and specific (begin this section with the most important information and limit it to persuasive essay iraq, the four or five most important concepts, findings, or implications of the on speech, study). As part of the citing dissertations, theme of on speech being concise, use digits for all numbers except when they begin a sentence. Avoid citing references in the abstract. Paraphrase rather than quoting. Use active rather than passive voice (but without personal pronouns), for example, use Researchers instructed participants to . . . , rather than, Participants were given instructions to leadership essay uk, . . . Essays On Speech? Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results. It is a good idea to paper, write this section last (after all of the other sections are written). Essays? You might try taking the lead sentences from the various sections of the manuscript and integrating them. Introduction The introduction begins on Page 3. Start this page by retyping your title (centered), then begin typing the section (on the next double spaced line) using normal (5 space indented) paragraphs. Do not type the word Introduction . The main purpose of this section is to tell the reader why you performed the study. In other words, you have to inform the reader of the internet privacy introduction, research question and essays on speech codes, indicate why it is important, and how it is unique when compared to previous studies. Essay Uk? It starts out broad and becomes more and more specific.

For example, you might begin by defining any relevant terms. Then go on to review the essays on speech codes, relevant literature. Avoid an exhaustive and historical review. Then go on to make clear the connection between previous research and essay iraq, the present work. You might include any hypotheses and the rationale for them. The final paragraph usually contains a statement which clearly and on speech, explicitly states why the australian film essay, study was performed, such as The purpose of this study was to. Essays On Speech? or The present study was designed to investigate the. Be especially careful not to use a sentence of this type earlier in your introduction.

Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of four paragraphs: the internet essay introduction, general introduction, the literature review, the essays on speech codes, connection of the internet essay introduction, present study to the literature and the explicit statement of purpose. Methods Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Method and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). On Speech? The purpose of this section is to describe in detail how you performed the study. Someone should be able to replicate your study based on the information you provide in this section. Make it sound professional, that is, do not make it sound like a class project.

Assume you are writing for submission to a scientific journal. Avoid unnecessary details like the data were displayed on the computer screen and recorded on internet essay, the data sheet(s) . This is essays on speech codes similar to the empty word problem described in I.C.6. For an experiment, this section is essay war on typically divided into four subsections: subjects, apparatus, design, and procedure. The order of design followed by procedure is arbitrary. Codes? In other words, you could have the procedure come before the design. Sometimes researchers combine the design and procedure sections, however, in an experimental psychology or research methods class, a separate design section is typically required. For a survey study (i.e., one in which the write music, participants are simply asked a set of questions), the design section is not necessary (and the essays on speech, survey itself may be included as an appendix). Subjects/Participants This section is dissertations apa labeled as subjects or participants depending on on speech codes, whether animals or humans are used in the study.

If animals are used, use the term subjects. If humans are used, use the term participants. Do not purposely start a new page for dissertations, this section. Type the essays on speech, appropriate title for this subsection flush with the left margin and leadership uk, italicize it. On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Indicate who participated in the study, how many, and how were they selected. Essays? With human subjects, be sure to address the issue of apa informed consent.

Include any details which are relevant to the study. For animals, include the gender, age, strain, weight. For humans, include the gender, age, race/ethnicity, and, when appropriate, the socioeconomic status, disability status, sexual orientation, etc. If the subjects were human, what type of essays on speech codes reward or motivation was used to australian film, encourage them to participate? Apparatus Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Codes? Type the word Apparatus flush with the left margin and italicize it.

On the dissertations apa, next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Essays? Describe what materials were used and music paper, how they functioned in the study. If you use a piece of equipment, you must give the model number, company, and state where the company resides (as a two-letter abbreviation). You must give the essays, dimensions (and perhaps other descriptive details) of any important items used in the study. Standard equipment such as furniture, stopwatches, pencils and leadership, paper, can usually be mentioned without providing a lot of details. In fact, you may often simply mention these items in passing as part of the procedure. Be careful not to describe procedures in essays codes this section. You should make clear what purpose the apparatus served, but do not give a lot of details on the use of the apparatus at this point.

One hint in this regard is to avoid using action verbs in this section. Design Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Design flush with the left margin and italicize it. Write Music Term Paper? On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Essays On Speech Codes? Describe the design and essay iraq, clearly spell out the independent and dependent variables. On Speech Codes? Indicate what the levels of the independent variables were, and whether the factor(s) were repeated, matched, or independent. Describe how the subjects were assigned to groups. Describe any control procedures used. Australian? Procedure Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Procedure flush with the left margin and italicize it. Essays Codes? On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs.

Carefully summarize each step in the execution of the study. Indicate what a typical test, trial, or session involved. Describe any phases that the study had or any instructions that the subjects received. When referring to groups, try to use descriptive labels. For example, instead of saying Group 1 or the experimental group , you might say the drugged group . Another technique in this regard is to use abbreviations that emphasize meaning. For example, There were three groups, including, the control group which received 0 mg/kg of morphine (M0), a low dose group receiving 1 mg/kg of morphine (M1), and a high dose group receiving 4 mg/kg of morphine (M4). Results Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Results and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here).

Look carefully at essay, the results. That is, take a good hard look at all those numbers you collect. Think of different ways to summarize them (describe), as well as to make sense of them (analyze). On Speech? You might find my Psychological Statistics Site helpful. This section will be easier to write if you make any tables and/or figures you intend to use first. Briefly state the main findings in words. That is, first give a general description, then go into the details. When presenting the results of statistical tests, give descriptive statistics before the corresponding inferential statistics. Film Essay? In other words, give means and/or percentages (perhaps referring to a table or figure), before talking about the essays codes, results of any statistical tests you performed.

When presenting means, it is reasonable to use one additional digit of accuracy than what is contained in the raw data. In other words, if the raw data consisted of visit 1 whole numbers, then the on speech, means should contain one decimal place. Child Coursework Visit 1? When presenting nominal or ordinal data, give the essays on speech codes, percents rather than frequencies (since percents are independent of the sample size). The general format for persuasive essay iraq, presenting an inferential statistic is: Statistic (df) = value, probability = value. Essays? Note that exact p values are preferred. Also, if the music paper, computer output says the probability is .0000, then report it as .001.

When possible, include some statistical estimate of on speech codes effect size. When actually presenting the results, try to emphasize the meaning of the statistics. That is, clearly describe what it is you are testing and what significance means for write music paper, the variables involved. See some examples of the correct way to present the results of several common statistical tests. Essays? Do not discuss the implications of the results in this section. Do not talk about the meaning of the alpha level or the null hypothesis, and what chance factors have to essay, do with it.

Since you are writing for the scientific community, you can assume the reader will have a working knowledge of statistics. If you are presenting a lot of codes material here, you may wish to employ subheadings (as is done in the methods section). These subheadings should have meaning and relevance to the data and should help to organize your presentation of it. In other words, they should not be organized by the type of analysis employed. Since this is not expected by the reader, it is write music a good idea to precede the on speech, subheadings with a paragraph informing the term paper, reader of the logical organization of this section. In cases where the reader would expect something to be significant and codes, it is write term not, you should address the issue. Do not provide raw data unless, for some reason, you require a single subject approach.

Be careful with the essays codes, word prove. Since statistical tests are based on probability and can be in error, they do not really prove anything. You can only use wording that implies causality if you actually manipulated the independent variable (i.e., performed an experiment). For example, suppose you manipulated whether subjects received a drug (while employing appropriate control procedures, etc.) and found a significant difference in memory performance (with the drug users performing more poorly than nonusers). In this case, you would be able to conclude that the drug caused the difference in memory ability; it impaired it. Dissertations? As another example, suppose that you compared drug use (as determined from the results of essays codes a survey) with memory ability and found a correlation (greater use went along with poorer memory performance).

Since correlation doesn't say much about causality, we could only conclude that there is a relationship between drug use and memory ability. Discussion Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Discussion and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). The purpose of this section is to evaluate and film, interpret the results, especially with respect to the original research question. Start off with a brief, non-technical summary of the results. In other words, tell the reader about the main findings without using statistical terminology.

Then go on to discuss the essays, implications of the study 1, results. In other words, whatever was found needs to be discussed. It is also important to discuss how the results relate to the literature you cited in the introduction. On Speech? In other words, emphasize any theoretical consequences of the results. You might (or might not) also mention any limitations of the child study visit, study and any suggestions for future research in this section. Finally, you need an ending paragraph in which you make a final summary statement of the conclusions you have drawn. You are also encouraged, when appropriate, to comment on the importance and relevance of your findings. How are your findings related to essays on speech codes, the big picture? Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of three paragraphs: the leadership essay uk, non-technical summary, discussion of the results and their implications, and the concluding paragraph.

References Start on a new page. Center the word References at the top. As usual, double space. Any citations made in the manuscript must be presented in this section and vice versa. That is, if something is not cited in the text, then it should not appear in essays on speech codes this section. In still other words, this is not a bibliography. In any of the previous sections, whenever you say something like studies have shown you must provide a citation. This section tells the reader where they can find these citations. This section is alphabetized by australian essay, last name (of the first author involved in the study).

A hanging indent is employed for each reference, that is, the essays on speech, first line is not indented and the rest are five-space indented. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle) initials followed by apa, periods. Separate multiple authors with commas and the last author with the ampersand ('') rather than the word and. After the author(s) comes the on speech codes, year (in parentheses and followed by a period). For a journal reference, italicize the title of the journal and the volume number. Note that issue numbers are typically not included.

Also, capitalize the important words of the journal title. For a book reference, just italicize the title. Only capitalize the internet essay, first word of the essays on speech, title. Do include the city, state (as a two-letter abbreviation without periods), and write paper, the publisher's name. See the example reference section. It provides several types of references, including: Single and multiple author, journal articles, book, and book chapter, web page, as well as a government document.

Other Sections After the above sections come any tables, the page(s) with the figure captions, and finally any figures, respectively. Each belongs on essays on speech, a separate page (multiple figure captions can appear on one page however). Tables and the figure captions page have a manuscript page header and page number just like all the other typed pages. Essay Introduction? Note that figures are not typed, and so do not have a manuscript page header and page number. Tables and figures should be able to stand alone (i.e., you should not have to read the manuscript to essays on speech codes, be able to understand a table or figure). A big help in this regard is the table title or the figure caption. Use these wisely to explain what is going on apa, in the table or figure. In other words, do not be afraid to essays on speech codes, be a little bit verbose in your table titles and figure captions. Tables and figures should not duplicate the same information. Likewise, you should not repeat the data point values in a table or figure in australian film the text of the manuscript.

Tables and figures are more expensive to include in the manuscript than text. Therefore, if you include one, it should include a reasonable number of data points. In other words, if you only have a few data points to present, do it in the text of the manuscript rather than in a table or figure. Tables and figures are most often used to present results, but may also be used to present other information, such as the design or a theoretical schema. If you include a table or figure, you must introduce it in the text of the results section (e.g., Table 1 displays the. Essays Codes? ) and describe to the reader what should be seen in it. Tables See an example table. Note that APA style tables do not contain any vertical lines, so do not draw them in or use your word processor to generate them. Type the table number and then (on the next double spaced line) type the table title flush left and italicized.

Note that there are no periods used after the write paper, table number or title. There are different ways to format tables. Your best bet is to essays, set the tabs for the table or to citing dissertations apa, use your word processor's table generating ability. When using columns with decimal numbers, make the decimal points line up. Figure Captions See an example figure captions page. Start on a new page. Essays On Speech Codes? Center the phrase Figure Captions at the top.

Each figure caption is typed flush left in block format. The word 'figure' and the number are italicized, for essay, example, Figure 1. The effects of.

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RFID-Einsatz im Supply Chain Management. Diplomarbeit 2010 181 Seiten. 1.3 Aufbau der Arbeit. 2. Essays Codes! Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management und der RFID-Technologie. 2.1 Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.1 Definition der Supply Chain. 2.1.2 Abgrenzung der Supply Chain von der Logistikkette.

2.1.3 Supply Chain Management. 2.1.3.1 Definition des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.3.2 Organisatorische Rollen im Rahmen des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4 Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4.1 Ziele des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4.2 Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. 2.2 Grundlegende Eigenschaften und Funktionsweisen von RFID.

2.2.1 Was ist RFID? 2.2.2 Einordnung der RFID-Technologie im Bereich der Auto-ID-Systeme. 2.2.3 Aufbau und Funktionsweise von RFID-Systemen. 2.2.4 Technische Eigenschaften von RFID-Systemen. 2.2.4.3 Frequenz und Reichweite. 3. Einsatzmoglichkeiten und Bedeutung von RFID im SCM. 3.1 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten in der Produktion. 3.1.2 Anlieferung von Rohstoffen und Baugruppen. 3.1.3 Auszeichnung von Teilen, Halbfertigprodukten oder Produkten. 3.1.4 Uberwachung und Steuerung von Produktionsprozessen.

3.1.5 Positionsortung von Produkten. 3.1.7 Ausrustung von Maschinen und Werkzeugen. 3.1.8 Personliche Signatur. 3.1.9 Tracking Tracing. 3.1.10 Erfolgsfaktoren fur den Einsatz von RFID in Produktionsprozessen. 3.2 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten in australian, der Logistik. 3.2.3 Eingangs- und Ausgangskontrollen. 3.2.5 Einlagerungs-, Bereitstellungs- und Auslagerungsprozesse.

3.2.8 Inventur und Bestandsgenauigkeit. 3.2.10 Erfolgsfaktoren fur den Einsatz von RFID in on speech, Logistikprozessen. 3.3 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten im Handel. 3.3.2 Warenlieferung an den Markt. 3.3.3 Warenverfugbarkeit und Out-of-Stock-Situationen. 3.3.5 Ruckverfolgbarkeit der Ware. 3.3.6 Bezahlung von Waren. 3.3.7 Diebstahlsicherung und Umtausch. 3.3.8 Inventur im Markt.

3.3.9 Erfolgsfaktoren fur den Einsatz von RFID in Handelsprozessen. 4. Wirtschaftlichkeit und Entscheidungsfaktoren. 4.1 Ermittlung der Wirtschaftlichkeit. 4.1.3 Nutzenpotenziale fur den Einsatz von RFID. 4.2 Fordernde Faktoren.

4.3 Hemmende Faktoren. 4.4 Daten- und Verbraucherschutz. 5. Praxisbeispiele fur den RFID-Einsatz. 5.2 Praxisbeispiel Deutz AG. 6. Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 1: Logistik, Supply Chain Supply Chain Management. Abbildung 2: Die wichtigsten Auto-ID-Verfahren. Abbildung 3: Grundlegender Aufbau eines RFID-Systems.

Abbildung 4: Unterschiedliche Transponderbauformen. Abbildung 5: Darstellung moglicher Einsatzfelder der Logistikdienstleister. Abbildung 6: Moglicher innerbetrieblicher Materialfluss. Abbildung 7: Kosten fur die Komponenten eines RFID-Systems. Abbildung 8: Investitionskosten RFID. Abbildung 9: Folgekosten eines RFID-Systems.

Abbildung 10: Quantitative Nutzenpotenziale durch den Einsatz von RFID. Abbildung 11: Qualitative Nutzenpotenziale durch den Einsatz von RFID. Abbildung 12: Erwartungen an die RFID-Technologie. Abbildung 13: Hemmfaktoren fur den RFID-Einsatz. Abbildung 14: Besonders geeignete Bereiche fur den RFID-Einsatz. Globalisierung, steigender Preisdruck, kurzere Produktlebenszyklen sowie zunehmender Wettbewerbsdruck stellen Unternehmen aller Branchen vor neue Herausforderungen und zwingen sie zu Veranderungen. Coursework Visit! 1 Unternehmen stehen unter einem enormen Kostendruck und mussen einerseits innerbetriebliche Prozesse optimieren, um Kosten einzusparen, und andererseits neue Dienstleistungen anbieten und Kooperationen eingehen, um ihre Marktposition zu behaupten und wettbewerbsfahig zu bleiben. Hinzu kommt die Problematik, dass bestimmte Hurden - wie eine optimale Warenver- fugbarkeit, Out-of-Stock-Situationen, Steigerung der Lieferzuverlassigkeit, Reduzie- rung von Durchlaufzeiten oder der Bullwhip-Effekt - nur bedingt durch ein einzelnes Unternehmen gelost werden konnen. Um im zunehmenden Wettbewerb zu bestehen, schlie?en Unternehmen sich deshalb haufig zu strategischen Netzwerken zusammen und versuchen durch eine effiziente Gestaltung der Prozesse Win-win-Situationen zu schaffen.

Durch eine Kooperationen konnen die einzelnen Akteure sich auf ihre Kern- kompetenzen beschranken, Unternehmensteile ohne strategische Relevanz outsourcen und dadurch Flexibilitatsvorteile sowie Einsparpotenziale realisieren, die bei einer iso- lierten Optimierung der eigenen Wertschopfungskette nicht umzusetzen waren. 2. Fur die unternehmensubergreifende Gestaltung und Steuerung dieser Unternehmens- netzwerke wird der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie eine bedeutende Rolle zugesprochen. 3 Ebenso gewinnt der Erfolgsfaktor Flexibilitat zunehmend an essays on speech codes Bedeutung, damit Unternehmen auf steigende Kundenerwartungen und plotzliche Veranderungen auf dem Markt reagieren konnen. Die Grundung von Netzwerken und die Kooperation mit anderen Unternehmen bilden die Grundlage fur das Supply Chain Management dar. 4 Die schnelle und prazise Bereitstellung von Informationen stellt fur ein erfolgreiches Supply Chain Management demnach einen entscheidenden Erfolgsfaktor dar. Citing Apa! Kritische Schnittstellen zwischen den einzelnen Prozessen innerhalb einer Supply Chain stellen fur alle Beteiligten ein Hindernis dar. Sie beeintrachtigen eine reibungslose Steuerung der unternehmensubergreifenden Ablaufe und fuhren zum Informationsverlust, zu Verzogerungen und zu Doppelaufwand.

5. Automatische Identifikationssysteme konnen dazu beitragen, den Informationsfluss zwischen den Unternehmen zu beschleunigen und die Schnittstellenproblematik zu re- duzieren. Einige Identifikationstechnologien, wie beispielsweise der weit verbreitete Barcode, haben jedoch ihre Leistungsgrenze erreicht und konnen bei der Beseitigung der genannten Problematik nur bedingt eingesetzt werden. On Speech Codes! Um den erforderlichen In- formationsfluss und die notige Transparenz entlang der Supply Chain dennoch zu ge- wahrleisten, mussen alternative Identifikationstechnologien eingesetzt werden. Dem Supply Chain Management wird seit geraumer Zeit aufgrund des Potenzials zu Kosteneinsparungen eine elementare Bedeutung zugesprochen. So konnte IBM beispielsweise im Geschaftsjahr 2004 durch eine Straffung der Wertschopfungsaktivitaten circa sieben Milliarden US-Dollar einsparen.

6 Eine effiziente Realisierung des Supply Chain Management setzt jedoch voraus, dass Entscheidungen jederzeit auf der Grundlage genauer Daten und Statistiken getroffen werden. Auto-ID-Systeme werden unter anderem dazu eingesetzt, die Bewegungen eines Objek- tes innerhalb einer logistischen Kette nachzuvollziehen. 7 Bis vor wenigen Jahren wur- den dazu nahezu ausnahmslos Barcodes eingesetzt. Term Paper! Vor einigen Jahren sind dann ver- schiedene Branchen auf die RFID-Technologie aufmerksam geworden. Essays! 8 RFID ist in der Lage, Objekte mithilfe von elektromagnetischen Wellen automatisch und ohne Sicht- kontakt zu identifizieren. Australian Essay! Die Erwartungen an die Technologie sind in den letzten Jah- ren stetig gestiegen, wodurch RFID branchenubergreifend zu einem zentralen Hoff- nungstrager geworden ist. Viele Unternehmen erhoffen sich durch den RFID-Einsatz Zeit- und Kosteneinsparungen. Codes! 9 Gro?e Unternehmen, wie beispielsweise die Metro Group, setzen RFID bereits zur Optimierung ihrer Supply Chain ein. Mittels des Electronic Product Code wird jedem Produkt eine individuelle Seriennummer zugeordnet 10 , wodurch Daten an uk vorgesehenen Stellen innerhalb der Supply Chain ausgetauscht und Warenflusse in Echtzeit abgebildet werden konnen. Neben vielen Insellosungen und Pilotprojekten wird RFID bereits von namhaften In- dustrie- und Handelsunternehmen erfolgreich eingesetzt.

Die Metro zahlt zu den be- deutendsten internationale Handelsunternehmen und setzt RFID bereits seit mehreren Jahren in allen Cash Carry-Gro?markten sowie in neun Lagern der MGL Metro Group Logistics zur effizienten Steuerung der Supply Chain-Prozesse ein. 11 Fur 2010 wird ein Anstieg der weltweit verkauften RFID-Transponder auf 2,31 Milliarden Stuck gegenuber 1,98 Milliarden im Vorjahr erwartet. 12 Weiterhin wird fur Deutschland im Zeitraum 2006 bis 2016 beim RFID-Umsatz eine durchschnittliche jahrliche Wachstumsrate von 19 % auf 2,2 Milliarden Euro erwartet. 13 Die prognostizierte zukunftige Entwicklung unterstreicht die hohe Erwartungshaltung und das Potenzial dieser Technologie. Dennoch sind die Meinungen hinsichtlich des Einsatzes sowie der zukunftigen Ent- wicklung von RFID kontrovers. Viele Anwender sind sich hinsichtlich der technologi- schen Entwicklung und Wirtschaftlichkeit von RFID unsicher.

Zahlreiche Diskussionen in Fachbuchern und in der Presse uber den Mehrwert von RFID, im Vergleich zu ande- ren Auto-ID-Systemen, tragen ebenfalls zur Verunsicherung interessierter Anwender bei. Im Hinblick auf die in codes, Kapitel 1.1 geschilderte Problematik untersucht die vorliegende Arbeit zum einen, inwieweit Prozesse durch den Einsatz von RFID effizienter gestaltet und Kostenvorteile generiert werden konnen. Apa! Zum anderen wird analysiert, wie durch den Einsatz von RFID der Informationsfluss im Supply Chain Management verbessert werden kann und zu einer hoheren Transparenz fuhren kann. Essays! Bei der Betrachtung des Supply Chain Management steht der Informations- und Warenfluss im Vordergrund, bei der RFID-Technologie richtet sich die Aufmerksamkeit insbesondere auf die funktionalen Eigenschaften. Zu Beginn dieser Arbeit findet zunachst eine Abgrenzung zwischen der Supply Chain und der Logistik statt. Danach werden die Grundlagen sowie die Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management erlautert.

Anschlie?end werden die Eigenschaften und die Funktionsweise der RFID-Technologie beschrieben. Das dritte Kapitel dieser Arbeit ist in write term paper, die Branchen Industrie, Logistik und Handel gegliedert. Codes! Dabei wird zunachst die Ausgangslage der jeweiligen Branche dargestellt, bevor die Einsatzmoglichkeiten der RFID-Technologie in 1, branchentypischen Prozessen aufgezeigt werden. Bei dieser Be- trachtung steht die Optimierung einzelner Prozesse im Vordergrund, die durch den Ein- satz von RFID generiert werden kann. Im Anschluss werden mogliche Hemmnisse und Risiken dargestellt. Essays! Im vierten Teil dieser Arbeit werden die anfallenden Kosten eines RFID-Einsatzes veranschaulicht. Privacy! Im funften Kapitel werden Unternehmen vorgestellt, die RFID in on speech codes, der Praxis einsetzen, um ihre Prozesse effizienter zu steuern.

Das letzte Kapitel bildet den Abschluss der Arbeit, in dem die gewonnenen Erkennt- nisse zusammengefasst werden und ein Ausblick uber zukunftige Entwicklungen ver- mittelt wird. 2. Coursework 1! Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management und der RFID-Technologie. Das Kapitel 2 gliedert sich in zwei Teile und soll dazu dienen, dem Leser einen Uber- blick uber die Themen Supply Chain Management und RFID-Technologie vermitteln. 2.1 Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management. In Kapitel 2.1 werden zunachst die Begriffe Supply Chain und Supply Chain Management definiert und von der Logistikkette abgegrenzt. Anschlie?end werden die Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management erlautert. Supply Chain stammt aus dem Englischen und bedeutet Liefer- oder auch Versorgungskette. Unternehmensubergreifend wird unter dem Begriff auch eine Wertschopfungskette verstanden. On Speech! 14 Unternehmen sahen sich in internet, der Vergangenheit als unabhangige Einheiten, die bedingt durch den gro?en Konkurrenzdruck nur eigene Interessen verfolgten.

Aufgrund der Erkenntnis, dass der eigene Erfolg einerseits von dem Erfolg der Lieferanten und andererseits von der Zufriedenheit der Kunden abhangt, fand bei den Unternehmen in essays on speech codes, den letzten Jahren ein Umdenken statt. 15. In der Literatur wird oft zwischen der unternehmensinternen und der unternehmensubergreifenden Supply Chain unterschieden. Uk! Die unternehmensinterne Supply Chain zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass ein vorgelagerter Bereich seinen jeweils nachgelagerten versorgt und die Wertschopfung stufenweise zunimmt. Codes! Je nach Fertigungstiefe einer Unternehmung kann die interne Supply Chain beispielsweise die Stufen Wareneingang, Hochregallager, Kommissionierung, Zwischenlager und Versand umfassen. Write Music Paper! Die unternehmensubergreifende Supply Chain zeichnet sich durch die Verzahnung samtlicher Aktivitaten der beteiligten Partner aus. 16. 2.1.2 Abgrenzung der Supply Chain von der Logistikkette. Die Logistik umfasst alle Steuerungs- und Planungsma?nahmen beim Transport und der Lagerung von Gutern in on speech, allen Bereichen eines Unternehmens. Persuasive Essay Iraq! 17 Weiterhin hat die Lo- gistik dafur zu sorgen, dass die richtigen Produkte in der richtigen Menge in der richti- gen Qualitat zum richtigen Zeitpunkt zu den richtigen Kosten am richtigen Ort mit dem richtigen Wissen bereitgestellt werden. Essays! 18 Der Schwerpunkt des abgeleiteten Begriffs Logistikkette liegt demnach auf den physischen Tatigkeiten der Logistik.

19. Bei der Supply Chain geht es um die unternehmensubergreifende Zusammenarbeit aller Supply-Chain-Partner. Child Coursework 1! 20 Das unternehmensubergreifende Denken und Handeln, welches auch die begleitenden Geld- und Informationsflusse abdeckt und sich vom Rohstofflie- feranten bis zum Endverbraucher ausdehnt, stellt den wesentlichen Unterschied zur Lo- gistikkette dar. Essays Codes! 21. Die Begriffe Supply Chain, Liefer- und Wertschopfungskette sind somit weiter gefasst als die Logistikkette und werden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit synonym verwendet.

2.1.3.1 Definition des Supply Chain Management. Das Supply Chain Management stammt aus den USA und hat sich Mitte der 90er Jahre in Deutschland etabliert. Es stellt kein vollstandig neues Konzept dar, sondern integriert teilweise bereits bekannte Ansatze und Ideen in ein Gesamtkonzept. Child Study Coursework! 22 Ebenso wenig ist das Supply Chain Management ein Patentrezept, welches bei Anwendung automatisch Erfolg verspricht, sondern formuliert vielmehr Leitlinien, an denen sich Denken und Handeln ausrichten sollen. 23. Bisher hat sich weder in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur noch unter den Praktikern eine einheitliche Definition des Supply Chain Management etablieren konnen. Essays Codes! 24 Der Grund dafur liegt insbesondere darin, dass das Konzept seine Wurzeln in child coursework visit 1, der Unternehmens- praxis hat und kein in essays on speech codes, der betriebswirtschaftlichen Theorie entwickeltes Konzept ist. 25 Fur Werner kennzeichnet ein Supply Chain Management als Handhabung netzwerk- gerichteter integrierter Unternehmensaktivitaten von Versorgung, Entsorgung und Re- cycling. 26 Arndt definiert Supply Chain Management als unternehmensubergreifende Koordination und Optimierung der Material-, Informations- und Wertflusse uber den gesamten Wertschopfungsprozess von der Rohstoffgewinnung uber die einzelnen Veredelungsstufen bis hin zum Endkunden. 27 Die begrifflichen Klarungen differieren teilweise, dennoch scheint allgemein akzeptiert, dass im Supply Chain Management Verbesserungspotenziale an leadership essay uk den Schnittstellen sowohl unternehmungsintern als auch - extern aufgedeckt und beseitigt werden sollen.

28 Die vorliegende Arbeit lehnt sich an on speech codes die Definition von Lawrenz unter anderem an. Demzufolge hat das Supply Chain Management die Aufgabe, den physischen Material- und Warenfluss innerhalb und zwischen Unternehmen und die zugehorigen dispositiven und administrativen Prozesse so zu gestalten und zu betreiben, dass eine fehlerfreie, storungsrobuste, schnelle und wirtschaftliche Versorgung des Endkunden gewahrleistet wird. 29. Abbildung in film, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 1: Logistik, Supply Chain Supply Chain Management 30.

Aufgrund der zunehmenden Verlagerung des Wettbewerbs, der weniger zwischen ein- zelnen Unternehmen, sondern vielmehr zwischen gesamten Supply Chains stattfindet, stellt die Bildung von Netzwerken eine richtungsweisende Grundlage dar, um die Wettbewerbsfahigkeit nachhaltig zu erhalten. Essays On Speech Codes! 31 Die Akteure entlang der Supply Chain konnen sich auf ihre Kernkompetenzen beschranken und dadurch konkurrenzfahiger werden. Privacy Essay Introduction! 32. 2.1.3.2 Organisatorische Rollen im Rahmen des Supply Chain Management. Eine Analyse der Lieferketten unterschiedlicher Branchen zeigt, dass in Lieferketten Arbeitsteilung herrscht und jedes Unternehmen unterschiedliche Aufgaben wahrnimmt, wie beispielsweise Produktion, Lagerung oder Verkauf. On Speech! 33 In Anlehnung an essay uk Vilkov und Wei? werden zum besseren Verstandnis nachfolgend die Rollen der einzelnen SupplyChain-Partner voneinander abgegrenzt. Die Abgrenzung schlie?t jedoch nicht aus, dass ein Supply-Chain-Mitglied gleichzeitig mehrere Rollen erfullt.

34. Ein Supply-Chain-Mitglied, dessen primare Aufgabe die Produktion von Rohstoffen, von halbfertigen und/oder fertigen Erzeugnissen ist, wird als Hersteller bezeichnet. Ebenso kann ein Zulieferer, der seine Erzeugnisse selbst herstellt, ein Hersteller sein. 35. Die primare Aufgabe eines Zentrallagers ist die Zwischenlagerung von Wirtschaftsgutern. Essays! Dabei kann es sich - wie im Rahmen dieser Arbeit - beispielsweise um einen Gro?handel, ein Zwischenlager oder auch ein Verteilzentrum handeln. Die Bedeutung der Logistikdienstleister hat in study, den letzten Jahren stark zugenommen und steigt kontinuierlich an. Essays Codes! 36 Neben der Beforderung von materiellen Wirtschaftsgutern ubernehmen Logistikdienstleister zunehmend auch Aufgaben wie zum Beispiel Aufbereitung, Wartung oder Auftragszusammenstellung.

Ein Logistikdienstleister kann zudem auch Produktionsaufgaben ubernehmen, beispielsweise in der Automobilproduktion, wodurch er im Hinblick auf die Fertigstellung des Endproduktes dennoch als Logistikdienstleister betrachtet wird. Film! Der Logistikdienstleister kann somit zwischen allen Beteiligten einer Supply Chain fungieren. Die primare Aufgabe eines Handlers ist der Vertrieb von Fertigerzeugnissen an die Endverbraucher beziehungsweise Konsumenten. Essays! Im Kontext dieser Arbeit nimmt der Einzelhandel diese Rolle ein. Als Endkunde wird der Verwender und Endverbraucher des Produktes verstanden. Dissertations! Er steht am Ende der gesamten Wertschopfung. 2.1.4 Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4.1 Ziele des Supply Chain Management.

Die Idee zur ganzheitlichen Optimierung betriebswirtschaftlicher Prozesse ist nicht neu, jedoch haben sich die Ziele des Supply Chain Management in on speech, den letzten drei Jahr- zehnten bedeutend geandert. Leadership Essay Uk! 37 In den 70er Jahren wurde mithilfe eines isolierten Logis- tik Managements versucht, die Lagerbestande zu reduzieren. Essays Codes! Ein Management der ge- samten Supply Chain wurde noch nicht betrieben. Film Essay! Das Supply Chain Management ent- wickelte sich in den 80er Jahren und verfolgte das Ziel, die Gesamtkosten der Supply Chain zu reduzieren. On Speech! In den 90er Jahren wurde die Zielvorstellung um den langfristigen und nachhaltigen Geschaftserfolg erganzt. 38 Als ubergeordnetes Ziel des modernen Supply Chain Management kann die Erschlie?ung unternehmensubergreifender Erfolgs- potenziale und somit die Optimierung der gesamten Wertschopfungskette verstanden werden. Term Paper! 39 Die oberste Zielsetzung besteht demzufolge darin, ein Ergebnismaximum im Netzwerk zu erreichen, von dem alle Supply-Chain-Akteure profitieren konnen. Essays On Speech Codes! 40 Durch die Anwendung geeigneter Konzepte soll die Effektivitat und Effizienz der Prozesse unternehmensubergreifend erhoht werden. Essay! Die entscheidenden Wettbewerbsfaktoren Kosten, Zeit, Qualitat und Flexibilitat werden gleich stark gewichtet und bilden ein strategisches Viereck.

Temporar kann einem Faktor auch eine starkere Bedeutung zu- geteilt werden: Wenn beispielsweise ein Unternehmen einen Markt als Pionier bearbei- ten mochte, kann der Faktor Zeit dominierend sein. On Speech! 41 Die Festlegung der Zielsetzungen und die Gewichtung der Ziele kann fur die Supply Chain generell oder auch spezifisch fur einzelne Mitglieder ausgearbeitet werden. Internet Essay! 42. Die Moglichkeiten, mithilfe des Supply Chain Management Kosten einzusparen, sind sehr vielfaltig. In der Literatur wird oftmals die Reduzierung von Nachfrageschwan- kungen aufgrund des Bullwhip-Effekts an erster Stelle genannt. On Speech Codes! 43 Ein zeitnaher Infor- mationsaustausch bildet dabei die Grundlage, um gro?e Bestandsreserven zu vermeiden, Lagerhaltungskosten zu senken und dadurch das in den Lagern gebundene Kapital zu verringern. Write Paper! Ebenso konnen durch eine bedarfsgerechte Produktions- und Distributionsplanung die Abschreibungen auf nicht mehr verkaufliche Waren reduziert werden.

44 Die Senkung der Transportkosten sowie die Reduzierung der Kapitalbindung durch verkurzte Durchlaufzeiten sind weitere Ma?nahmen, um Kostenvorteile zu reali- sieren. Durch eine unternehmensubergreifende Zusammenarbeit im Supply Chain Management konnen zeitliche Vorteile generiert werden. Zum einen kann durch die Kooperation von Lieferanten und Kunden die Entwicklungsphase vom Produktkonzept bis zum Produktionsstart verkurzt werden. Zum anderen konnen durch eine fruhzeitige Ubermittlung von Informationen kurzere Durchlaufzeiten im Wertschopfungsprozess und damit auch kurzere Lieferzeiten an essays on speech codes die nachgelagerten Unternehmen und Kunden erzielt werden. Write Term! Dadurch kann die notwendige Flexibilitat im Hinblick auf kurzfristige Planungsanderungen in der Produktion erreicht werden. Essays Codes! 45. Qualitatsvorteile lassen sich einerseits durch eine stetige Qualitatsplanung und -prufung innerhalb der Wertschopfungsnetzwerke erzielen, andererseits kann die Produktqualitat durch das Einbringen des Know-how und der Kernkompetenzen aller Supply-Chain- Partner in essay, den Entwicklungsprozess verbessert werden. On Speech! 46 Die Serviceverbesserung zielt auf eine moglichst umfassende Kundenbefriedigung ab. Leadership Essay Uk! Diese kann nur dann realisiert werden, wenn die Bedurfnisse der Verbraucher zeitnah und fehlerfrei entlang der Wertschopfungskette ausgetauscht werden. Essays On Speech Codes! 47.

Flexibilitat bedeutet, sich auf veranderte Rahmenbedingungen schnell anpassen zu konnen. Film Essay! 48 Eine schnelle Anpassung der Supply Chain kann aufgrund von Nachfrageschwankungen, veranderten Bedurfnissen der Zielkunden und der Zielmarkte oder auch infolge einer Neuausrichtung erforderlich sein. Dies erfordert schnell veranderbare Strukturen und Mobilitat im Hinblick auf Ressourcen. 49. 2.1.4.2 Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. Das Supply Chain Management stellt eine Antwort auf die zunehmende Globalisierung der Beschaffungs- und Absatzmarkte sowie stetig steigenden Anforderungen der Kun- den hinsichtlich der Parameter Preis, Qualitat und Zeit dar. 50 Die primare Aufgabe des Supply Chain Management besteht darin, den Material- und Warenfluss innerhalb und zwischen Unternehmen und die zugehorigen Informations- und Koordinationsprozesse so zu gestalten und zu steuern, dass eine fehlerfreie, schnelle und wirtschaftliche Ver- sorgung des Endkunden gewahrleistet ist. Essays Codes! 51 Die in leadership essay uk, das Netzwerk integrierten Partner ubernehmen zahlreiche ortsgebundene Wertschopfungsprozesse, die uber Guter-, In- formations- und Finanzflusse miteinander verbunden sind. 52 Aus diesen Prozessen und der vertraglichen Abstimmung zwischen den Unternehmen ergibt sich ein Koordina- tionsbedarf.

Dieser Koordinationsbedarf beinhaltet zum einen die Abstimmung der ein- zelnen Prozesse im Netzwerk und zum anderen die vertragliche Anpassung zwischen den Partnern. Zu den Koordinationsaufgaben zahlen in erster Linie die Aufgaben an den Schnittstellen innerhalb der Supply Chain, die dem unternehmensubergreifenden Infor- mations- und Guterfluss dienen sollen. Auf strategischer Ebene gehoren Gestaltungs- und Planungsaufgaben dazu, wahrend aus operativer Sicht die Steuerungsaufgaben dazuzahlen. 53. 2.2 Grundlegende Eigenschaften und Funktionsweisen von RFID. Im nun folgenden Kapitel 2.2 werden grundlegende Aspekte der RFID-Technologie naher erlautert.

Dabei wird zuerst erlautert, was RFID ist, bevor eine Einordnung von RFID im Bereich der Auto-ID-Systeme vorgenommen wird. Im Anschluss werden Aufbau und Funktionsweise von RFID-Systemen beschrieben. RFID steht fur Radio Frequency Identification und bedeutet im Deutschen so viel wie Funkerkennung, also Identifikation durch Radiowellen. On Speech Codes! 54 Dabei handelt es sich um eine Identifikations-Technologie, welche mittels Funk-Technologie das automatische und beruhrungslose Identifizieren von Objekten und die Erfassung von Daten jeglicher Art ermoglicht. 55 Aus heutiger Sicht ist der Name RFID nicht ganz treffend, da RFID heutzutage mehr als nur eine Identifikationsnummer ist, die von einem Transponder gesendet wird. Persuasive War On Iraq! Zwischen dem Transponder und dem Lesegerat findet eine Kommunikation in on speech codes, beide Richtungen statt, bei der Datenpakete von 1 Bit bis 30 kByte ubertragen und gegebenenfalls verandert werden konnen. 56 Fur den Datentrager werden in der Literatur haufig die Begriffe Transponder, Smart Tag, Smart-Chip oder auch Tag verwendet. Australian Film! Die Begriffe werden demzufolge in essays on speech codes, dieser Arbeit synonym verwendet, ebenso wie die Begriffe Lese-/Schreibeinrichtung, Reader oder Lese- und Schreibgerat. 2.2.2 Einordnung der RFID-Technologie im Bereich der Auto-ID-Systeme. In den letzten Jahren haben automatische Identifikationsverfahren (Auto-ID) in vielen Bereichen gro?e Verbreitung gefunden. Persuasive Essay Iraq! Dazu gehoren Dienstleistungsbereiche, Be- schaffungs- und Distributionslogistik, Handel, Produktionsbetriebe und Materialfluss- systeme.

Aufgabe und Ziel der Auto-ID-Systeme ist die Identifikation physischer Ob- jekte, wie beispielsweise Personen, Tieren, Gutern und Waren. 57 Der Transport von Informationen kann unter anderem uber Barcodes, Chipkarten, OCR-Scanner oder RFID-Systeme stattfinden und mithilfe von Lesegeraten entschlusselt werden. Essays Codes! Abbil- dung 2 gibt einen Uberblick uber die wichtigsten Auto-ID-Verfahren. Abbildung in uk, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 2: Die wichtigsten Auto-ID-Verfahren 58. Die Unterschiede der Auto-ID-Systeme werden nicht nur in ihren Eigenschaften deut- lich, sondern zeigen sich auch hinsichtlich der entstehenden Kosten. Der Barcode ist das gunstigste und am weitesten verbreitete Auto-ID-System. Essays On Speech Codes! 59 RFID gilt als die leistungs- fahigste Technologie mit den breitesten Einsatzmoglichkeiten. Term Paper! 60 Im Gegensatz zur Bar- code-Technologie findet bei der RFID-Technologie keine optische Abtastung der Hell- Dunkel-Felder statt, sondern die Daten werden per codes Funk ubertragen. 61 Ein wesentlicher Vorteil von RFID ist, dass die Transponder wiederbeschrieben und wiederverwendet werden konnen. 62.

2.2.3 Aufbau und Funktionsweise von RFID-Systemen. Ein RFID-System besteht grundsatzlich aus einem RFID-Transponder, einem RFIDLesegerat und einem Informationssystem, welches die Daten verarbeitet und das Auslesen und Beschreiben der Transponder steuert. Coursework Visit! 63. Abbildung in essays codes, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 3: Grundlegender Aufbau eines RFID-Systems 64. Fur die Kommunikation zwischen Transponder und Lesegerat nutzen RFID-Systeme elektromagnetische Wellen. Citing Dissertations Apa! 65 Die Daten werden ahnlich wie bei Chipkarten gespeichert und nur auf Abruf ubermittelt.

Der Transponder kann sich an einem Objekt oder bei- spielsweise auch an on speech einer Person befinden. Das Lesegerat wird an der Stelle positioniert, an der die Identifikation stattfinden soll, und ist meistens uber einen Computer an war on iraq ein Netzwerk angeschlossen. Beide Komponenten sind mit einer Antenne zum Senden und zum Empfangen sowie einem Chip fur die Verarbeitung der elektromagnetischen Sig- nale ausgestattet. Codes! 66 Die entsprechenden Informationen befinden sich auf dem Chip des Transponders. Sobald der Transponder sich im Ansprechbereich des Lesegerates befin- det, sendet das Lesegerat Daten an citing dissertations apa den Transponder oder empfangt Daten von ihm. Die Weiterverarbeitung und Auswertung der Informationen findet durch eine nachgeschal- tete Computerapplikation statt. 67 Da der Austausch elektromagnetischer Wellen kodiert stattfindet, werden diese vor der Weiterverarbeitung von der jeweiligen Elektronik de- kodiert. Essays Codes! 68 Die Kommunikation der einzelnen Systeme geschieht in der Praxis in music paper, Bruch- teilen von Sekunden und kann mit aktiven Transpondern uber Entfernungen bis zu 15 Metern durchgefuhrt werden. On Speech! 69 Mit passiven Transpondern kann eine Reichweite von etwa 3 Metern erreicht werden.

70 Auf einer Frequenz von 2,45 GHz sind mit leistungsstarken Transpondern Reichweiten von bis zu 100 Metern moglich. 71. 2.2.4 Technische Eigenschaften von RFID-Systemen. RFID-Transponder bestehen aus einem elektronischen Speicher-Chip und einer An- tenne. Music Term Paper! Der im Mikrochip enthaltene Speicher dient als Datentrager und bildet das Kern- stuck des Transponders. Essays Codes! 72 Neben den Informationen, die das Objekt eindeutig beschrei- ben, konnen auf leistungsfahigen Transpondern auch weitere Informationen gespeichert werden, wie beispielsweise das Mindesthaltbarkeitsdatum. Der Transponder wird im Ansprechbereich des Lesegerates aktiviert und ubermittelt anschlie?end die hinterlegten Informationen.

Hinsichtlich der Bauform eines Transponders sind kaum Grenzen vorhanden. Die Bauform hangt in erster Linie von der Gro?e des Gehauses und der darin befindlichen Antenne ab. Essay Introduction! Transponder in Form von Etiketten sind fur den Einsatz in on speech codes, der Logistik und im Handel besonders interessant, da Sendungen und Produkte mit dem Transponder beklebt werden konnen und dadurch verfolgbar bleiben. Film! 73 Abbildung 4 zeigt mogliche Bauformen von RFID-Transpondern. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 4: Unterschiedliche Transponderbauformen 74. Eine verbreitete Klassifikation von RFID-Transpondern ist die Unterscheidung hin- sichtlich der Energieversorgung. Diese hat bedeutende Auswirkung auf die Leistungs- fahigkeit des Transponders. 75 Diesbezuglich kann zwischen aktiven, semi-aktiven und passiven Transpondern unterschieden werden.

76. Aktive Transponder verfugen uber eine Batterie und konnen selbst elektromagnetische Signale erzeugen. On Speech Codes! Wie in Kapitel 2.2.3 bereits erwahnt, konnen dabei Lesereichweiten von bis zu 15 Metern erreicht werden. Leadership! 77 Je nach Modell, konnen Transponder gelesen, beschrieben und unterschiedlich konfiguriert werden. 78 Aktive Transponder sind aufwandiger konstruiert und deshalb teurer als passive Transponder. Dennoch ergeben sich fur aktive Transponder zahlreiche Einsatzmoglichkeiten, speziell in codes, Bereichen, in dissertations apa, denen die Kosten nicht entscheidend sind. Essays On Speech! Beispiele aus der Supply Chain sind die Identifizierung von Fahrzeugen oder die Kennzeichnung von hochwertigen Produkten oder Bauteilen in der Industrie. Term Paper! 79. Semi-aktive Transponder verfugen uber eine Batterie, nutzen diese jedoch nur zum Erhalt des Datenspeichers. Essays On Speech Codes! Sie werden selbst nur aktiv, wenn sie in ein Antennenfeld geraten und nutzen zur Signalubermittlung das Energiefeld des Lesegerates. Essay! Die Batterie wird dann zur Signalverstarkung und damit zur Erreichung gro?erer Reichweite genutzt.

80 Der Vorteil der semi-aktiven Transponder liegt im geringeren Energieverbrauch als bei der reinen Aktivtechnologie. Essays On Speech Codes! 81. Passive Transponder verfugen uber keine eigene Energieversorgung und beziehen ihre Energie aus dem elektromagnetischen Feld des RFID-Lesegerates. Sie konnen besonders klein und kostengunstig produziert werden, da auf eine Batterie verzichtet werden kann. 82 Aufgrund der niedrigeren Kosten eignen sich passive Transponder besonders zur Auszeichnung von Produkten und Einzelartikeln. Child Study Coursework Visit! 83 Folglich werden in der Praxis deutlich mehr passive als aktive Transponder eingesetzt. 84. Die Informationen auf einem RFID-Transponder werden mittels eines RFID-Lesegera- tes ausgelesen.

Das RFID-Lesegerat bildet somit das Gegenstuck zum RFID-Transpon- der und liefert die notige Energie fur den Betrieb passiver und semi-aktiver Transponder. 85 Wenn ein RFID-Transponder sich im Antennenfeld des Lesegerates befindet, wird uber die Antenne ein elektrisches Wechselfeld aufgebaut, wodurch im RFID-Transponder ein Strom entsteht. Essays On Speech Codes! Die Antenne des RFID-Transponders sendet Informationen, das RFID-Lesegerat verarbeitet die empfangenen Informationen und kann ebenfalls Informationen an den Transponder ubermitteln. 86 Ein erheblicher Vorteil gegenuber anderen Auto-ID-Systemen ist somit das Auslesen der Transponder ohne Sichtkontakt und die Moglichkeit, diese gleichzeitig mit Informationen zu versehen. Introduction! Ebenso wie bei RFID-Transpondern existieren auch bei Lesegeraten unterschiedliche Bauformen. Essays! Wichtige Eigenschaften stellen die Lesedistanz, das Auslesen mehrerer Transponder im Feld sowie die Erkennungssicherheit dar. Film Essay! 87. Bis auf wenige Ausnahmen gibt es fur RFID-Systeme noch keine verbindlichen Nor- men. Essays On Speech! 88 Die fehlende Frequenzregulierung stellt bei der Entwicklung von international einsetzbaren RFID-Systemen eines der Hauptprobleme dar. 89 Fur den kommerziellen Einsatz von RFID haben sich die Frequenzbereiche unter 135 kHz, 13,56 MHz und 869 MHz fur Europa sowie 915 MHz fur die USA konstituiert.

90 Als Folge von fehlenden Standards werden in australian, Europa Reichweiten von lediglich circa 2,5 Metern erreicht, wohingegen in essays, den USA mit baugleichen RFID-Systemen Reichweiten von bis zu acht Metern erreicht werden konnen. 91 Der betrachliche Unterschied in uk, der Reichweite resultiert aus unterschiedlichen Vorschriften im Hinblick auf die Sendestarke der Lesegerate. Essays Codes! Im MHz-Bereich ist in Europa lediglich eine Sendeleistung von 0,5 Watt erlaubt, in citing, den USA sind es dagegen 4 Watt. 92. Der Electronic Product Code wurde im Auftrag der Industrie entwickelt und ist der internationale Standard zur eindeutigen Identifizierung von Produkten und logistischen Einheiten. Mit einer uberschneidungsfreien Ziffernfolge kann auf diese Weise jedes Produkt weltweit eindeutig gekennzeichnet und somit jederzeit identifiziert werden. Essays On Speech! 93. EPCglobal ist eine Organisation, die Standards fur die einheitliche Nutzung der RFIDTechnologie fur Identifikationszwecke entwickelt. Essay Uk! 94 Durch Transparenz soll das EPCNetzwerk eine effektivere Nutzung von Informationen bieten. Essays On Speech! 95.

3. Essay Uk! Einsatzmoglichkeiten und Bedeutung von RFID im SCM. Identifikationssysteme sollen der Erkennung logistischer Einheiten an jedem Punkt der Supply Chain dienen. Im Rahmen automatischer Identifikationssysteme stehen dabei Kennzeichnungen im Vordergrund, die dazu dienen, den Identifikationsprozess anhand technischer Hilfsmittel zu beschleunigen. 96 Die Einsatzmoglichkeiten von RFID sind sehr vielfaltig und mit zunehmender Globalisierung gewinnt die Technologie fur alle Beteiligten einer Supply Chain zusatzlich an essays on speech Bedeutung. Uk! Die gro?ten zukunftigen Veranderungspotenziale durch den RFID-Einsatz werden in der Logistik und im Supply Chain Management erwartet. 97. Durch den rasanten technologischen Fortschritt sowie der zunehmenden Funktionalitat, Speicherfahigkeit und gleichzeitiger Reduktion der Gro?e von RFID-Transpondern wird die Masseneinfuhrung durch Verbrauchsguter im Handel und in der Logistik immer starker vorangetrieben. Essays On Speech! 98 Durch den Einsatz von RFID-Transpondern verschiedenster Bauart konnen Transportprozesse luckenlos uberwacht und mit den gewonnenen Informationen effektiv gesteuert werden. 99 Beispielsweise wird mit Methoden wie dem Collaborative Planning eine Win-win-Situation innerhalb der Supply Chain angestrebt. 100 RFID kann hinsichtlich der Guter- und Informationsstrome Transparenz schaffen und dazu beitragen, dass diese Ziele erreicht werden. Die Voraussetzung fur eine Integration der RFID-Technologie in child coursework 1, ein erfolgreiches und ubergreifendes Supply Chain Management bilden vertrauensvolle Partnerschaften, in denen zwischen den beteiligten Unternehmen eine gute Kommunikation herrscht.

101 Aufgrund des Potenzials zur Steigerung der Effizienz und der Kundenzufriedenheit kann RFID zum entscheidenden Wettbewerbsfaktor werden. Um nachhaltige Fortschritte und Einsparpotenziale zu erzielen, sollte deshalb eine Integration innerhalb der Supply Chain angestrebt werden. Durch Insellosungen lassen sich Einsparungen in einzelnen Bereichen erreichen, ohne dabei die Effizienz der gesamten Supply Chain dauerhaft zu optimieren. On Speech Codes! Ebenso konnen die Kosten einer falsch ausgewahlten Technologie den Nutzen ubersteigen. 102. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden die Einsatzmoglichkeiten und Auswirkungen eines RFID-Einsatzes in der Supply Chain untersucht.

Um die Einsatzmoglichkeiten sowie die daraus resultierenden Vor- und Nachteile besser zu veranschaulichen, wird auch auf Praxisanwendungen Bezug genommen. In Kapitel 3.1 steht der Industriesektor im Vor- dergrund, in write music term paper, dem die Einsatzmoglichkeiten in der Produktion untersucht werden. On Speech Codes! In Kapitel 3.2 wird der Einsatz von RFID in child study visit, der Logistik naher untersucht, wahrend in on speech, 3.3 die Einsatzmoglichkeiten im Handel und am POS im Vordergrund der Untersuchung stehen. Auch wenn einige Einsatzmoglichkeiten voneinander abgegrenzt werden konnen, gibt es in music term, vielen Einsatzbereichen Uberschneidungen hinsichtlich der Nutzung von RFID. Codes! Beispielsweise kann sich RFID in verschiedenen Bereichen positiv auf den Inventurprozess und die Schwundquote auswirken. 103 Deshalb sollten die beschriebenen Einsatzmoglichkeiten von RFID nicht als statisch aufgefasst werden. 3.1 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten in der Produktion. Betriebliche Fertigungsprozesse sind in den gesamtwirtschaftlichen Guteraustausch ein- gebunden und dienen dazu, andere Wirtschaftssubjekte wie Haushalte und Unterneh- mungen mit Gutern zu versorgen. Music Term Paper! 104 In Produktionsprozessen werden haufig teure und hochwertige Maschinen eingesetzt, was dazu fuhrt, dass die Transponderkosten bei ei- ner RFID-Nutzung oftmals eine untergeordnete Rolle spielen.

Zum Einsatz kommen dabei uberwiegend aktive Transponder mit einer gro?en Speicherkapazitat, die aufgrund der eigenen Energieversorgung fur gro?ere Reichweiten geeignet sind und wiederver- wendet werden konnen. On Speech! Bei der Produktion von Massenwaren und Verbrauchsgutern wird weitgehend auf ein RFID-System verzichtet, da die Kosten des RFID-Systems den erzielbaren Nutzen ubersteigen. Internet Essay Introduction! 105. Die Automobilindustrie stellt mit ihren Zulieferern einen der wichtigsten Industriezweige dar, in essays codes, dem unternehmensubergreifende Kooperationen und ein schneller Informationsfluss eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Dissertations Apa! 106 Aus diesem Grund werden die Einsatzmoglichkeiten von RFID exemplarisch an essays on speech codes der Automobilindustrie dargestellt. Die Konkurrenzfahigkeit eines Herstellers wird ma?geblich durch eine effiziente Ge- staltung der Produktionsprozesse bestimmt. Automobilhersteller und ihre Zulieferer sind heute einem extremen Kostendruck ausgesetzt. Der Fertigungsanteil der Hersteller am Gesamtprodukt wird immer geringer und soll nach einer Untersuchung der Unter- nehmensberatung Mercer Management und des Fraunhofer Instituts fur Materialfluss und Logistik im Jahr 2015 bei lediglich 23 % liegen. 107 Aufgrund des enormen Kostendrucks mussen die Ablaufe in der Produktion standig optimiert werden. Weiterhin sind Zulieferer und Hersteller an music einer intensiveren Zusammenarbeit interessiert, um den Automatisierungsgrad in der Produktion zu erhohen und dadurch wettbewerbsfahiger zu werden.

108. In der Produktionssteuerung mussen der Materialfluss kontrolliert und die Produktionsprozesse flexibel gestaltet werden, damit auf unterschiedliche Kundenwunsche reagiert werden kann. Die Quittierung der einzelnen Arbeitsschritte und die Einhaltung der richtigen Reihenfolge werden entweder durch schriftliche Arbeitspapiere oder durch die Verwendung von Barcodes realisiert. Aufgrund von unzureichenden Informationen besteht die Gefahr, dass Bestellmengen sich aufschaukeln und zu einem Bullwhip-Effekt fuhren, wodurch hohe Lagerkosten entstehen. 109. Nachfolgend wird untersucht, wie der RFID-Einsatz einerseits einen hohen Qualitatsstandard in on speech codes, der Produktionssteuerung gewahrleisten kann und andererseits durch ihn die Produktionsprozesse effizienter gestaltet werden konnen. 3.1.2 Anlieferung von Rohstoffen und Baugruppen. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Zulieferer immer mehr administrative Aufgaben uberneh- men, werden in australian, der Automobilindustrie zahlreiche Baugruppen eines Pkws durch Zulie- ferfirmen hergestellt und im Werk des Automobilherstellers anschlie?end zusammen- gesetzt. 110 Da die einzelnen Fahrzeugmodelle uberwiegend aus unterschiedlichen Bau- gruppen zusammengesetzt werden, herrscht bei den Produkten eine hohe Variantenviel- falt.

111 Die Anlieferung von Bauteilen und Baugruppen muss dementsprechend manuell uberpruft und diese mussen dem Fertigungsprozess zugefuhrt werden. Essays On Speech Codes! Die manuellen Prozesse stellen einerseits einen hohen Aufwand und andererseits eine Fehlerquelle dar. Child Study Coursework Visit! Die Kosten fur einen Ruckruf aufgrund falsch verbauter Teile konnen einen immensen wirtschaftlichen Schaden verursachen. 112. Bei dem Einsatz von RFID konnen die Transponder direkt beim Zulieferer an essays codes den Pro- dukten angebracht und mit relevanten Informationen versehen werden.

Bei kleineren Teilen, wie zum Beispiel Schrauben, konnen Transponder auf die Transportbehalter angebracht und mit entsprechenden Produktinformationen gespeichert werden. Nach der Verladung der Behalter beim Zulieferer besteht die Moglichkeit, die erfassten Daten zu einem Lieferschein zusammenzufassen und auf einen Transponder am Trailer zu schrei- ben. Citing Dissertations! Die Informationen des auf dem Trailer angebrachten Transponders werden bei der Entladung im Wareneingang des Herstellers ausgelesen und mit dem Lieferschein abge- glichen. Essays On Speech Codes! Die Informationen konnen sofort an citing dissertations apa das Lagerverwaltungssystem ubermittelt und die gelieferten Behalter mithilfe von Transport-Systemen zu den einzelnen Montageplatzen transportiert werden. 113 Bei einer Anlieferung von kompletten Baugruppen konnen diese nach der Identifizierung auf direktem Weg dem Produktions- fluss zugefuhrt werden. On Speech Codes! Die Identifikation und Zuordnung zum richtigen Auftrag erfolgt durch Scanner, die beispielsweise an Durchfahrtstoren, Gabelstaplern oder der Forder- technik angebracht sind. 114. Durch Nutzung von RFID auf Produkt- oder Baugruppenebene konnen die Bestande des jeweiligen Produktes oder der jeweiligen Baugruppe jederzeit genau ermittelt werden. Der Hersteller kann diese Information nutzen, um neue Produkte und Baugruppen nachzuordern. Die Folge von Falschbestellungen aufgrund von menschlichem Versagen oder Tippfehlern kann ein kostenintensiver Produktionsstillstand sein. Durch eine Sys- temanbindung des Zulieferers an das Warenwirtschaftssystem des Herstellers kann Transparenz geschaffen werden.

Der Zulieferer kann den Warenbestand selbst jederzeit prufen und die fehlenden Produkte rechtzeitig nachliefern. Er benotigt keine gro?en Pufferbestande im eigenen Lager und kann dadurch Lagerhaltungskosten sparen. Der Hersteller profitiert von einer optimierten Belieferung, wahrend sich das Risiko eines Produktionsstillstands wesentlich verringert. Er kann dadurch seine Auftrage punktlich bearbeiten und seine Produktionsanlagen optimal auslasten. Term! Ebenso kann der Hersteller auf einen Pufferbestand verzichten und dadurch Lagerhaltungskosten sparen. 3.1.3 Auszeichnung von Teilen, Halbfertigprodukten oder Produkten.

Die Ausstattung einzelner Teile, Halbfertigprodukte oder Produkte mit Transpondern kann beim Zulieferer oder auch im eigenen Unternehmen erfolgen. Essays Codes! Im Optimalfall wer- den die Transponder bereits beim Zulieferer angebracht und die einzelnen Teile oder Produkte konnen bei der Anlieferung sofort einem bestimmten Auftrag zugeteilt wer- den. 115 In der Automobilproduktion mussen beispielsweise beim Lackierprozess die Turen demontiert werden. Persuasive Essay War On! Durch Transpondereinsatz an on speech codes den Turen konnen diese nach der Lackierung der entsprechenden Karosse problemlos wieder zugeordnet werden. Persuasive War On! Ein wesentlicher Vorteil der Transpondertechnologie gegenuber anderen Auto-ID-Systemen ist dabei die Unempfindlichkeit gegenuber au?erlichen Einflussen.

Wahrend beispiels- weise der Einsatz der Barcode-Technologie bei hohen Temperaturen oder Farbnebel undenkbar ware, konnen temperaturbestandige RFID-Transponder problemlos einge- setzt werden. Intelligente Transponder sind in der Lage, untereinander Daten auszutau- schen, und konnen durch den Abgleich der Auftragsnummern Fehler beim Einbaupro- zess verhindern. Essays On Speech Codes! Dazu wird beispielsweise bei dem Einbau eines falschen Teils ein Alarmsignal ausgelost, das den Mitarbeiter informiert. Film Essay! Zusatzlich kann nach Fertigstel- lung uberpruft werden, ob ein Produkt die geforderten Spezifikationen erfullt und alle Teile richtig verbaut wurden. Codes! 116 Durch das Anbringen der Transponder auf einzelnen Teilen und Produkten kann somit einerseits der Produktionsfluss verbessert werden, indem die Mitarbeiter einzelne Teile und Produkte eindeutig und ohne gro?en Aufwand der richtigen Karosse zuordnen konnen. Zum anderen konnen Fehler durch den Einbau falscher Teile bereits im Vorfeld erkannt und korrigiert werden.

Dadurch entfallen auf- wendige und kostenintensive Nacharbeiten. Durch die Fehlerminimierung wird gleich- zeitig die Produktivitat gesteigert, da den Mitarbeitern mehr Zeit fur weitere Bearbei- tungsschritte bleibt. Der Automobilhersteller BMW beispielsweise nutzt RFID zur automatischen Identifikation von Kabelbaumen. Film Essay! Die verschiedenen Kabelbaumvarianten werden durch den Zulieferer mit Transpondern ausgestattet und vor dem Einbau in die Karosse verifiziert. Dadurch wird sichergestellt, dass es sich um die richtige Variante handelt, wobei die Kosten fur Fehleinbauten und den Suchaufwand reduziert werden. Codes! 117.

3.1.4 Uberwachung und Steuerung von Produktionsprozessen. Um den Produktionsprozess prazise und effizient steuern zu konnen, sind die Auskunfte uber die einzelnen Produktionsstufen von immenser Bedeutung. Mithilfe von RFID- Transpondern kann die Produktionsstufe- sowie -dauer jederzeit bestimmt werden. Persuasive Essay War On Iraq! 118 Aufgrund der deutlich hoheren Datenubertragungsrate werden dazu meistens die kos- tenintensiveren Transponder eingesetzt, die zu Beginn des Produktionsprozesses am Produkt angebracht und mit dem entsprechenden Auftragsdatensatz gespeichert wer- den. Codes! 119 Beispielsweise produziert der Automobilhersteller Porsche im Leipziger Werk Gelandewagen des Typs Cayenne und setzt im Fertigungsprozess zu Produktions- und Dokumentationszwecken RFID ein. Dabei werden bei Erreichen einer Arbeitsstation die auf dem Transponder gespeicherten Daten ausgelesen und dem Montagemitarbeiter auf einem Terminal angezeigt. Australian Essay! Der Montagemitarbeiter quittiert die erledigten Arbeits- schritte und eventuell aufgetretene Fehler. On Speech Codes! Die Fertigungsmaschinen sind dabei mit Sen- soren ausgestattet, protokollieren den Bearbeitungsstatus der jeweiligen Station und senden die Daten an essay uk das Produktionsplanungs-System. 120 Alle relevanten Prozessdaten, wie zum Beispiel Spureinstellungen oder Anzugsdrehmomente von Schraubstationen werden abgespeichert und stehen im weiteren Fertigungsprozess zur Verfugung.

Ebenso kann der gesetzlichen Dokumentationspflicht beim Einbau sicherheitsrelevanter Komponenten wie Bremsanlagen oder Airbags nachgekommen werden. 121 Die Informationen zu den einzelnen Prozessschritten konnen auf dem Transponder dokumentiert und abgespeichert werden. Essays On Speech! 122. Die Uberwachung von Produktionsprozessen stellt fur die Unternehmen einen wichtigen Aspekt dar. Durch den Einsatz von RFID konnen alle wichtigen Informatio- nen vollautomatisch und ohne gro?en Aufwand auf den Transponder gespeichert und bei Bedarf abgerufen werden. Dadurch konnen alle nachfolgenden Prozesse effizienter gestaltet werden. Leadership! Bei einer Just-in-Time-Belieferung kann der Zulieferer an das System angebunden werden und von der Transparenz im Produktionsprozess profitieren. Der Vorteil bei der Nutzung von RFID ist, dass eine Materialanforderung automatisch und ohne Zeitverlust erfolgen kann, wenn die Karosserie beispielsweise einen bestimmten Punkt im Produktionsprozess erreicht hat.

Das produzierende Unternehmen kann demzufolge die Umlaufbestande reduzieren und die Auslastung der Maschinen optimieren. Essays On Speech! Infolge der genauen Bestimmung des Produktionsfortschritts kann sichergestellt werden, dass an war on den entsprechenden Bearbeitungsstationen das richtige Personal zur Verfugung steht. On Speech Codes! Der Zulieferer kann die fruhzeitige Information ebenfalls nutzen und deutlich fruher mit der Auftragsbearbeitung beginnen. 3.1.5 Positionsortung von Produkten. Die Positionsortung durch RFID bietet in leadership uk, Produktionsprozessen vielfaltige Optimie- rungsmoglichkeiten. Essays On Speech! Die Transponder konnen dazu sowohl auf Kleinteilen, wie bei- spielsweise Werkzeugen, als auch auf gro?eren Maschinen oder auch ganzen Fahrzeu- gen verwendet werden. Citing Apa! Durch den Einsatz der Transponder wird das Wiederfinden von Teilen, Endprodukten oder Baugruppen auf einem gro?en Werksgelande oder gro?en Lagerhallen deutlich vereinfacht. Codes! 123 Dazu mussen die Objekte entweder mit leistungs- starken aktiven Transpondern ausgestattet werden oder die Positionsdaten des Objektes mussen vorab auf dem Transponder gespeichert und an ein Lesegerat ubermittelt wer- den. Uk! Innerhalb von Gebauden werden dabei geringere Reichweiten als auf freien Fla- chen erreicht, da die Frequenzen der Transponder in codes, Fabrikhallen durch Betonwande oder Stahltrager beeinflusst werden und die Reichweite dadurch reduziert wird. Essay! 124 Mithilfe von mobilen Lesegeraten konnen Objekte auch direkt vor Ort identifiziert oder innerhalb der Antennenreichweite lokalisiert werden.

125 Auf diese Weise wird die Standortbestimmung eines Objektes fur die Mitarbeiter erheblich vereinfacht und das zeitraubende Suchen entfallt. Bei der Lokalisierung von Fahrzeugen im Freien konnen mittels RFID die Nachteile der herkommlichen Papierbeschriftung, die meistens an codes der Windschutzscheibe angebracht wird und bei schlechtem Wetter oder starker Sonnenein- strahlung nicht identifiziert werden kann, vermieden werden. Child Study Coursework 1! Auch bei der Fahrzeugsi- cherung kann sich zusatzlicher Nutzen durch RFID ergeben. Essays Codes! Werden die mit Transpon- dern ausgestatteten Fahrzeuge beispielsweise in der Nacht von ihrem Stellplatz wegbe- wegt, wird dies durch das System erfasst und ein Alarm ausgelost. Write Term Paper! 126 Neben eingesparten Ausgaben fur Sicherheitssysteme kann durch RFID auf diese Weise auch der Schwund reduziert werden. Bei der Produktion von hochwertigen und komplexen Produkten konnen mangelnde Qualitatskontrollen und fehlerhafte Teile fatale Folgen fur ein Unternehmen haben. 127 Dabei spielen zwei wesentliche Faktoren eine wichtige Rolle. On Speech Codes! Zum einen konnen teure Ruckrufaktionen einen gro?en finanziellen Schaden verursachen und haben somit auch eine existenzielle Bedeutung fur die Unternehmen.

Zum anderen kann eine Ruckruf- aktion zu einem erheblichen Image-Schaden fuhren. Write Music Term Paper! Im Jahr 1998 gab es in essays on speech codes, der Auto- mobilindustrie bundesweit 55 Ruckrufaktionen, 2007 waren es bereits 157. 128 Dies stellt fur alle Beteilligten Partner ein Problem dar, da eine Ruckrufaktion immense Kosten verursachen und einen Imageschaden herbeifuhren kann. Einen weiteren bedeutenden Faktor bei der Ruckverfolgbarkeit stellen die Richtlinien zur allgemeinen Produktsicherheit der EU dar, welche auch die Zulieferer betreffen. Australian Film! Sie mussen der gesetzlichen Dokumentationspflicht ebenfalls nachkommen und dafur sorgen, dass jede Komponente eines Fahrzeugs uber ihre gesamte Lebensdauer eindeutig identifizierbar ist.

In der Praxis konnen Qualitatskontrollen meistens nur an bestimmten Stationen durch- gefuhrt werden, da sie wahrend der Produktion durch den Verwaltungsaufwand beim Ausfullen der Protokolle erschwert werden. On Speech! 129 Durch den RFID-Einsatz konnen die er- forderlichen Kontrollen auf dem Transponder abgespeichert und bei Bedarf abgerufen werden. Persuasive Essay Iraq! Da jeder Produktionsschritt abgespeichert wird, kann eine Qualitatskotrolle durch den Transponder selbst signalisiert werden. Essays Codes! Der Mitarbeiter an iraq der Kontrollstation kann beispielsweise anhand eines optischen oder akustischen Signals das entsprechende Prufprotokoll abrufen und bekommt die einzelnen Prufma?nahmen angezeigt. 130 Ebenso konnen die Ergebnisse der einzelnen Qualitatskotrollen auf dem Transponder abgespei- chert werden und stehen somit nachfolgenden Prozessen zur Verfugung. Mithilfe von RFID kann eine Qualitatskontrolle nicht nur am Anfang und am Ende des Fertigungsprozesses durchgefuhrt werden, sondern sie kann auch in essays codes, den einzelnen Be- arbeitungsstufen der Fertigung stattfinden. Apa! So konnen fehlerhafte Teile fruhzeitig identi- fiziert und aus der Wertschopfungskette entfernt oder nachgebessert werden.

131 Bei- spielsweise sind genaue Protokollierungen mit der weit verbreiteten Barcode-Technolo- gie nur mit erheblichem manuellem Aufwand realisierbar. Hinzu kommt, dass der Bar- code gegen au?ere Einflusse wie Schmutz und Nasse sehr anfallig ist und wahrend der Lebensdauer unleserlich und damit unbrauchbar werden kann. Essays! Durch den Einsatz von RFID konnen einerseits die gesetzlichen Anforderungen erfullt sowie Manipulationen verringert werden und andererseits tragt die Technologie dazu bei, dass Qualitatsstan- dards eingehalten und luckenlos dokumentiert werden. Australian Film! Anhand der genauen Dokumen- tation uber die gesamte Lebensdauer konnen im Falle eines Ruckrufs gezielt nur die betroffenen Fahrzeuge zuruckgerufen werden, in essays on speech codes, denen die fehlerhaften Teile verbaut wurden. Essay Iraq! Falls nur wenige Fahrzeuge davon betroffen sind, kann die gezielte Identifikation der betroffenen Fahrzeuge den wirtschaftlichen Schaden reduzieren. 3.1.7 Ausrustung von Maschinen und Werkzeugen.

Zur Uberwachung hochwertiger Maschinen und Werkzeuge werden auf dem Transpon- der wichtige Maschineninformationen gespeichert, die jederzeit abrufbar sind. Essays! So kann zum Beispiel die Gefahrenquelle, dass wichtige Informationen aufgrund von Ver- schmutzungen der Typenschilder nicht gelesen werden konnen, gemindert werden. Dissertations Apa! Neben Informationen wie Bedienungsanweisungen und Sicherheitsvorschriften konnen auf dem Transponder auch Daten hinsichtlich der Wartung gespeichert werden. Demzu- folge kann jederzeit uberpruft werden, ob die Wartungsintervalle eingehalten und ord- nungsgema? durchgefuhrt wurden. 132 Ein beachtlicher Vorteil dabei ist, dass die Informationen sich immer an essays on speech codes dem Objekt befinden und abgerufen werden konnen, auch wenn die Maschine beispielsweise in study coursework, einem anderem Werk oder einer anderen Halle eingesetzt wird. Mit Sensoren ausgestattete Transponder sind in essays, der Lage, den Verschlei? der Produktionsmaschinen zu uberwachen und melden, wenn bestimmte Teile ausgetauscht werden mussen.

Die Techniker konnen mithilfe eines mobilen Lesegerates die entsprechenden Wartungsschritte der Maschine auslesen und bestimmte Teile gezielt austauschen. Australian Essay! 133 Der Transpondereinsatz tragt folglich zu einer Erhohung der Anlagensicherheit und einer Reduzierung der Instandhaltungskosten bei. On Speech! Durch die prazise Uberwachung der Anlagen und Maschinen sind diese weniger anfallig fur Storungen, was einen reibungsloseren Produktionsprozess und, infolge geringerer Stillstandzeiten, eine hohere Produktivitat ermoglicht. Write Paper! Aufgrund der Information uber den Verschlei? der Maschinen konnen zudem Kosten eingespart werden, da nur die abgenutzten Teile ausgetauscht werden mussen und unnotige Wartungen vermieden werden konnen. Ferner kann RFID zur automatischen Erfassung produzierter Einheiten sowie zur Senkung des Werkzeugbestands beitragen, da das Auffinden teurer Werkzeuge erleichtert wird und deshalb ein geringer Werkzeugvorrat erforderlich ist. 134.

1 Vgl. Essays On Speech! Otto, A., Kotzab, H. (2001), S. 157 f. 2 Vgl. Obersojer, T. Essay! (2009), S. 42. 3 Vgl. On Speech! Kuhn, A., Hellingrath, B. Term! (2002), S. On Speech Codes! 22 f. 4 Vgl. Term! Winkler, H. On Speech! (2006), S. 238 ff; Corsten, H., Gossinger, R. Write Term! (2001), S. 1 ff; Groll, M. On Speech Codes! (2004), S. Dissertations! 173 f. 5 Vgl.

Melzer-Ridinger, R. (2007), S. Essays Codes! 9. 6 Vgl. Werner, H. Internet Privacy! (2010), S. Codes! 1. 7 Vgl. Persuasive Essay War On! Scholz-Reiter, B. u.a. (o.J.), S. 3, Anlage 1. 8 Vgl. Essays On Speech Codes! Finkenzeller, K. Internet Privacy Essay! (2008), S. 1. 9 Vgl. Obrist, A. (2006), S. Essays On Speech Codes! 16; Finkenzeller, K. (2008), S. Persuasive Essay! 1. 10 Vgl.

Wannenwetsch, H. (2005), S. 333 f. 11 Vgl. Essays Codes! Metro Group (2005), S. Persuasive Essay! 1, Anlage 2. 12 Vgl. On Speech! Informationsforum RFID (2010), S. Citing! 2, Anlage 3. 13 Vgl. IHK Hannover (2009), S. On Speech! 10, Anlage 4. 14 Vgl. Busch, A., Dangelmaier, W. Dissertations Apa! (2004), S. Codes! 4. 15 Vgl.

Potzner, A. Write Paper! (2008), S. 13. 16 Vgl. Werner, H. On Speech Codes! (2010), S. Australian Film Essay! 7 f. 17 Vgl. Hering, E. On Speech! (2009), S. 472. 18 Vgl. Jetzke, S. (2007), S. Citing Apa! 11. 19 Vgl. Essays Codes! Bolstorff, P. A. u.a. War On! (2007), S. Essays On Speech Codes! 7. 20 Vgl.

Corsten, H., Gossinger, R. Study! (2001), S. Codes! 83. 21 Vgl. Bolstorff, P. A. u.a. (2007), S. Essay! 7. 22 Vgl. Werner, H. Essays On Speech Codes! (2010), S. Apa! 3. 23 Vgl. On Speech! Melzer-Ridinger, R. (2007), S. Australian Film Essay! 9. 24 Vgl.

Busch, A., Dangelmaier, W. (2004), S. 5. 25 Vgl. Essays Codes! Werner, H. Australian Film! (2010), S. Codes! 6. 27 Vgl. Arndt, H. Privacy! (2006), S. 46. 28 Vgl. Essays! Werner, H. (2010), S. Persuasive! 4. 29 Vgl. Lawrenz, O. Essays On Speech Codes! u.a. War On Iraq! (2001), S. 45. 30 Vgl.

Industrieplatz-Hessen (2009), S. 1, Anlage 5. 31 Vgl. Corsten, D., Gabriel, C. (2004), S. 4. 32 Vgl. Corsten, H., Gossinger, R. (2001), S. 20. 33 Vgl. Corsten, H. Essays On Speech! (2000), S. Write Music Term! 72 f. 34 Vgl. On Speech Codes! Vilkov, L., Wei?, B. Persuasive War On Iraq! (2008), S. Essays On Speech! 282. 36 Vgl.

Heu?ler, T. u.a. Australian Film Essay! (2009), S. Essays On Speech Codes! 374. 37 Vgl. Bu?mann, F. Essay Iraq! W, Zupancic, D. (2008), S. 47 f. 38 Vgl. Stockner, S., Radtke, P. (2000), S. 17. 39 Vgl. On Speech Codes! Heidtmann, V. Film Essay! (2008), S. On Speech! 25. 40 Vgl.

Staberhofer, F., Rohrhofer, E. (2007), S. 39. 41 Vgl. Obersojer, T. Dissertations! (2009), S. 46 f. 42 Vgl. Essays On Speech Codes! Fandel, G. u.a. (2009), S. 8. 43 Vgl. Film Essay! Kapitel 3.2.6. 44 Vgl. Essays! Fandel, G. Australian Film Essay! u.a. (2009), S. 6 f. 45 Vgl. Essays On Speech! Kuhn, A., Hellingrath, B. Australian! (2002), S. Codes! 10 f.

46 Vgl. Fandel, G. Dissertations Apa! u.a. Essays On Speech Codes! (2009), S. Write Music Paper! 9. 47 Vgl. On Speech! Obersojer, T. Essay War On! (2009), S. 48. 48 Vgl. Heidtmann, V. (2008), S. 27 f. 49 Vgl. ebd., S. Essays On Speech! 28. 50 Vgl. Write Term! Obersojer, T. (2009), S. Essays Codes! 46. 51 Vgl. Introduction! Lawrenz, O. u.a. Essays! (2001), S. 45.

52 Vgl. Study 1! Fandel, G. u.a. (2009), S. On Speech! 10. 53 Vgl. Child Study Coursework Visit 1! Staberhofer, F., Rohrhofer, E. On Speech Codes! (2007), S. Privacy Essay! 39. 54 Vgl. Finkenzeller, K. Essays! (2008), S. Essay War On Iraq! 7. 55 Vgl. Zahn, S. Codes! (2007), S. 13; Kummer, S. Paper! u.a. On Speech Codes! (2005), S. 12. 56 Vgl. Iraq! Kern, C. (2006), S. Codes! 11; Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Apa! 8.

57 Vgl. Finkenzeller, K. (2008), S. 1. 58 Vgl. Essays Codes! Horst, J. Privacy Essay Introduction! (2008), S. 22. 59 Vgl. On Speech Codes! Kern, C. Dissertations Apa! (2006), S. Essays On Speech Codes! 16. 60 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 17. 61 Vgl. Australian! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essays On Speech Codes! (2006), S. 9.

62 Vgl. Fraunhofer Institut (2010), S. Citing Apa! 2. 63 Vgl. On Speech! Tamm, G., Tribowski, C. Australian! (2010), S. Essays On Speech Codes! 13. 64 Vgl. Citing Dissertations Apa! BMWT (2007), S. 7. 65 Vgl. Codes! Pflaum, A. Music Paper! (2001), S. Essays! 33. 66 Vgl. Term Paper! Kern, C. Essays On Speech Codes! (2006), S. 33 f. 67 Vgl.

Kummer, S. u.a. Persuasive Iraq! (2005), S. 15. 68 Vgl. Kern, C. (2006), S. Essays Codes! 34. 69 Vgl. Finkenzeller, K. Australian Film! (2008), S. Essays On Speech! 22. 70 Vgl. ebd., S. Leadership! 23. 71 Vgl. IHK Hannover (2009), S. Essays On Speech! 7, Anlage 8. 72 Vgl. Kummer, S. Write Term! u.a. (2005), S. On Speech Codes! 19. 73 Vgl.

RFID-Journal (o.J.), S. Write Music Term Paper! 1, Anlage 9. 74 Vgl. On Speech! BMWT (2007), S. Iraq! 10, Anlage 10. 75 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essays On Speech Codes! (2006), S. 20. 76 Vgl. Gillert, F., Hansen, W. Study 1! R., (2007), S. Essays Codes! 149 f; Hansen, T. (2008), S. Study Visit! 61. 77 Vgl. Codes! Finkenzeller, K. (2008), S. Essay! 28.

78 Vgl. Essays! Gillert, F., Hansen, W. Term! R., (2007), S. 150. 79 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 20 f. 80 Vgl. Gillert, F., Hansen, W. R., (2007), S. 150. 81 Vgl. Essays! Dittmann, L. (2006), S. Essay Iraq! 41. 82 Vgl. Essays On Speech Codes! Hansen, T. Essay! (2008), S. 62 f.

83 Vgl. Essays On Speech Codes! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Music Paper! 20. 84 Vgl. Hansen, T. (2008), S. On Speech! 61. 85 Vgl. Child Coursework 1! Schoblick, R., Schoblick, G. (2005), S. 14 f. 86 Vgl. On Speech! Urban, A.I. u.a. Australian Essay! (2006), S. Essays On Speech! 88. 87 Vgl. Iraq! Kern, C. (2006), S. 82.

88 Vgl. On Speech Codes! Finkenzeller, K. Study Visit! (2008), S. Essays On Speech! 27. 89 Vgl. BSI (2004), S. 29 f., Anlage 12-13. 90 Vgl. Film! ebd., S. On Speech! 28., Anlage 11. 91 Vgl. ebd., S. Citing Apa! 30., Anlage 13. 92 Vgl. On Speech! ebd., S. Film Essay! 30., Anlage 13. 93 Vgl. Christ, O., Fleisch, E. Essays! (2003), S. Australian Film Essay! 296. 94 Vgl.

IHK Hannover (2009), S. On Speech Codes! 11, Anlage 14. 95 Vgl. War On Iraq! Global Standards (2010), S. Codes! 1, Anlage 15. 96 Vgl. Citing Apa! Hertel, J. u.a. Essays On Speech! (2005), S. 203. 97 Vgl. Gillert, F., Hansen, W. R., (2007), S. 15. 98 Vgl. Citing Dissertations Apa! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essays Codes! (2006), S. 5. 99 Vgl.

Schoblick, G., Schoblick, R. (2005), S. Term Paper! 165. 100 Vgl. Essays On Speech! Arnold, D. Essay! u.a. On Speech! (2008), S. Write Music! 477. 101 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essays On Speech! (2006), S. Write Term! 80 f. 102 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. On Speech Codes! (2006), S. Essay! 81. 103 Vgl. Kapitel 3.2.8 und 3.3.7. 104 Vgl. Fandel, G. (2005), S. On Speech Codes! 1.

105 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essay Introduction! (2006), S. Essays! 107. 106 Vgl. Write Music! Gehr, F., Hellingrath, B. Essays! (2007), S. 1. 107 Vgl. Wannenwetsch, H. Essay War On Iraq! (2005), S. Essays On Speech! 7. 108 Vgl. Kummer, S. Study Coursework Visit! u.a. Essays Codes! (2005), S. Australian! 67. 109 Der Bullwhip-Effekt wird in Kapitel 3.2.6 erlautert. 110 Vgl. Codes! Wannenwetsch, H. (2005), S. Write! 7 f.

111 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essays! (2006), S. Internet Essay Introduction! 107. 112 Vgl. Gabath, C. (2010), S. On Speech! 64 f. 113 Vgl. Essay! Kummer, S. u.a. Essays! (2005), S. Write Music! 67 f. 114 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Essays On Speech Codes! 107. 115 Vgl.

Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Essay Uk! (2006), S. On Speech! 108. 116 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Write Paper! (2006), S. Essays Codes! 108 f. 117 Vgl. Strassner, M. (2005), S. Child Study Coursework Visit! 4 f. 118 Vgl. On Speech! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Child Study Coursework Visit 1! (2006), S. 108. 119 Vgl. Schmidt, D. On Speech! (2006), S. Essay Iraq! 68.

120 Vgl. On Speech! Strassner, M. (2005), S. 102. 121 Vgl. Study Coursework Visit! Schmidt, D. (2006), S. 68 f. 122 Vgl. Klug, F. (2010), S. 243. 123 Vgl. Codes! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Leadership! (2006), S. 112. 124 Vgl.

Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 113. 125 Vgl. Klug, F. (2010), S. Essays! 244. 126 Vgl. Klug, F. Paper! (2010), S. 244. 127 Vgl. Essays On Speech! Gabath, C. (2010), S. 64 f. 128 Vgl. Persuasive Essay War On Iraq! Autobild (2008), S. 2, Anlage 16. 129 Vgl.

Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. On Speech Codes! (2006), S. 116. 131 Vgl. ebd., S. Child! 152. 132 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. On Speech Codes! (2006), S. Child Study 1! 110 f.

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What Economic Research Says About Fiscal Austerity and Higher Tax Rates. Consider two classic examples: Nobel laureate and the most famous living Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman; and former head of the Council of Economic Advisors to President Obama, Christina Romer, who is also a well-respected scholar in the field of macroeconomics. Since the financial crisis struck, Krugman has written dozens of on speech blog posts and visit columns in codes, the New York Times , criticizing the views of those who worry over dissertations, budget deficits. The following excerpt from a 2010 article is a good example: I and others have watched, with amazement and essays codes horror, the emergence of a consensus in policy circles in favor of immediate fiscal austerity. That is, somehow it has become conventional wisdom that now is the time to australian essay slash spending, despite the fact that the world's major economies remain deeply depressed. Christina Romer has also warned of the dangers of premature removal of government stimulus spending, but she also took aim at codes the idea that increases in marginal tax rates could depress economic growth. Leadership Essay Uk. In a March 2012 New York Times article, she reviewed some of the published literature on the effect of tax rates on the economy and also recounted the large swings in the top U.S. income tax rate throughout the 20th century. Romer commented:

If you can find a consistent relationship between these fluctuations [in tax rates] and sustained economic performance, you're more creative than I am. Growth was indeed slower in the 1970s than in the '60s, and tax rates were higher in the '70s. On Speech Codes. But growth was stronger in the 1990s than in the 2000s, despite noticeably higher rates in the '90s. As these quotations from Krugman and Romer illustrate, many of today's proponents of Keynesian policy do not simply disagree with their critics, but go further by leading the general public to believe that only the Keynesians have scientific research on their side. This is simply not the case, as I now demonstrate. The theoretical case for supply-side economics is straightforward: People respond to incentives. By allowing entrepreneurs, investors, and privacy essay workers to keep a smaller fraction of codes their last dollar earned, hikes in marginal tax rates discourage business start-ups and investment and reduce labor supply. This is the logic behind conservative and libertarian warnings about proposals to address the long-run U.S. fiscal imbalance through large tax-rate increases on high-income people. Although the basic theory is unassailable, it remains to test the practical significance of such supply-side effects. Coursework 1. Fortunately, scores of peer-reviewed studies do just that. Essays On Speech. Far from the australian film impression that Christina Romer gives, many economists find that taxes do matter.

Padovano and Galli (2001), for example, used data for 23 OECD countries from 1951 to 1990 and essays on speech codes found that high marginal tax rates and tax progressivity were negatively associated with long-term economic growth. Dissertations Apa. In a 2002 follow-up study, these same researchers estimated that an codes increase of ten percentage points in marginal tax rates decreased the write music annual rate of economic growth by 0.23 percentage points. Engen and Skinner (1996) found a relationship twice as strong. They surveyed more than 20 studies looking at tax rates and economic growth in the United States and abroad. Essays. They concluded that a major tax reform reducing all marginal rates by 5 percentage points. is predicted to increase long-term growth rates by between 0.2 and 0.3 percentage points. Young Lee and film essay Roger Gordon (2005), concentrating on corporate taxes, reached a similar conclusion. Using data for 70 countries for the period from 1970 to 1997, they found that a reduction of ten percentage points in corporate tax rates raised a country's growth rate by one to two percentage points. This finding is striking. On Speech. A one-to-two-percentage-point increase in growth does not add up over time: it compounds over privacy essay introduction, time. An additional percentage point in growth, compounded over 20 years, increases a country's real GDP by 22 percent.

Ironically, one of the strongest findings—published in essays, the prestigious American Economic Review —came from none other than Christina Romer and co-author David Romer. In a 2010 paper that developed a new measure of fiscal shocks, the Romers classified every major tax-change episode from the U.S. postwar period and film listed their conclusions: Our baseline specification suggests that an exogenous tax increase of one percent of GDP lowers real GDP by roughly three percent. On Speech Codes. Third, investment falls sharply in dissertations, response to exogenous tax increases. Indeed, the strong response of on speech investment helps to explain why the output consequences of tax changes are so large. Internet Introduction. Fourth, the output effects of tax changes are highly persistent. (Romer Romer 2010) Now, it is true that in on speech codes, a subsequent paper (2012), the Romers found a weaker impact of australian film marginal income tax rate changes in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s. On Speech. Even so, the above block quotation hardly seems consistent with Christina Romer's description of the published research to the readers of the New York Times . Indeed, a solid literature spanning dozens of countries and decades of history documents that tax policy can have a strong impact on economic performance. The studies cited above are just the tip of the iceberg. There is a large literature empirically documenting the impact of taxes on economic growth.

At the same time, many studies have challenged the effectiveness of traditional Keynesian fiscal stimulus during recessions. One implication of this line of leadership essay research is that a country with a growing public debt burden could benefit from a sharp reduction in government spending, even in on speech codes, the short run. Citing Dissertations Apa. This phenomenon has been called expansionary austerity. 3. There are various theoretical mechanisms through which expansionary austerity can operate. For example, some economists embrace real business cycle theory (e.g. Plosser 1989), which explains recessions as the equilibrium result of structural changes in the economy, not as the result of a deficiency in aggregate spending. In this framework, more government deficit spending simply increases the proportion of essays resources allocated via political, rather than market, means.

Households and essay firms rationally take into account the fact that all government spending must ultimately be paid for (perhaps through inflation or future taxes to service the higher government debt). In this framework, a deficit-financed tax cut is essays on speech codes perfectly offset by changes in household saving (through what is known as Ricardian Equivalence 4 ), and even deficit-financed increases in government spending may not stimulate the economy, because households and firms anticipate higher future tax burdens that will be distortionary. One not need believe in real-business-cycle theory to welcome the possible benefits of fiscal austerity. For example, if a government has run up so much debt that investors begin to question the write music paper government's solvency, interest rates may rise in anticipation, leading to a vicious circle. By adopting politically difficult policy changes to essays on speech codes rein in the deficit, the write music government could send a signal to essays on speech bond markets and achieve much lower interest rates, which would lower the servicing costs of the government debt and stimulate private investment. Contrary to Krugman's and other Keynesians' characterization, there are many historical examples of expansionary austerity apparently working. For example, in its June 2010 bulletin, the European Central Bank (ECB) devoted a section to five case studies of what it called fiscal consolidation in essay uk, euro-area countries. Essays On Speech. 5 The ECB authors explain that fiscal consolidations based on spending reform , rather than on tax increases, are more conducive to economic growth. The ECB report also refers to the academic literature and explains: The empirical literature offers diverse results as to whether fiscal consolidations in the euro area have had expansionary effects on write term economic activity in the short run.

With reference to essays on speech codes the periods of sizeable government debt reductions mentioned above, expansionary fiscal consolidations are suggested in Ireland, the Netherlands and film essay Finland. Looking at a broader range of experiences, it is found that around half of the fiscal consolidations in the EU in the last 30 years have been followed by an improved output growth performance in the short term relative to the initial starting position. (ECB June 2010 Bulletin, p. 85, bold added.) As Brian Lee Crowley, Niels Veldhuis, and I explained in a recent publication (2012), Canada offers yet another case of expansionary austerity. An earlier study by David R. Essays. Henderson (2010) also lucidly explains the leadership uk Canadian episode. By the mid-1990s, the Canadian federal government had been running deficits for on speech, two decades, with one third of federal revenue being absorbed by interest payments. Write Music Term. A Wall Street Journal editorial on January 12, 1995 declared that Canada . has now become an honorary member of the essays on speech Third World in essay, the unmanageability of its debt problem. 6. Yet the Canadians swiftly solved the crisis with serious reforms. In just two years, from 1995 to 1997, total federal government spending fell by more than seven percent, while the essays on speech codes budget deficit of $32 billion (four percent of GDP) was transformed into a $2.5 billion surplus.

There were also tax increases, but the ratio of child study coursework visit 1 spending cuts to tax increases was about five to essays codes one. Canada's federal government ran 11 consecutive budget surpluses, causing the debt-to-GDP ratio to plummet from 78 percent in 1996 to 39 percent in 2007. In the essay decade after reform, Canada out-performed all the other G7 nations on economic growth, investment, and job creation. According to International Monetary Fund data, from 1996 to 2005, Canada's average growth of real GDP was 3.3 percent, with the United States the runner up with 3.2 percent average growth, and the G7 excluding Canada averaging only 2.1 percent growth. 7 Even in the short-term, Canada's dramatic spending cuts (and moderate tax increases) in the mid-1990s had only essays on speech mild side effects, causing only war on a temporary uptick in essays on speech codes, the unemployment rate. The interesting thing to note about all of the child study coursework above examples of successful expansionary austerity is that today's prominent Keynesians do not challenge the accuracy of the historical narrative. Rather, Krugman, for example, has simply denied that any of these episodes is relevant to essays on speech our current situation, because in each of australian film essay them, he identifies offsetting measures (in particular, falling interest rates and/or a weaker currency) that cushioned the blow from the fiscal austerity. But since central banks have already cut short-term rates to zero, and because the world as a whole can't increase its net exports, Krugman thinks these historical examples of expansionary austerity provide little guidance to policymakers today. 8.

This is essays codes quite a turnaround from some of the summary statements we reviewed at australian essay the beginning of this article. In reality, there is a long list of essays on speech successful examples of fiscal austerity, but the paper Keynesian detractors come up with theoretical reasons to discount their relevance to today's situation. Fair enough. So, let's turn the tables on them and ask: What are the examples of successful Keynesian pump priming, where deficit spending rescued an economy from a deep recession? Today's Keynesians tell us that the large deficits in 2009 were on the right track, but were just too small. Had they been bigger, they claim, we would have seen with our own eyes the success of the Keynesian models. To repeat the question: What are the examples from essays on speech history in which the Keynesian model actually worked as advertised? Here, too, opinions differ, but it's interesting to quote the assessment from a Nobel laureate in economics, who wrote in 1998: The point here is that the end of the citing Depression—which is the usual, indeed perhaps the codes sole, motivating example for the view that a one-time fiscal stimulus can produce sustained recovery, does not actually appear to fit the story line too well; much though by no means all of the recovery from that particular liquidity trap seems to have depended on internet essay introduction inflation expectations that made real interest rates substantially negative. The writer of this analysis was none other than Paul Krugman, and this was after he had his much-emphasized epiphany on the relevance of old-style Keynesian analysis during a liquidity trap.

As the above quote makes clear, as of 1998, Krugman himself thought that there were arguably zero historical examples of a large fiscal stimulus rescuing an economy from a deep recession; perhaps, according to Krugman, even the Great Depression was ended not by war spending, but by on speech the effect of music term a change in inflation expectations on real interest rates. Contrary to the claims of essays some of today's proponents of both deficit spending and increases in the highest income tax rates, there is a large literature on australian the historical success of supply-side economics and fiscal austerity based on essays cuts in government spending. Although the findings of the relevant research are not unanimous, the case for Keynesian pump-priming is not as solid as some of the Keynesians claim. Coursework Visit 1. Indeed, in the cases of Paul Krugman and Christina Romer, their own past academic work shows why. Crowley, Brian Lee, Robert P. Murphy, and Niels Veldhuis. (2012) Northern Light: Lessons for America from Canada's Fiscal Fix. MacDonald-Laurier Institute, September 2012, available at: http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/mli-library/books/northern-light-lessons-for-america-from-canadas-fiscal-fix/.

Engen, Eric, and Jonathan Skinner. (1996) Taxation and Economic Growth. National Tax Journal , 49, 4 (December): 617-42. Giavazzi, Francesco and Marco Pagano. (1990) Can Severe Fiscal Contractions Be Expansionary? Tales of Two Small European Countries. NBER Working Paper No. 3372 (May 1990). On Speech Codes. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w3372. Henderson, David R. (2010) Canada's Budget Triumph. Mercatus Center Working Paper No. 10-52 (September 30, 2010), available at: http://mercatus.org/publication/canada-s-budget-triumph.

Lee, Young, and Roger H. Gordon. (2005) Tax Structure and dissertations Economic Growth. Codes. Journal of Public Economics , 89: 1027-43. Krugman, Paul. (1998) It's Baaack! Japan's Slump and persuasive the Return of the Liquidity Trap. Available at: http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/bpea_jp.pdf. PDF file. Padovano, Fabio, and Emma Galli (2001). Tax Rates and Economic Growth in OECD Countries (1950-1990). Economic Inquiry , 39, 1 (January): 44-57.

Plosser, Charles. (1989) Understanding real business cycles. Journal of Economic Perspectives 3: 51-77. Romer, Christina D. and codes David H. Apa. Romer (2010). The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: Estimates Based on a New Measure of Fiscal Shocks. Codes. American Economic Review , 100, 3 (June): 763 - 801. The term expansionary austerity has been used in policy debates since the debt crisis broke out in Europe. Wikipedia mentions the phrase (without listing its origin) in internet introduction, the article on a related term, expansionary fiscal contraction, which it traces to Giavazzi and Pagano (1990). See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansionary_fiscal_contraction. For a discussion on on speech Ricardian Equivalence, see Rose, Morgan. (2001) Does It Matter How You Pay for a State Dinner? A Lesson on Ricardian Equivalence.

Econlib, September 24, 2001, available at: http://www.econlib.org/library/Columns/Teachers/ricardianequiv.html. European Central Bank Monthly Bulletin, June 2010, available at: http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/mobu/mb201006en.pdf. PDF file. Discussion of fiscal consolidation begins on page 83. Bankrupt Canada.

Wall Street Journal editorial, January 12, 1995.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in on speech helping people write essays faster and easier. Australian Film Essay! Causal analysis essays answer the codes, question, Why? Many times, answer to child study visit, this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about codes, causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the iraq, cause, providing support for essays, your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen?

• Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to essay, gambling when others can gamble and essays, not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of internet introduction falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to codes, sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions?

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Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide?

Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors?

Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities?

Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails?

Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for essays on speech codes, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and australian film, poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to codes, sleep in boxes and other strange places?

Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and child study coursework, jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in essays research?

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Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of on speech AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and australian film, Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of codes 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the citing apa, U.S. government shut down of 2013?

Why is essays on speech codes North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the persuasive war on, world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on essays on speech codes the one-child policy?

Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to term paper, successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by codes the English?

What caused the colonization of study visit 1 Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the on speech, main language used around the world in business and music term paper, science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop?

What caused Great Britain to adopt the on speech codes, parliamentary system? Why does America have an paper, educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the essays on speech, world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at child coursework visit Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to on speech codes, get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the dissertations, situation or effect.

See the chart for on speech, easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of citing your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of essays what you will talk about in leadership essay your essay, add a because followed by codes the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Paper! Body: Be careful to essays, write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at war on iraq a horror movie?

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Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Essays On Speech Codes! Please look at australian my How to Write a Cause Essay for essays on speech codes, introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Australian! Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and essays, helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to dissertations apa, find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the codes, body like the introductory and concluding ideas.

If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of music term others. Hoping to have some more great things from on speech, you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much!

Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. Leadership Essay Uk! I love all these questions and essays codes, essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students!

I always learn to internet privacy, much from essays codes, your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the study coursework visit, beginning levels of on speech codes college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years.

Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at write term paper Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and on speech, respective owners. Other product and leadership essay uk, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

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stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into privacy, the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at essays on speech the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is essay introduction not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to essays have questions discussed, explored, or even answered.

A question (“Why did . communism collapse in Eastern Europe?”) is not an argument, and persuasive without an argument, a thesis is dead in essays on speech the water. 2. A thesis is never a list. “For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” does a good job of “telegraphing” the reader what to expect in the essay —a section about political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Persuasive War On Iraq? Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the essays on speech codes book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon.

Pillow Talk is leadership uk a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. On Speech? Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. ukessays.com http://www.ukessays.com/ essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Dissertations? Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those that result because of a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital.

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Arab , Arab League , Arabic language 927 Words | 3 Pages. ?Social Media Marketing Note On Smo Marketing Essay Social Media Optimization can be defined as a process of achieving Marketing Communication . and codes Branding goals through the persuasive war on iraq use of various Social Media Websites. It is a process to optimize web sites, so that they are easily connected or interlaced with online communities and essays on speech community websites. Primarily the Focus of Social Media Optimization is to drive traffic from Sources other than the Search Engines. Australian? Social media can take many different forms. Blog , Facebook , Instant messaging 1777 Words | 6 Pages. 1.Using Porter's competitive forces models we can analyze how Akaimai helps the NBA's market competition. On Speech Codes? 1. Industry rivalry. . Basketball leagues around the globe, other sports like soccer, baseball and football.

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famous biography The Greek word for philosophy (philosophia) translates to the “love for wisdom” in on speech English. The discipline dates back to ancient times with some of the greatest philosophers being Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. But there are some modern-day philosophical thinkers who have had their contributions recognized as well. Privacy Essay! Below is a chronological list of some of the most famous philosophers of all time and why they were important to future generations. Philosophers of Antiquity. Known for: Developed the system known as Confucianism. The philosophy of Confucius focused on self improvement, the morality of governing a people, justice and personal relationships with others. His collection of sayings, called analects,are well-known and mimicked in on speech fortune cookies, although these are typically not sayings attributed to leadership, Confucius himself. Known for: Founder of the essays codes Eleatic school of philosophy.

Wrote a philosophical poem entitled On Nature in which he discusses two ideals: The way of persuasive essay war on iraq truth and the way of opinion. Parmenides believed the latter was inferior because it was not reliable. He theorized that the world is essays, non-changing and when a person sees something change, it is merely an illusion. Mohism was one of the four major schools of thought during China’s ancient Spring and Autumn Period. Some of the concepts in Mohism include impartial care, a rejection of fatalism, and coursework a denial of essays extravagant funerals and the arts because these things take away from tending to the crops and other productive chores. Known for: One of the founders of Western Philosophy. Socrates created the Socratic Method which is commonly used for essay, determining the ethics of an issue. With this method, a problem is broken up into parts with various questions which help a person determine their underlying beliefs. He also believed that people should ideally live to better themselves rather than seek material wealth. Known for: Theory of the Tripartite Soul. As one of the founders of Western thought, Plato helped shape ideas about essays, government and societies throughout the centuries.

His The Republic talked about justice and the state’s role in society and in iraq the lives of essays codes people. He also believed in the immortality of the soul. Known for: Wrote the Nicomachean Ethics about practical ethics. One of Aristotle’s recurring themes in child study 1 his philosophical ideas is teleology, or the belief that the best way to understand something is to understand the purpose that it serves. He is codes, also credited with creating the field of formal logic and privacy essay introduction the scientific method. Known for: Founder of the Epicureanism school of philosophy.

Epicurus believed that happiness revolved around three main things in essays on speech codes life: positive relationships with others, individual freedom, and an analytical reflection on term paper our lives. None of Epicurus’ written works survived, but his ideas were passed down through his students. Known for: Argued for the existence of a Trinity in Christian belief. Origen was a theology philosopher who strictly believed what the essays on speech Bible had to say. Music Term! His writings, such as On First Principles and his various commentaries on books of the Bible show him to on speech codes, be a defender of the Scriptures as he discusses ideas like free will, the restoration of the soul and more.

Known for: First Christian theologian to term paper, connect Plato’s ideas to church doctrine. In his writings, Saint Augustine of Hippo discussed many issues of the essays Christian faith. In his discourse on leadership the issue of free will, he argued that humans have personal responsibility and God’s infinite wisdom has no bearing on our actions. For the essays on speech original sin argument, he believed there was no evil force, but evil merely exists in the absence of good. Known for: Helped bring the film essay works and ideas of Aristotle to Europe. Avicenna was an early Islamic philosopher who wrote extensively on the topics of essays ethics, metaphysics, and logic.

Around the 12th century, he became the term paper leader in philosophical thought in the Middle East. His ideas came to essays on speech codes, be known as Avicennism. Known for: Fathered the school of thought entitled Thomism. Aquinas theorized that it was possible to prove the existence of God through five proofs. Some of these proofs include motion, regression of causes to the original cause, a descending order of perfection and othres. He is dissertations apa, credited with helping bridge the essays codes gap between faith and reason. Philosophers of the 1500s. Known for: Wrote The Prince , a book on how a ruler can retain control. The term “machiavellianism” is named after Machiavelli and his philosophy, which can be summed up by the phrase “the end justifies the means.” He advocated for rulers to have the characteristics of film ruthlessness and control rather than justice and compassion. Known for: Developed Calvinism, a major branch of Christian theology.

One of the major tenets of Calvin’s philosophy concerning Christianity is the essays on speech codes concept of predestination. This term refers to Calvin’s belief that God has already chosen those who will go to essay, Heaven or Hell regardless of what they do during their lives on earth. Bacon’s philosophy was that it was nearly impossible for most people to see the world as it really is because they cannot set aside their prejudices and their preconceptions. He said any obstacles that distract from seeing the on speech codes world objectively were idols. His idea can be summarized by the phrase “everything is not as it appears.” Hobbes’ book Leviathan was one of the more influential writings concerning the dissertations apa social contract theory and Western philosophy. He was a strong advocate of the rights of the individual and the idea that everybody was equal. Known for: The Father of Modern Philosophy.

Known for his statement, “I think, therefore I am,” Descartes questioned everything from the existence of God to his own existence. Essays On Speech! He argued for God’s existence and he created the australian film essay theory of the codes duality of the mind and body. He also defended the idea of free will. Philosophers of the 1600s. One of the most well-known contributions to philosophy by Blaise Pascal was Pascal’s Wager.

In arguing for or against the existence of God, this idea stated that it was in one’s best self-interest to believe in God because it was “safe.” If He did not exist, Pascal said, then it would not matter anyways. Known for: Known as the Father of Liberalism. Locke was an influential philosopher whose writings helped spark the American Revolution. Some of his ideas were even implemented in australian film essay the Declaration of Independence. He also theorized the essays “blank slate” idea, which states that everybody’s mind is clear when they are born and their experiences through life shape their belief systems and attitudes.

Known for: Believed life was made up of a series of monads. Leibnix had a philosophy that God created the essay introduction universe and therefore, He has all the answers. He believed that humans could not figure out the puzzle to the universe and we are only allowed to see a small part of the big picture. Philosophers of the 1700s. Known for: Writings on social reform that led to the French and American Revolutions. This author of the Dictionnaire Philosophique was critical of the Roman Catholic Church and how it oppressed people’s freedoms. Essays! He used his writings, such as the novella Candide and others, to citing apa, advocate for freedom and criticize the codes institutions with which he disagreed.

Known for: Dialogue Concerning Natural Religion and Natural History of Religion . Hume was of the empiricist school of thought, meaning that his ideals focused mainly on things in internet the world that could be directly observed and experienced. Essays On Speech! Following from this belief, many consider him to be the one of the first atheists. Known for: Wrote A Discourse on the Arts and Sciences. Created The Social Contract which was an outline for a form of government. In this work, he discussed how men are born free, but they are bound by citing dissertations various chains that society places on them. He also felt that human nature was innately good and only gets corrupted by society. Smith wrote The Wealth of the Nations , which advocated minimal government interference in a nation’s economy. Because of this book and others, Smith is essays, known as the founder of free-market economics. Known for: Published Critique of Pure Reason. Kant believed that all of our experiences are filtered through our rational mind. As a result, there is a difference between what we believe and how things really are.

He also formed the theory of the Moral Law, which stated that there is a moral duty that people must carry out in all cases and without exception. Paine was an American patriot who wrote pamphlets that helped inspire the child 1 American Revolution. On Speech! One of his well-known works – The Age of Reason – was a pamphlet that challenged the legitimacy of the Bible and criticized the Christian Church for its attempts to obtain power. Known for: Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women. As one of the predecessors to the feminist movement, Wollstonecraft argue for the equality between men and dissertations women. She believed the only thing that held women back from being on the same level as men was their lack of education, which was difficult to receive during her time. Philosophers of the 1800s. Known for: The Father of Modern Sociology.

Developed the essays on speech codes theory of positive philosophy to introduction, help relieve some of the negative feelings following the French Revolution. On Speech Codes! He also wanted to use the dissertations same techniques used by scientists to explore and study human experiences and affairs. Mills believed in a free market economic society. He advocated a utilitarian society in essays on speech codes which everyone was equal. As such, he believed in such things as an inheritance tax and other types of taxes so some people would not get an australian unfair advantage over others. Known for: The Father of Existentialism. Much of codes Kierkegaard’s philosophical works centered around religion and write paper the Bible. On Speech! He felt that organized religion made it more difficult for internet essay, an individual to have a personal relationship with God. He also theorized that humans had three main problems to essays codes, overcome – boredom, despair, and write music paper anxiety.

Known for: Wrote Walden and On Civil Disobedience. Walden , which is Thoreau’s most well-known work, is an expression of on speech transcendentalism, or the belief that both nature and film people are inherently good. He also wrote an essay entitled Civil Disobedience , which advocated for individual freedom from the oppression of government forces. Known for: Wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. His ideas and publications helped lay the groundwork for modern-day socialism and communism. His ideas, which came to be known as Marxism, addressed the issue of class systems throughout society and how the wealthy class rules over the lower classes. Known for: Wrote the novel War and Peace. At age 50, Tolstoy went through a spiritual transformation. Following this period, he theorized that a society should base itself on the principles of Christianity. Codes! According to his new philosophy, social Christianity should be the norm. He believed war or any type of killing was immoral and internet privacy people should resist evil.

Known for: Father of Modern Pragmatism. As a trained physician and psychologist, James focused his philosphical works on the mind and human emotion. Much of his work concerns the philosophy of religion and on speech codes how it affects a person’s way of essay thinking. Some of his writings include The Will to Believe and The Meaning of Truth . Publications like Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil have made Nietzsche one of the more controversial philosophers. On Speech Codes! His Eternal Return theory stated that the universe recurs and will continue to recur in child study visit 1 a similar form an infinite number of times. Known for: Helped develop the pragmatist philosophy of the early 20th century.

As one of the most famous teachers in essays on speech codes modern history, Dewey believed that schooling was both restrictive and too long to be effective. His philosophy of pragmatism led him to believe that it would be more useful for children to get real-world experience rather than sitting in a schoolroom. Known for: Most prominent anarchist preceding WWI. Often referred to as “Red Emma,” Goldman moved to the United States in the mid-1880s and gave numerous lectures on the benefits of anarchsim. Essay Uk! She began a publication entitled Mother Earth in which her and codes other anarchist supporters discussed the philosophies of anarchism.

Known for: Co-founder of australian film analytic philosophy . Russell wrote an nearly every aspect of philosophy, including language, mathematics and religion. His work Why I am Not a Christian is essays on speech, one of persuasive his best known publications. Others include Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy , The Problems of Philosophy and more. Known for: Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1952 for “Reverence of essays codes Life” Theological philosopher who published The Quest of the Historical Jesus and challenged the popular notion that people had of Jesus. In his work The Philosophy of Civilization , he also called for a return to having a reverence for life, an essay war on idea that some philosophers of codes his day were abandoning. Philosophers of the essay 1900s.

Known for: Wrote Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations is essays on speech codes, considered by many to be one of the leadership essay most important works of the 20th century philosophy. It focused on linguistics and the way it is used to form thoughts. Known for: Wrote several books regarding Christian apologetics . Lewis is known for several books and essays, but his works regarding Christian apologetics are among some of his best known writings. Publications like Mere Christianity , The Problem of Pain , and The Screwtape Letters have helped provide a rational discussion for the Christian faith. Known for: Wrote Escape from Freedom and Man for Himself. Fromm was a trained psychologist who theorized that humans have eight basic needs to survive, including a sense of identity, relationships with other people, and a feeling of belongingness, among others. He is also known for his criticism of the on speech codes philosophies of Sigmund Freud. Known for: Advocate for Marxism and the idea of existentialism. Sartre theorized that man is doomed to be free. He argued that there was no ultimate creator because if there was, every human would have a purpose from birth.

Rather, he said, they exist and then seek out leadership, a purpose. Essays On Speech! His most famous work – Nausea – serves as an term existentialist manifesto. Known for: Political philosopher who coined the phrase, “the banality of evil” As a writer of philosophical works and lecturer on the topic, Arendt is one of the better known female philosophers of her time. Some of her works include The Life of the Mind , Some Questions on Moral Philosophy , and The Human Condition , which is considered her most influential work. Known for: Existentialist philosopher who helped develop the modern feminist movement. De Beauvoir wrote several books and essays that laid the groundwork for the feminist movement. The Second Sex advocated the notion of existential feminism, which stated that is not born as a female, but rather they become female throughout their life. Known for: Furthered the idea of an absurdist philosophy. Author of codes The Stranger and The Plague , Camus was a philosophical writer as well.

His work The Myth of Sisyphus helped further the argument of an absurdist philosophy, which refers to the human’s desire to find meaning to life although finding it is impossible for humans. Known for: Wrote Discipline and Punish. Much of Foucault’s work centered around the various institutions in persuasive essay society. For one thing, his work Discipline and Punish criticized the essays on speech penal systems throughout the centuries. His philosophy was that prisons and torture do nothing to rehabilitate criminals.

He had similar criticisms of mental institutions.